Listing: thinking process with music



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Study Guide for Music 1000 1

  • Music

  • Listing: thinking process with music

  • Hearing: noise- background

  • 3 levels of music

    • Sensual: surface impact of sound itself, how are you feeling

    • Perceptual: how the sound is related to one another or why is the music making you feel a certain way

    • Imaginal: able to anticipate what is going to happen.

  • Texture

    • Monophony

      • Simple

    • Poloyphony

      • More than one melody

    • Homophony

      • 1 + background

  • Melody

    • Range

    • Intervals: leaps or steps

    • Modes: major minor atonal or other

    • Length: short or long

    • Cadence

    • Direction

    • Shape: smooth or jagged

    • Register

    • Structure

    • Usage

  • Rythem

    • Tempo

    • Beat

      • Grouping: 2 or 3rds

      • Strength

    • Quality

      • Duration

      • Articulation

      • Accents

      • Rubato

      • Patterns

  • Harmony

    • Structure

    • Quality

    • Tonality

    • Density

    • Cadences

    • Modulation

    • Harmonic rhythm

    • Prominence

  • Timbre/ colour

  • Dynamics

    • Forte

    • Piano

    • Adjective mezzo

    • Fortissimo

    • Pianissimo

    • Crescendo

    • Diminuendo

  • Tempo

    • Largo

    • Adagio

    • Andante

    • Moderato

    • Allegretto

    • Allegro

    • Presto

  • Diatonic: belongs to the same scale

  • Chromatics: uses notes outside of the scale

  • Orchestra

    • String

    • Woodwinds

    • Brass

    • Percussion

  • Other ways to make sound

    • Chordophones: String interements

      • zither

      • lates

      • lyres

      • harps

      • musical bow

    • Aerophones: sound created be vibrating air

    • Membranophones: sound created by vibration over a stretch membrane

    • Idiophones: source of sound: drum stick

    • Electrophones: electronic sound

  • Form

    • Organization of structures in music

    • Planned structures (we will talk more about these when we get to chapters 5-20)

    • Melodic repetition

    • Ordering of timbres

    • Text rhyme (for songs)

    • Affects the Imagenial level

    • Theme and variation

  • Early Music overview

    • 600 A.D

    • Controlled by the catholic church

      • Music was sung in

        • Mass

          • Kyrie

          • Gloria

          • Credo

          • Sanctus

          • Agnus dei

        • Divine office

      • Plainchant

        • Only voices, steady beat, no meter

        • Plain chant

        • Monophonic

        • Melisma

        • Organum

        • Antiphone: call and echo

      • Polyphony

        • 2 or more melodies are uses

      • Trinity: music in 3

      • ARS Antique: old way

      • ARS Nova: New Way 1300

        • composers carried rhythmic complexities to extraordinary degrees. Rhythm seems to have obsessed them.

    • School of Notre Dame- 1600

    • Tonic: final note

  • Resonance: 1350-1600 14th-16th centuries

    • Italy

    • Intellectual movement

    • Paraphrase: Used chants from the church and change the bits

    • Imitation was used

    • Homopony was created in the 15th centrenty

    • High Resonance 15th century

      • The creation of music to illustrate specific feelings or moods

      • Creation of word painting

    • Slowly started to add in instruments

  • The Reformation- part of the late reformation

    • Rebellion against the authority of the catholic church

    • Martian Luther (1483-1546): created the Lutheran Church, took parts of the C. church and change parts

    • Giovanni Gabrieli (1525/1526-1594)

      • Wrote the Pope Marcellous Mass

      • Used 2 choirs, 3 voice parts, 4 instrumenal parts plus and organ

  • Gesualdo (1580)

    • Used harmony to alter feelings

  • Baroque start of the 1600s

    • Florence Italy

    • Text is the mistress of music

    • The mistress of music is the text

    • Creation of musical instruments

    • Dance

    • Fugue: Music a contrapuntal composition in which a short melody or phrase (the subject) is introduced by one part and successively taken up by others and developed by interweaving the parts

      • Once complete the subject can play a counter subject

    • Inversion: making the subject upside down

    • Oggentation: change in speed: longer

    • Diminution: change in speed: shorter

    • Episode: related to the subject but not the subject

    • The Music

      • Rhythms became more definite, regular and insistent

        • No floating rhythms, same time through out the whole piece

      • Creation of the bar line

      • Basso Continuo: constant bass to fill in the background

      • Ground bass: ostinato, keeps coming back

      • Evolved harmony: Functional harmony

    • Opera- early baroque

      • Recitative: Storyline

      • Aria: Emotions

        • Extended piece for a solo singer

      • Orchestra had more variety due to the story line

    • Orchestra

      • Strings

      • 1st violins

      • 2nd violins

      • violas

      • Cello

      • Winds and brass and percussion

    • King Louis (XIV- 14)

      • 24 violinistes du roi: violinist of the king

Study Guide 2:




  • Concerto



      • Contrast between an orchestra and soloist

        • 1 vs. the many

      • Concerto-vivaldi

      • Concerto Grasso

        • Several solo instruments and orchestra

    • Arcangelo Corelli (1700)

      • First to:

        • Musician to make money publishing

        • Wrote only for instruments

        • Clearly in a major or minor scale

  • Opera sierra

    • Upper scale

    • More serious

    • Appled to the upper class

  • Recitative

    • The music accomplices the words

    • Used for plot action dialog where the words are brought more b/c it is a important/ intense part of the story

  • Aria

    • A set piece for a solo singer

    • More elaborate and coherence

  • Libertto

    • Words of the opera



  • Classical Genres

    • The Sonata

      • Created in the classical period

      • Way of creating the music

      • A : B A

      • A is the expostion usally is repeated

      • B is the delvopment

      • A is the replication: hear the first theme again

      • The bridge is between to different themes

    • The Classical Concerto

      • Mozart

    • The string Quartet

      • Only strings

      • Ussly 4 people

    • Opera Buffa

      • Comic opera

      • Offered to the public

  • Forms

    • Binary

      • Simple only 2 sections

      • A B format

    • Ronda

      • Alternates

      • A B A B A or A B A C A

    • Sonta- allergro

      • Complex

      • Started Classical period

      • Exposition: development/ recapitulation: Coda

    • Introduction

      • Happens before the exposition

      • Never repeated

      • Part of Sonta- allergro

    • Coda

      • End of piece

      • Independent section

      • Closing theme

    • Harmonic

      • Key structure(s) of the different sections (including in general …modulations)

    • Melodic

      • What melodies are heard, how they are typically contrasting, exposed, developed, recapitulated

    • Motivic

      • What happens to the melody (ies) (in the development section of sonata form)



  • Periods

    • Late Brouque 1700- 1750

      • Style by periods

        • Melody

          • Longer, more complex, asymmetrical, instruments influenced vocal melodies

        • Harmony

          • Chords

        • Rhythm

          • Driving constant

          • Bass creates the consistent

        • Colour

        • Texture

          • Homophonic

        • Form

          • Binary

      • J.S Bach 1685- 1750

        • Church- wrote music for them

        • Local fame: Did not move

        • His music died with him

        • Wrote a ton of music

      • G.F Handel 1685- 1756

        • Famous

        • Traveled

        • Brought opera to London

        • International fame

      • Telemann

      • Vivaldi

    • Classical 1750- 1800

      • Style by periods

        • Melody

          • Short , balanced create tuneful melodies

          • More influenced by vocals

        • Harmony

          • Chord changes verity

        • Rhythm

          • Varies

          • Stop and go

          • Depends on the movement

        • Colour

        • Texture

          • Homophonic

        • Form

      • Mozart 1756-1791

        • Started young

        • Wrote in popular Genre

        • Toured all of Europe with his father and sister

      • FJ Haydn 1732- 1809

        • Started his real first job in 1751

        • Father of symphony

        • Created orginal pieces

        • Worked for a rich family

      • Jean- jaques Rousseau

        • Philoshper, significant impact on music

        • Comic opera about “real” people

    • Romantic period

      • Style by period

        • Melody

          • Long, sing able lines with powerful climaxes and chromatic inflections for expressiveness

        • Harmony

          • More colorful and richer

          • Helps with expessing emotin through the music

          • More dissonance to convey feeling of anxiety and longing

        • Rhythm

          • Fexlible

          • Not very clearly articulated

        • Colour

          • Orchestra becomes HUGE

          • This gave new effects to the music

            • Variation in dynamics

          • Piano becomes larger and more powerful

        • Texture

          • Homophonic

        • Form

          • No new forms are created, stay with traditional forms but length them

          • Lied is created: symphonic poem and orchestral song or mini opera

        • Composers

          • Beethoven

          • Schubert

          • Schumann

          • Chopin

          • Strauss

          • Wagner

        • Genres

          • NEW

            • Symphonic poem

            • Leid

            • Character piece for the piano

      • Impressionism (1820-1920)

        • Style by period

          • Melody

            • Varies from short dabs to long free flowing lines

            • Chromatic scales whole tone scale and pentatonic scale often replace major and minor scales

          • Harmony

            • Homophonic

          • Rhythm

            • Free flexible with irregular accents

          • Colour

            • Focus on the woodwinds and brass to carry the melody

            • More soloistic writing -> brings out the colour more

          • Texture

            • Can vary from thin and airy to heavy and dense

          • Form

            • Tried to use a unique form and particulcular to each musical work.

          • Composers

            • Debussy

            • Ravel

            • faure

  • Composers

    • Late baroque

      • J.S Bach 1685- 1750

        • Church- wrote music for them

        • Local fame: Did not move

        • His music died with him

        • Wrote a ton of music

      • G.F Handel 1685- 1756

        • Famous

        • Traveled

        • Brought opera to London

        • International fame

    • Classical (1750- 1800)

      • Mozart 1756-1791

        • Started young

        • Wrote in popular Genre

        • Toured all of Europe with his father and sister

      • FJ Haydn 1732- 1809

        • Started his real first job in 1751

        • Father of symphony

        • Created original pieces

        • Worked for a rich family

    • Romantic (1800-1900)-> Individuality

      • Beethoven Early (1700-1827)

        • Wrote 9 symphonies

          • 1-2: first period of his life: pushes the envelope of classical period

          • 3-8: second period of life -> more emotional

          • 9: 3rd period of life




      • Schubert (1797-1828) early

        • Spont. Melodist

        • Combined music with lyrics

          • Lied: Love poems with music

      • R. Schumann (1810- 1856) traditionalist early

      • Strauss

      • Mendelssohn (1809 – 47)

        • Created program music

      • Berlioz (1803- 1847)

        • Created the transformation from one motif (Music a short succession of notes producing a single impression; a brief melodic or rhythmic formula out of which longer passages are developed: the motif in the second violin is submerged by the first violin's countermelody.) to another

      • Wagner (1813-1883) late romantic

        • German

        • Nationalist

        • Gesamtkunstwerk

          • Ultimate art work art

        • Romantic opera

      • Lizet

        • Symphonic poem

        • Created crazy melodies

        • Mainly a pianist

      • J. Brahms

        • Traditionalist

        • Followed Beethoven

        • Sonata form

      • Gustan Mahler

        • Pushing boundaries

    • 20th century

      • Oliver Messiaen

        • changes the concepts of time

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