Notes- Hartsfield to SNCC Name_____Key_____________
End of WWII- WWII ended in August 1945 after the US dropped ___atomic_______ bombs on the Japanese cities of ________Hiroshima______ and ____Nagasaki_______ in an effort to shorten the war. It is estimated that _ _75 million_______ people died in the war.
Ellis Arnall- Served as the governor of Georgia from 1943-1946. He restored Georgia’s colleges ___accreditation_____ that was revoked because of Eugene Talmadge and the Cocking Affair_ . He changed the format of Georgia’s government to _________avoid_____ corruption. One example—he took the prison system out of the governor’s control (remember the _______Bourbon Triumvirate ). He adjusted the tax system, reduced the voting age, and passed a new state constitution. He also gave African Americans the right to vote in primary elections (____end of the white primary __________ ________________________________).
1946 Governor’s Race - Eugene Talmadge was elected for his 4th term as governor, but ____died_______ before he could take office. Who would be governor? ___Ellis Arnall____, the current governor, refused to leave until it was settled.____________Melvin Thompson , the lieutenant governor-elect, said he should be governor.__Herman Talmadge__, Eugene’s son, was supported by the Georgia legislature. This whole event was called the “_Three Governor’s____ _Controversy________.” Arnall finally stepped aside and supported Thompson. The courts let Thompson finish the term.
Herman Talmadge - Governor from 1948 to 1951. As Governor, and later as a US Senator, he openly tried to stop _______desegregation_____. Talmadge ______slowed_______ the Civil Rights movement, as he was opposed to desegregation. (the opposite of Ellis Arnall).
William B. Hartsfield- Hartsfield served 6 terms as _________mayor_____ of Atlanta from 1937-1961. He served during the end of the Depression, WWII, and a large part of the Civil Rights Movement. Under his leadership, _______________Atlanta grew____ in population and size. This was called ____urbanization___—people moving from farms to cities. He worked with Civil Rights and supported racial integration in Atlanta. He is often called Atlanta’s “_________the father of aviation ” and the Atlanta ______Airport______ is named after him.
Ivan Allen, Jr - Allen served as the ________mayor______ after Hartsfield. He served from 1962-1970, during the main part of the Civil Rights movement. He is credited with ___desegregating Atlanta__ . He ordered all of the segregation _______signs________removed. He integrated _public facilities . He worked to bring major league ________sports______ to Atlanta in the 1960’s.
Major League Sports - From 1945 to the 1970’s, Atlanta became the home to several professional sports teams. _______Braves______Baseball, ______Falcons_____Football, ____Hawks____ Basketball, __Thrashers___ Hockey (moved to Canada in 2011). Important figures in bringing sports to Atlanta were Ivan Allen, Ted Turner, and the Atlanta Spirit.
Brown v. Board of Education -In 1950, seven year old _____Linda Brown__ , a black student, tried to enroll in a all-white school in Topeka, KS. She was told no. The ______NAACP _____ helped to sue. The case went to the Supreme Court. In 1954, the Court said separate but equal schools were _____unconstitutional______. This overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling. The Court ordered racial integration of schools with “all deliberate ______speed_______.”
1956 State Flag - The state flag was changed in 1956 to contain the ____Confederate________ battle flag. It is thought that this was in protest to the Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate schools.
Sibley Commission- Formed in 1960, when Georgia’s governor chose to close schools instead of following a federal order to desegregate them. Their work was to make the transition from __segregation_____ to __integration_ easier for schools.
Martin Luther King, Jr. - One of the main ______leaders_______ of the Civil Rights Movement. Attended ___Morehouse_______ College. His career in Civil Rights began in December 1955 after the arrest of __Rosa Parks_____ ______________. King led and participated in marches and protests calling for __equal rights_____for all Americans. On August 28, 1963, he gave his famous “_I Have a Dream_” speech in Washington, DC, calling for an end to racism in the US. He was __assassinated____ on April 4, 1968 at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, by James Earl Ray.
Benjamin Mays. - African American minister, educator, scholar, and activist. President of Morehouse College. ___influential______ in the Civil Rights movement. Believed all humans had inherent ____dignity______. Highlighted the differences between ______true_________democracy and the ______racist______ democracy of the US.
SNCC - Founded in 1960 by students at Shaw University in North Carolina. The official name was the _Student Non-violent_
Coordinating Committee . It encouraged students to ____nonviolently_____ fight for civil rights, and it played a role in planning the 1963 March on Washington.