Sanchar Shakti

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Sanchar Shakti

For empowering women SHGs through ICT related livelihood skills.

Sanchar Shakti envisages bringing together the combined efforts and contributions of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF), mobile and Mobile Value Added Service Providers, Telecom Equipment Manufacturers and their partner NGOs to use ICT to empower rural women. NABARD and U.N Women have also been involved in the development of this scheme.

The Sanchar Shakti scheme includes four categories of projects aimed at rural women’s SHGs:

  1. Provision of subsidized mobile VAS subscription to SHGs with a service validity/warranty of at least one year

  2. Setting up of SHG run mobile repair centers in rural areas

  3. Setting up of SHG run modem repair centers in rural areas

  4. Setting up of SHG run solar based mobile/CDMA FWT charging centers in rural areas

Integrated Guided Missile Development Program

The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the intermediate range Agni missile (Surface to Surface), and short range missiles such as the Prithvi ballistic missile (Surface to Surface), Akash missile (Surface to Air), Trishul missile (Surface to Air) and Nag Missile (Anti Tank). The program was managed by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in partnership with other Indian government labs and research centres. One of the most prominent chief engineers on the project, Dr. Abdul Kalam went on to become the President of India.

When was it started?


Providing Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA) is a strategy for rural development in India. Concept given by former president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.and framed by Prof.Emerson.

PURA proposes that urban infrastructure and services be provided in rural hubs to create economic opportunities outside of cities. Physical connectivity by providing roads electronic connectivity by providing communication network and knowledge connectivity by establishing professional and Technical institutions will have to be done in an integrated way so that economic connectivity will emanate. The Indian central government has been running pilot PURA programs in several states since 2004.

The Government has restructured the Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) scheme for implementation on pilot basis during 11th Five Year Plan. The scheme aims at holistic and accelerated development of compact areas around a potential growth centre in a Gram Panchayat (s) through Public Private Partnership (PPP) framework for providing livelihood opportunities and urban amenities to improve the quality of life in rural areas. The scope of the scheme is to select private partners to develop livelihood opportunities, urban amenities and infrastructure facilities in select Panchayat / cluster of Panchayat. The private developer is given the flexibility to identify and select the Gram Panchayat for undertaking PURA projects based on their familiarity with the area or past experience of working at the grassroots level. However, the consent of the concerned Panchayats is mandatory.

Rajiv Awas Yojana

The President of India has announced a new scheme called Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) on June 4, 2009 for the slum-dwellers and urban poor, aimed at ushering in a ‘Slum-free India by encouraging States/Union Territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner. RAY calls for a multi-prolonged approach focusing on:

  • Bringing existing slums within the formal system and enabling them to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town;

  • Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums; and

  • Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor.

Rajiv Awas Yojana would extend support to States that are willing to assign property rights to people living in slum areas.  To facilitate the preparation of Slum-free Plans based on slum survey and GIS Mapping, a new scheme called Slum-free City Planning has been approved with an allocation of Rs.120 Crores. Rs. 60 crores has been released by the Finance Ministry against this amount during 2009-10.    

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)

Launched in 2010, it is one of the eight national missions which comprise India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It has the twin objectives of contributing to India’s long-term energy security and its ecologically sustainable growth. It aims at providing solar lighting for 20 million households (20000 MW) by the end of the 13th Five Year Plan in 2022.

The missions under NAPCC include National Missions on Solar Energy, on Enhanced Energy Efficiency, on Sustainable Habitat, on Conserving Water, on Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, on creating a “Green India”, on Sustainable Agriculture and finally, on establishing a Strategic Knowledge Platform for Climate Change.

Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme

Started in 1980, the objective is to convert dry latrines into low cost twin pit pour flush latrines and construction of new toilets to economically weaker section households who have now latrines in the urban areas.

Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP)

This is a sub-mission under JNNURM. To provide improved housing, water supply, sanitation and delivery of already existing universal services of the government for education, health and social security.

Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme

This is also a sub-mission of JNNURM. Launched to improve the dilapidated living conditions of urban slum dwellers in the cities covered under JNNURM.

Zonal Cultural Centres

The aims and objectives of the Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCCs) are to preserve, promote and disseminate the arts, specially folk/tribal arts of the country. The ZCCs endeavour to develop and promote the rich diversity and uniqueness of various arts of the Zone and to upgrade and enrich consciousness of the people about their cultural heritage.   There are only seven ZCCs in the country.

The power of Ideas 2010

The initiative, launched on June 22, 2010 is India’s largest entrepreneurial platform that encourages, nurtures and grooms business ideas by connecting them with relevant mentors, incubators and investors. It’s a public-private-academia partnership. The department of Science and Technology, GoI is offering guaranteed funds worth Rs 5 crore for the initiative.

It was first launched by The Economic Times in 2009. Working alongside will be the Centre for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE), Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad.

Tagline: Fostering a Culture of Innovation

Mission Olympics, Indian Army

Mission Olympics in Army was launched in 2001, which presently caters for ten sporting disciplines, grouped under five sports nodes. It aims at training army personnel to represent India at Olympics.

Capacity Building and Technical Assistance for North Eastern Youths

The Capacity Building and Technical Assistance programmes administered by the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) primarily aims to provide skills and competencies for self employment and employability and also assist in providing any other specialized inputs required for Human Resource Development in various sectors. It follows from this that the responsibility of the Ministry is holistically directed towards imparting training for better governance and skill development of educated youth of the region.

Total Sanitation Campaign

TSC is a comprehensive programme to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with broader goal to eradicate the practice of open defecation. TSC gives strong emphasis on information, education and communication (IEC), capacity building and hygiene education for effective behaviour change with involvement of NGOs. It follows a principle of ‘low to no subsidy’ where a nominal subsidy in the form of incentive is given to rural poor households for construction of toilets. Key intervention areas a household latrines and community toilets.

National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP)

Launched: 2006

The NAIP is to facilitate accelerated and sustainable transformation of Indian agriculture in support of poverty alleviation and income generation by collaborative development and application of agricultural innovation by the public research organizations in partnership with the farmer’s groups, the private sector, the civil society organizations and other stakeholders.

National Legal Mission

National litigation policy under the mission aims to reduce the cases pending in various courts in India from average pendency time of 15 years to 3 years.

National Green Tribunal Bill

Provides for setting up of ‘Green Benches’ for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment. It will have same powers as a civil court.

Millennium Development Goals

MDGs are eight international development goals that all the UN member states ( and at least 23 international organizations) have agreed to achieve by 2015. The goals are

To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality rate, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases, ensure environment sustainability, develop a global partnership for development.

Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

It is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented in all states (except Delhi and Chandigarh) since 1999. It is primarily designed to promote self-employment oriented income generating activities for the BPL households in the rural areas. Woven around the mechanism of Self-Help Groups (SHGs), the SGSY was designed to break the financial, technical and market constraints that the individual BPL households face to cross the threshold of poverty line.

National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)

Approved in 2010, it is the restructured form of the centrally sponsored Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY). NRLM aims at reducing poverty through promotion of diversified and gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities. It will have the objective of universal social mobilization and training and capacity building through larger role for SHGs and formation of people’s institutions for promoting micro enterprises.

National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)

Implementation plan approved in June 2010.

NMEEE is one of the eight national missions with the objective of promoting innovative policy and regulatory regimes, financing mechanisms, and business models which not only create, but also sustain markets for energy efficiency in a transparent manner with clear deliverables to be achieved in a time bound manner. NMEEE proposes the following four new initiatives to enhance energy efficiency, in addition to the programmes on energy efficiency being currently pursued :

a) A market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness of improvements in energy efficiency in energy-intensive large industries. The trading of energy saving certificates would facilitate this process (Perform Achieve and Trade).

b) Accelerating the shift to energy efficient appliances in designated sectors through innovative measures to make the products more affordable. (Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency).

c) Creation of mechanisms that would help finance demand side management programmes in all sectors by capturing future energy savings. {Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEP)}.

d) Developing fiscal instruments to promote energy efficiency namely Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development (FEEED).

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS)

National Clean Energy Fund

Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme: Ministry of Textiles

PM’s 15 Point Programme for Welfare of Minorities

National Afforestation Programme

The National Afforestation Programme provides assistance to the Forest Development Agencies for implementing projects to regenerate degraded forest lands though the participation of Joint Forest Management Committees. The two components of ‘Training and Capacity Building’ and ‘Overheads’ envisage activities for inter alia capacity building of Forest Development Agencies.

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)

The RKVY was operationalised with effect from August, 2007 to achieve 4% annual growth in the agriculture sector by ensuring a holistic development of agriculture and allied sectors. The scheme aims at incentivising States to increase public investment in agriculture and allied sectors and enable them to generate additional growth in agriculture and allied sectors through better planning and by undertaking appropriate growth-oriented projects to achieve this goal.

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)

Lunched in 2009, PMAGY aims to achieve all-round, integrated development of selected villages (SC dominated) primarily, through convergent implementation of all relevant Central and State schemes in them, and by meeting needs through provision of “gap-filling” funds for which central assistance will be provided @ Rs. 10 lakh per village, with State Government also expected to make a suitable, preferably matching, contribution.

Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana (RGSY)

  The Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme being implemented by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj for the non-BRGF districts.  The scheme focuses primarily on providing financial assistance to the States/UTs for Training & Capacity Building of elected representatives (ERs) and functionaries of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) so that they can perform the functions devolved upon them and the schemes entrusted to them effectively, besides a small component for infrastructure development. 

Calamity Relief Fund

The list of calamities under the CRF eligible for assistance at present are: cyclone, drought, earthquake, tsunami, fire, flood, landslide, avalanche, cloud burst and pest attack.

Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF)

BRGF is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. The fund will provide financial resources for supplementing and converging existing developmental inflows into 250 identified districts. It is being implemented by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj. Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana (RSVY) has been subsumed under this programme.

Missile Development Programmes

Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana

Under the ministry of power.

Nodal Agency: Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd.

Launched in 2005 by merging the ongoing schemes.


  1. Electrification of 1.15 lakh unelectrified villages and access to electricity for all rural households.

  2. Providing free electricity connections to 2.34 crores BPL households.

India’s three stage nuclear power programme

In the first stage, India has so far used natural uranium as fuel to build 17 Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). In the second stage, plutonium reprocessed from the spent fuel of the PHWRs, depleted uranium and thorium kept in the blanket form will be used as fuel to power a series of breeder reactors. Thorium used in the breeders gets converted into uranium-233, a fissile material. In the third stage, reactors will use thorium and uranium-233 to generate electricity. Thus, the three stages are inter-linked. Fast reactors are commonly called breeder reactors as they breed more fuel than they consume.

Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme

  • 1996-97

  • To give loan assistance to the States to help them complete some of the incomplete major/medium irrigation projects which were at an advanced stage of completion and to create additional irrigation potential in the country.

National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (SAKSHAT)

objective of ensuring connectivity of the learners to the ‘World of Knowledge’ in cyberspace and to make them ‘Netizens’ in order to enhance their self-learning skills and develop their capabilities for on-line problem solving and to work for : creation of knowledge modules with right contents to address to the personalized needs of learners; certification of competencies of the learners, acquired through formal or non-formal means; and to develop and maintain the database having profile of human resources.

Aakash was developed under this mission.

Janani Shishu Suraksha Yojana

The new initiative of JSSK would provide completely free and cashless services to pregnant women including normal deliveries and caesarean operations and sick new born (up to 30 days after birth) in Government health institutions in both rural and urban areas. The new JSSK initiative is estimated to benefit more than one crore pregnant women & newborns who access public health institutions every year in both urban & rural areas. 

The Free Entitlements under JSSK would include: Free and Cashless Delivery, Free C-Section, Free treatment of sick-new-born up to 30 days, Exemption from User Charges, Free Drugs and Consumables, Free Diagnostics, Free Diet during stay in the health institutions – 3 days in case of normal delivery and 7 days in case of caesarean section, Free Provision of Blood, Free Transport from Home to Health Institutions, Free Transport between facilities in case of referral as also Drop Back from Institutions to home after 48hrs stay. Free Entitlements for Sick newborns till 30 days after birth similarly include Free treatment, Free drugs and consumables, Free diagnostics, Free provision of blood, Exemption from user charges, Free Transport from Home to Health Institutions, Free Transport between facilities in case of referral and Free drop Back from Institutions to home. 

National Monsoon Mission

The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has proposed a National Mission on monsoon (in 2010) towards developing reliable dynamic models for forecasting the monsoon over the next three to five-year period through a multi-institutional effort.

National Knowledge Network

The NKN is a state-of-the-art multi-gigabit pan-India network for providing a unified high speed network backbone for all knowledge related institutions in the country. The NKN will enable scientists, researchers and students from different backgrounds and diverse geographies to work closely for advancing human development in critical and emerging areas
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