Kto karatay university english prep class



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KTO KARATAY UNIVERSITY

ENGLISH PREP CLASS

MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT UNIT 2016/Q3



TIPS FOR BETTER PRONUNCIATION




UNIT 1 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION - WEEK 1-2

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTON IN ENGLISH

The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language. When you use an English-English Dictionary, you can see the phonetic transcriptions of the words. Phonetic transcription is written between slashes (/).



EXERCISES


  1. Use your Dictionary and write one extra word for each of the sounds.

Consonants

p pen, copy, happen _stop_____

b back, baby, job __________

t tea, tight, button __________

d day, ladder, odd __________

k key, clock, school __________

g get, giggle, ghost __________

church, match, nature __________

judge, age, soldier __________

f fat, coffee, rough, photo __________

v view, heavy, move __________

θ thing, author, path __________

ð this, other, smooth __________

s soon, cease, sister __________

z zero, music, roses, buzz __________

ʃ ship, sure, national __________

ʒ pleasure, vision __________

h hot, whole, ahead __________

m more, hammer, sum __________

n nice, know, funny, sun __________

ŋ ring, anger, thanks, sung __________

l light, valley, feel __________

r right, wrong, sorry, arrange __________

j yet, use, beauty, few __________

w wet, one, when, queen __________
Vowels

ɪ kit, bid, hymn, minute __________

e dress, bed, head, many __________

æ trap, bad __________

ɒ lot, odd, wash __________

ʌ strut, mud, love, blood __________

ʊ foot, good, put __________

iː fleece, sea, machine __________

eɪ face, day, break __________

aɪ price, high, try __________

ɔɪ choice, boy __________

uː goose, two, blue, group __________

əʊ goat, show, no __________

aʊ mouth, now __________

ɪə near, here, weary __________

eə square. fair, various __________

ɑː start, father __________

ɔː thought, law, north, war __________

ʊə poor, jury, cure __________

ɜː nurse, stir, learn, refer __________

ə about, common, standard __________

i happy, radiate. Glorious __________



u thank you, influence, situation __________



  1. Match the phonetic transcriptions with the words.



1.

/ʃʌt/

a.

later

2.

/hɑːt/

b.

joke

3.

/θɪŋk/

c.

heart

4.

/wɜːk/

d.

there

5.

/leɪtə/

e.

doubt

6.

/bɔːt/

f.

work

7.

/puːl/

g.

shut

8.

/dɑʊt/

h.

think

9.

/dʒəʊk/

i.

pool

10.

/ðeə/

j.

bought



  1. Underline the word that the transcription represents.

1.

bɔːn

burn

born

2.

θɪŋ

thing

thin

3.

fɪːlɪŋz

fillings

feelings

4.

vɑɪn

vine

wine

5.

meɪdʒə

major

mayor

6.

ræm

rum

ram

7.

wɜːd

word

worried

8.

fəget

forget

forged

9.

ɑɪs

eyes

ice



  1. Circle the word that is pronounced differently from the other three words.




1.

accident

access

accommodate

accept

2.

sheep

beer

field

people

3.

angry

jungle

English

spring

4.

shout

now

round

mould

5.

cheese

chip

machine

attach

6.

signature

foreign

Gnostic

tongue

7.

suit

fruit

cruise

biscuit

8.

though

rough

enough

tough

9.

floor

poor

flood

door




  1. Look carefully at the phoneme for each question. Which of the four following words contains that phoneme?

1. phoneme       touch - eight - hope - pool

2. phoneme       bag - take - party - phone

3. phoneme       father - mother - sister - brother

4. phoneme       path - far - cat - seven

5. phoneme       fear - pear - each - see

6. phoneme       meat - big - its - end

7. phoneme       clean - feet - ear - head

8. phoneme       first - Terry - pear - seen

  1. Write the words with alphabet letters and practice pronunciation. (Words taken from Empower A2, B1)




  1. əˈdɪktɪd _____________

  2. ˈleɪzɪ _____________

  3. mi:n _____________

  4. ʧes _____________

  5. ˈfænsɪ _____________

  6. fæt _____________

  7. əˈtræktɪv _____________

  8. ru:d _____________

  9. ˈtɔ:kətɪv _____________

  10. stænd _____________

  11. ‘kʌmf(ə)təb(ə)l _____________

  12. əˈmɛrɪk(ə)n/ _____________

  13. kəˈneɪdiən _____________

  14. kwaɪət _____________

  15. ˈɔːfəl _____________

  16. pəˈtɪkjʊləli _____________

  17. ˈsuːtkeɪs _____________

  18. ˈeɪnʃənt _____________

  19. ˈbreɪslət _____________

  20. ɡlʌv _____________

  21. mægˈnɪfɪsənt _____________

  22. ˈkeərə _____________

  23. ˈlɔɪə _____________

  24. ˈsaɪəntɪst _____________

  25. kənˈfjuːzd _____________

  26. ɪmˈbærəsɪŋ _____________

  27. ˈpəʊɪm _____________

  28. lɜːn _____________

  29. əˈgriː _____________

  30. pleɪ _____________

  31. ˈfəʊtəgrɑːf _____________

  32. rekəˈmend _____________

  33. saɪˈkɒlədʒi _____________

  34. kəmˈpleɪn _____________

  35. dɪˈsɪʒən _____________

  36. əˈmeɪzɪŋ _____________

  37. ˈkæʃ məʃi:n _____________

  38. ˈstriːt laɪt _____________

  39. prəʊgræm _____________

  40. ˈtɪkɪt ɒfɪs _____________

  41. feə _____________

  42. gəˈrɪlə _____________

  43. ˈtaɪgə _____________

  44. ˈʃɒpɪŋ sentə _____________

  45. ˈrɒk klaɪmɪŋ _____________

  46. ɒn ˈpɜːpəs _____________

  47. ˈkɑː pɑːk _____________

  48. lʊk ˈɑːftə _____________

  49. ɪkˈspleɪn _____________

  50. breɪk ˈʌp _____________

  51. ˈbɪznɪs _____________

  52. əˈvɔɪd _____________

  53. əˈreɪndʒ _____________

  54. ˈeɪprəl _____________

  55. Bæk _____________

  56. biːtʃ _____________

  57. ˈkæfeɪ _____________

  58. fɪˈɒnseɪ _____________

  59. həˈləʊ _____________

  60. ɡəʊ _____________





Now let’s play “Fly Swatting”

Teachers’ note: Fly Swat

Level: Any Level

Divide your class into 2 groups. 


Choose 2 ss. and ask them to go to the back part of the classroom and turn back. 
Write on the blackboard 20 phonetic transcriptions of words from the list above.
Give both ss. a fly swatter (something that can clean the board).

The objective on the game is that you will say a word and ss. will turn back and run to "fly swat" the word that you have pronounced. The ss. who "kills" the fly (cleans the correct word) has to pronounce the word correctly and then he will score a point for his team.



UNIT 2 SUFFIXES -S SUFFIX - WEEK 3

The morpheme -s of the 3rd person singular (he works), of the noun plural (books), of the genitive (John‟s) and of the contraction of is or has (he‟s) is pronounced in three different ways depending on the sound of the preceding consonant:

ɪz after sibilant consonants: s ʃ tʃ dʒ

slices /slɑɪsɪz/ brushes /brʌʃɪz/

churches /tʃɜːtʃɪz/ wages /weɪdʒɪz/

s after unvoiced consonants: /f/ /k/ /p/ /t/

packs /pæks/ rates /reɪts/

laughs /lɑːfs/ taps /tæps/

s

boys /bɔɪz/ girls /gɜːlz/



clothes /kləʊðz/ John‟s /dʒɒnz/

Some unvoiced sounds, θand f , become voiced when the -s suffix is added.

z

bath /bɑːθ/ baths /bɑːðz/



knife /nɑɪf/ knives /nɑɪvz/

EXERCISES

Write the sound /s/, /z/ or /ɪz/ next to the following words.

1. judges _____ 6. watches _____

2. lives _____ 7. attends _____

3. plates _____ 8. tapes _____

4. classes _____ 9. books _____

5. breathes _____ 10. wives _____



UNIT 3 -ed SUFFIX - WEEK 3
The morpheme -ed of the past tense (or past participle) is also pronounced in three different ways depending on the preceding consonant:

/ɪd/ after t and d

painted /peɪntɪd/ founded /fɑʊndɪd/

wanted /wɒntɪd/ rounded /rɑʊndɪd/

/t/ after unvoiced consonants: /f/ /k/ /p/ /s/ tʃ /ʃ

clapped /klæpt/ brushed /brʌʃt/

laughed /lɑːft/ wished /wɪʃt/

/d/ in other cases

earned /ɜːnd/ carried /kær ɪd/

changed /tʃeɪndʒd/ harmed /hɑːmd/


EXERCISES

Pronounce the past form of these regular verbs paying attention to the –ed suffix.

1. study _____ 6. answer _____

2. judge _____ 7. test _____

3. listen _____ 8. invent _____

4. miss _____ 9. research _____

5. work _____ 10. enjoy _____


UNIT 4 HOMOPHONES - WEEK 4

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning, and may differ in spelling.

Some examples of homophones:



son / sun /sʌn/

allowed / aloud /əlɑʊd/

minor / miner /mɑɪnə/
EXERCISE

Listen to the teacher and circle the word that you hear in its context.
1. whose / who’s 6. right / write

2. there / their 7. hear / here

3. sale / sail 8. rain / reign

4. rode / road 9. bare / bear

5. steel / steal 10. by / buy

UNIT 5 SILENT LETTERS - WEEK 4

Some consonants are written but not pronounced. This is either because they were once pronounced (knock) or come from a foreign language (psychology).



Initial position

kn – knock, knee, knight, knife gn gnat, gnaw, gnome

pn – pneumonia

ps psychology, psychiatry, pseudo pt Ptolemy

wr write, wrong, wring, wrist wh who, whom, whose, whole
End position

-mb – lamb, climb, thumb -ng – king /kɪŋ/, thing /θɪŋ/, song /sɒŋ/, wing -gm – paradigm, diaphragm

-gn – sign, reign, foreign, resign (but signature, resignation) -mn – condemn, autumn, column

-pt receipt (but reception)


Other Positions

doubt muscle castle whistle isle viscount sword Norwich

b) Sometimes vowels are written but not pronounced. Some examples:

government family chocolate garden reason
EXERCISE


  1. Mark the silent letters in the following words.

1. answer 6. castle 11. subtle 16. Island 21. Subtle

2. Greenwich 7. design 12. vegetable 17. Mustn’t 22. Honour

3. interest 8. know 13. generous 18. Wednesday 23. Listen

4. restaurant 9. comfortable 14. psychosis 19. Bomb 24. talk

5. written 10. honest 15. cupboard 20. Hoped 25. walk


  1. Change the phonetic transcription into text.

| ðɪs ˈsʌmə ˈaɪ wɜːkt fər ə ˈtreɪdɪŋ ˈkʌmpəni ɪn ˈpəʊlənd | maɪ ˈbrəðərz waɪf s ˈpɒlɪʃ ənd hə ˈbrʌðər ɪkˈspɔːts ˈæmbə tə ˈjʊərəp | ˈæmbə z ə braʊn stəʊn wɪtʃ ɪz ˈɒfn̩ ˈjuːzd ɪn ˈdʒuːəlri | ɪt kən bi ˈveri ɪkˈspensɪv | ˈæmbə z faʊnd ˈʌndə ðə ɡraʊnd ənd ðər ər ə lɒt əv maɪnz ɒn ðə kəʊst əv ðə ˌbɔ:ltɪk ˈsi: |


  1. Change the text into phonetic transcription.

I’ve been studying Polish at university for two years so this meant that I could do the negotiating with the amber companies. I did this for two weeks. I negotiated discounts and made notes of quantities, delivery dates etc. This was important work but not very enjoyable. Then, something completely different happened.

UNIT 6 SHWA SOUND - WEEK 5

Schwa is the name for the most common sound in English. It is a weak, unstressed sound and it occurs in many words. It is often the sound in grammar words such as articles and prepositions.

Getting the schwa sound correct is a good way of making your pronunciation more accurate and natural.

The phonemic symbol for this sound is Schwa. / ə /


EXERCISE


  1. Underline and/or write the schwa symbol over the correct part of the word.

doctor banana collect

tomorrow difficult combine

summer level American

protect report conclusion

pupil theatre consequence

measure wizard continue

about archive success

across arrive substance

support amount substantial

among analyse oppose

analysis apologize observe

city arrive time

approve appropriate observation

appreciate arise obtain

aware away surround

communicate connect surrender

survive surprise supply

supplement suggest suspect

among again occur


  1. In this exercise, look at these sentences and decide where the schwa sound /e/ occurs. It may occur more than once in each sentence. The minimum number of schwas in a sentence is 1, the maximum 7.




  1. It’s for you

  2. It takes a lot of time

  3. How about a cup of tea?

  4. What are you doing tonight?

  5. What time will you arrive at Victoria?

  6. I was going to tell you

  7. The leisure centre is closed for a private function

  8. The airport is not far from the capital city

  9. The book is about pronunciation

  10. We need more financial support

  11. You need to pay attention all the time

  12. It is a very thorough report

UNIT 7 COGNATE WORDS - WEEK 6

Cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. Turkish and English have lot of common words.



Examples:

Professor Profesör

Canteen Kantin

University Universite



*When we use those words in English, we should pay attention to pronounce those words with English pronunciations.

Common Mispronounced Cognate Words

Find the phonetic transcription of the words below and practice pronunciation.

active address garage massage

action alcohol material meter

activity apartment modern negative

favourite archive normal oxygen

assist barber mobile pizza

aggressive diet political professional

authority exercise champion chance

barrier energy cinema theatre

capacity sympathy digital technology

camera geometry schizophrenia sauce

modern capacity social taxi

original credit stop tango

practical magazine karate Muslim

television projector telephone traffic

million vocal football basketball

hockey billiard gigabyte data

internet media technology democracy

commission defence terror organization

machine physical psychological career

mental cousin character technique

café coffee economy modern



UNIT 8 WORDS WITH MORE THAN ONE PRONUNCIATION WEEK 7

There are words that have more than one pronunciation. Those words are spelled the same but pronounced differently. Some of them have the same meaning and difference is caused by dialectical difference such as American and British English. For Example

Candidate has two pronunciation with the same meaning.

/ˈkandɪdeɪt/ /ˈkandɪdət/



Some of them have different usages in terms of the pronunciation. They are called “Heteronyms”.

read – /riːd/ (the same as “reed”) means to perceive information provided in a written form; /rɛd/ (the same as “red”) is the past tense of the verb “to read”.

tear – to /tɛə/ (UK), /tɛr/ (US) (rhyming with “fair”) means “to rip a solid material” (a /tɛə/ (UK), /tɛr/ (US) is a hole caused by tearing /tɛrɪŋ/); a /tɪə/(UK), /tɪr/ (US) (rhyming with “dear”) is a water drop coming from someone’s eyes.

close – to /kləʊz/ (UK), /kloʊz/ (US) (rhyming with “doze”) is the opposite of the verb “open”; /kləʊs/ (notice the “s” at the end) is an adjective meaning “near”.

lead – to /liːd/ (rhyming with “seed”) means “to guide or conduct” (/liːd/ can also be a noun meaning “the act of leading”); /lɛd/ (rhyming with “red”) is a chemical element with the symbol “Pb” (“plumbum” in Latin).

graduate – a /ˈɡrædʒuət/ (with “oo-ət” at the end) is a person holding an academic degree; to /ˈɡrædʒueɪt/ (rhyming with “late”) means to obtain an academic degree. Notice that although the pronunciation is different, there is no difference in stress position.

Record - re-cord /ˈrɛkəd/– (noun) – something that is put in writing (or another permanent form, such as audio, film or a computer database) to preserve the information. re-cord (verb) /ˈrɛkɔːd/– the action of putting information in writing (or another permanent form) to preserve it

Advocate - /ˈædvəkeɪt/ v. to argue for someone else /ˈædvəkᵻt/ n. a person who speaks in support of something

live - /ˈlɪv/ v. to be alive /ˈlaɪv/ adj. having life

Certificate - /səˈtɪfɪkət/, noun, An official document attesting a fact, in particular - /səˈtɪfɪkeɪt/ verb, Provide with or attest in an official document

EXERCISE

Read the sentences with the correct pronunciation.

  1. The artist will record his new record in the studio this week.

  2. I’ll go to bed and read for a while

  3. Close the windows, as the storm is getting close.

  4. She will read the book that her older sister read last year.

  5. Separate the laundry into separate piles for light and dark clothing.

  6. It’s the best novel I’ve ever read.

  7. He burst into tears when he heard the news.

  8. She was always tearing her clothes.

  9. The hotel is close to the sea.

  10. They stood close to the door.

  11. She closed the door quietly.

  12. They were graduates of Harvard Law School.

  13. He graduated from Glasgow University in 1990.

  14. I acted the advocated of the evil.

  15. He advocated overseas business.

  16. I had a cold buffet lunch.

  17. The doctors said she had only six months to live.

  18. You can watch the match live on TV.

  19. The participants received a certificate.

  20. The participants will be certificated by the faculty.



  • Find more examples for Heteronyms.


UNIT 9 MOST COMMON MISPRONOUNCED WORDS - WEEK 8

Practice Saying These Words



  1. Pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃn/

  2. Because /bɪˈkɒz/

  3. Business /ˈbɪznəs/

  4. Busy /ˈbɪzi/

  5. Bury /ˈbɛri/

  6. Examine /ɪɡˈzæmɪn/

  7. Determine /dɪˈtɜːmɪn/

  8. Career /kəˈrɪə/

  9. Caucasian /kɔːˈkeɪziən/

  10. Height /haɪt/

  11. Weight /weɪt/

  12. Persuade /pəˈsweɪd/

  13. Private /ˈpraɪvət/

  14. Privacy/ˈprʌɪvəsi/ or /ˈprɪvəsi/

  15. Law /lɔː/

  16. Mischievous /ˈmɪstʃɪvəs/

  17. How /haʊ/

  18. Know /nəʊ/

  19. Knew /njuː/

  20. Purchase /ˈpɜːtʃəs/

  21. About /əˈbaʊt/

  22. Vocabulary /vəˈkæbjələri/

  23. Mosque /mɒsk/

  24. Vague /veɪɡ/

  25. Guess /ɡes/

  26. Guide /ɡʌɪd/

  27. Bury /ˈbɛri/

  28. Interesting /ˈɪnt(ə)rɪstɪŋ/

  29. History /ˈhɪst(ə)ri/

  30. Ancient /ˈeɪnʃ(ə)nt/

  31. International /ɪntəˈnaʃ(ə)n(ə)l/

  32. Occur /əˈkəː/

  33. Comfortable /ˈkʌmf(ə)təb(ə)l/

  34. Great /ɡreɪt/

  35. Butcher /ˈbʊtʃə/

  36. Hotel /həʊˈtɛl/ 

  37. Industry /ˈɪndəstri/

  38. Jewellery /ˈdʒuːəlri/

  39. Chew /tʃuː/

  40. Finite /ˈfʌɪnʌɪt/ 

  41. Infinite /ˈɪnfɪnɪt/

  42. Such as: /sʌtʃ ᴂs/

  43. Ancestor / ansɛstə/

  44. Fiance: / fɪˈɒnseɪ/

  45. About: / əˈbaʊt/

  46. Above: / əˈbʌv/

  47. Across Across

  48. Around /əˈraʊnd/ 

  49. Support /səˈpɔːt/

  50. Suppose /səˈpəʊz/

  51. Success: /səkˈsɛs/

  52. Science /ˈsʌɪəns/

  53. Since /sɪns/

  54. Busy /ˈbɪzi/

  55. Popular /ˈpɒpjʊlə/

  56. Academic /akəˈdɛmɪk/

  57. International /ɪntəˈnaʃ(ə)n(ə)l/

  58. Acquisition /ˌakwɪˈzɪʃ(ə)n/

  59. Fruit /fruːt/

  60. Lettuce /ˈlɛtɪs/

  61. Hour /ˈaʊə/

  62. Language /ˈlaŋɡwɪdʒ/

  63. Interesting /ˈɪnt(ə)rɪstɪŋ/

  64. Answer /ˈɑːnsə/

  65. Lawyer /ˈlɔɪə/

  66. Island /ˈʌɪlənd/

  67. Receipt /rɪˈsiːt/

  68. Colleague /ˈkɒliːɡ/

  69. Listen /ˈlɪs(ə)n/

  70. Often /ˈɒf(ə)n/

  71. Because /bɪˈkɒz/

  72. Message /ˈmɛsɪdʒ/ 

  73. Mountain /ˈmaʊntɪn/

  74. Mind /mʌɪnd/

  75. Honest /ˈɒnɪst/

  76. Career /kəˈrɪə/

  77. Mosque /mɒsk/

  78. Technique /tɛkˈniːk/

  79. Record /ˈrɛkɔːd/

  80. Determine /dɪˈtəːmɪn/

  81. Examine /ɪɡˈzamɪn/

  82. South /saʊθ/

  83. Develop /dɪˈvɛləp/

  84. Jealous /ˈdʒɛləs/

  85. Could /kʊd/ /kəd/

  86. Would /wʊd/ /wəd/

  87. Should /ʃʊd/

  88. Asylum /əˈsʌɪləm/

  89. Gigabyte /ˈɡɪɡəbʌɪt/

  90. Scissors /ˈsɪzəz/

  91. Vary /ˈvɛːri/

  92. Variety /vəˈrʌɪəti/

  93. Buffet /ˈbʌfeɪ/

  94. Fiancé /fɪˈɑːnseɪ/

  95. Café /ˈkafeɪ/ /ˈkafi/

  96. Gloves /ɡlʌvz/

  97. Dozen /ˈdʌz(ə)n/

  98. Won /wʌn/

  99. Another /əˈnʌðə/

  100. Comfortable /ˈkʌmf(ə)təb(ə)l/

  101. Stomach /ˈstʌmək/

  102. Tongue /tʌŋ/

  103. Woman /ˈwʊmən/

  104. Persuasive /pəˈsweɪsɪv/

  105. Impromptu /ɪmˈprɒm(p)tjuː/

  106. Dilemma /dɪˈlɛmə/ /dʌɪˈlɛmə/

  107. Chaos /ˈkeɪɒs/

  108. Fashion /ˈfaʃ(ə)n/

  109. Again /əˈɡɛn/

  110. Vehicle /ˈviːɪk(ə)l/

  111. Equipment /ɪˈkwɪpm(ə)nt/

  112. Equal /ˈiːkw(ə)l/

  113. Consequence /ˈkɒnsɪkw(ə)ns/

  114. Schizophrenia /ˌskɪtsə(ʊ)ˈfriːnɪə/

Now Lets play “Flay Swatting”

(OPTIONAL UNIT) PRONUNCIATION OF POPULAR NAMES & PHARASES

Google the pronunciation of the following words.

Adidas

Nike


Mercedes

Superb


Frankenstein

Porsche


IKEA

Tchibo


Mango

Lacoste


IPhone

Adobe


Game of Thornes

Knight Online

Call of Duty

Assassin's Creed,

Einstein

Niche


Stephen King

Barrack Obama

Dido

Beyoncé


Munich

Volkswagen





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