History 2600 Spring 2009 Notes

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History 2600 Spring 2009 Notes

Jan 8 2009

Major Themes of US history

Individualism and group identity

liberalism and capitalism

religious influences

destiny and optimism

reform and progress - formation of a more perfect union

violence and inequities.
When Columbus lands and “discovers” America in 1492 North America was already a civilized land with an old and distinct culture.

Columbus and europe were motivated by the quest for gold and expanded trade and the innovations of the renaissance.

Native americans migrated from siberia 15000-40000 years ago.
People of the southwest

Anasazi - means Ancient ones. migrated from the four corners area of the US (Col, Utah, Arizona, NM) south to the banks of the rio grande. Had very advanced and sophisticated village architecture and irrigated agricultural practices.

The Anasazi and the Aohokam were very large tribes of non-nomadic (sedentary) people who traded extensively together and had sophisticated political systems.
People of the Eastern Woodlands

Mississippians - the first farmers in the US. the center of their culture was the city Cahokia which means city of the sun. at its hight 20000 people lived in its walls which made it roughly the same size as London. There was a large metropolitan area around the city that allowed the mississippians to dominate the surrounding areas. by the 1500’s mississippian culture had declined and the people had broken up into smaller tribes and villages.

first encounters b/w the europeans and the indians lead to the decimation of native populations.

b/c of european diseases large native tribes broke up into smaller ones for survival. About 90% of the native population died to european diseases.

The Columbian Exchange - the accidental and intentional exchange of plants, animals, people, and microbes b/w whites and natives

The Intro of horses and firearms radically changed how native groups travelled and conducted warfare. likewise the intro of new world plants like potatoes and tobacco forever changed european diet and habits.

Natives contracted small pox and typhoid among others and Europeans got syphilis from the natives.

At contact there were an estimated 8 million natives in north america

about 1.88 million europeans moved to british north america b/w 1492 and 1820

spanish colonization focused on the discovery of gold and the conversion of natives

by the 17th century europeans began to think about permanent settlements and the expansion of their empires. this was made easier by the fact that so many indians had died that they offered little resistance to european expansion.

b/w 1492 and 1808 b/w 8 and 10 million Africans were brought to the americas as slaves 5-20% died in transit. 6% were brought to the American mainland

Slave culture changed and was eventually absorbed into American culture. food, music and architecture.
Jan 13 2009
Puritan Theology

pilgrims - small sect of religious radicals

landed at Plymouth Rock Nov 1620

believed that the church of england was so corrupt that total separation both physical and religious was the only hope for salvation

Mayflower compact - an agreement to set up a civil government. Celebrated as the first system of self governance.

pilgrims were lead by William Bradford eventually the pilgrims were absorbed by the puritans

puritans - protestants that wanted to purify the church of england. they were Calvinists

majority didn’t want to separate from english society only wanted to reform it .

persecution lead to the migration of over 20 000 puritans to New England from 1630-1645

their first settlement was Salem Mass.

by 1640 settlement had progressed 75 miles inland

puritans believed in pre-destination the belief that before we were born God had decided if we were to go to heaven or hell aka the covenant of Grace

in the puritan church a public conversion was required this conversion was a statement of conversion to the congregation with reasons why you believed that God had chosen you

Puritans believed that God took a direct and active role in peoples lives

Every Puritan adult male was required by law to attend church and to give money to the church

The Mass Bay company was given Charter in 1629 and had the exclusive rights to settle and trade in Mass. the first first settlers arrived in 1630

Gov. John Winthrop outlined his goals for the colony in his sermon A Model of Christian Charity aka The New England Way. In it he suggested that New England could be a still influence England by creating an ideal model. he said that New England would become like a city on the hill and example for the rest of the world.
virtually all of the first puritans were subsistence farmers. Each family was given a land in the town for a house and garden and a plot of land outside of the Village to farm. This lead to very tight-knit communities

freemen - males and members of the church who could vote for government positions. they practiced direct democracy

the stability of the community rested on the stability of the family. Entire families migrated to New England which meant that there was a fairly equal ratio of men to women. This lead to the formation of more families.

continued family formation and high birth rate combined with a low death rate and economic stability lead to successful communities.

challenges to settlement
puritan relationships with natives was strained as natives didn’t use the land as puritans thought it should be used and they weren’t christians so puritans thought that they could simply kick the natives off the land and take it for themselves.

eventually the natives rebelled in the King Philip war from 1675-1676. 2000 puritans and over 4000 natives died. at the end of the war organized resistance to puritan settlement was extinguished.

1638 Anne Hutchinson was put on trial for heresy for questioning the authority of prominent clergymen. she was banished to quell internal divisions.

Salem Witch trials 1692 a group of girls claimed to have been bewitched by a group of older women. Old single women who had no one to fight for their rights were targeted and the community went witch crazy. 20 people were executed.

the witch trials mark the end of Puritan society as a theocracy.
When English Puritans seized control of the english parliament the New England puritans lost their mission

Puritan Children had different goals that their parents this lead to puritan society to stray from its original goals

in 1670 there are 70000 people in New England and by the 18th C only 20% of them are Puritans

Economic prosperity brought many different groups to the new world and the yankee trader replaced the Puritan minister as the community leader.

Settling Chesapeake Bay

Virginia Company of London settled and formed Jamestown in 1607. Jamestown was in a very bad location, on malaria swamps next to a river that when the tied came in was full of undrinkable salt water and located in the territory of the strongest native alliance on the eastern seaboard.

the men who went to Chesapeake with the stated goal of making money.

only 13 of the 67 men called themselves laborers and many of the men refused to do any manual labor . no crops were planted in the first year as men searched for gold. Only 38 survived the first winter.

When captain john Smith arrived the next year with the relief boats and the next group of settlers he took control of the situation and instituted martial law. Again the settlers didn’t plan ahead and after he left they went through the starving winter of 1609 only 100 of the 500 settlers survived.

tobacco saved jamestown as it became massively popular in europe.

early settlement of Chesapeake

unbalanced sex ratios (1 woman to 6 men) limited family formation and there was low birth rates in the community.

there was limited urbanization as people lived on their farm land often far apart from another farm.

plantation owners controlled society

indentured servitude - made up the majority of british settlers and had to work for 5-7 years to pay off the passage.

African slaves arrived to work on tobacco plantations in 1619 and at first their status was was similar to that of indentured servant. by 1680 the condition of slavery was inheritable based on race.

Chesapeake settlers established the Church of England in America

the colony was granted royal status in 1624 and with it came a stable British government. the plantation owners already had formed the house of Burgess and government body elected from land owners.

the Powhatan confederacy was a powerful group of natives that resisted settler demands.

Anglo-powhatan wars were an ongoing series of wars that by 1646 was wrapping up the third one. when it ended it was clear that the settlers would win and control the area.

Bacons rebellion 1676

a fall in tobacco prices lead to an economic depression that the settlers of Chesapeake bay blamed on the natives.

Nathaniel Bacon was at first granted the right to wage war on all indians but Gov. William Berkley reconsidered and forbade the war against indians. Bacon reacted by attacking Berkley but he died and the rebellion petered out

resulted in the solidification of slavery. the use of blacks slaves over indentured whites

jan 15 2009
NY, NJ, and Penn. are called the restoration colonies b/c they were formed after the restoration of the english crown

they were proprietary colonies. that is the land was given to individuals or groups as a reward for service to the crown.

these colonies embraced religious tolerance and self government

Proprietors promoted trade and liberal access to land

1664 NY, NJ founded. originally settled by the dutch and called New Netherlands. It had a hodge-podge of settlers from all over europe. The Dutch couldn’t maintain control over the area so when British warships sailed into NY harbor the settler surrendered without a fight.
Pennsylvania - founded by william Penn

settled by quakers as a holy experiment and money making venture

quakers migrated as a family unit and migrations were highly controlled

Penn formed orderly cities and governments. his Frame of Government of 1682 outlined religious freedoms, civil liberties and elections of government (it was ensured that quakers would dominate the government)

many persecuted sects moved to pennsylvania as it was a tolerant society

Penn had good relations with natives as he bought the land that europeans would settle on from the natives

pennsylvania became the breadbasket of america and a major of center for trade.

Penn’s sons converted to Anglicanism and the power of the quakers slowly declined

The Carolinas - est in 1663

North Carolina was settled by virginians. It had no natural harbor and relied on Virginia and SC for the import and export of goods

not very much tobacco was grown in NC as the geography wasn’t well suited for it.

South Carolina was settled by Caribbean Sugar planters looking to start plantations on the continent. they ended up growing rice instead as sugar wouldn’t grow

they had an intensely hierarchical society and by 1720, 76% of residents were slaves
Georgia was formed by a board of trustees headed by James Oglethorpe in 1732 and was the last of the original 13 colonies

it was created as a buffer b/w SC and Spanish Florida and as a refuge for debtors

originally georgia banned slavery but that was repealed in 1750 and after that the population exploded. Main crop was cotton.
spain claimed vast amounts of the South and Southwest seeking Gold and a harvest of souls

they didn’t settle very much and by 1700 there were only 4000 spanish settlers vs 250000 british settlers

France claimed northern territories and sought furs and fish. they relied on cooperation with the native populations

the government allowed only good catholics to go to new france (1660 - 1000 settlers)

the French embraced mercantilism in the colony to bring wealth to france
European wars in the colonies

War of spanish succession 1702-03 Britain gained part of Nova Scotia which lead to the french aggressively expanding in the interior and the gulf (New Orleans)

War of Austrian Succession 1744-48. A series of raids and skirmishes along the New france and Colonies boarder.

for 7 weeks a group of New English militia besieged and eventually captured Fort Louisbourg. The British traded it back to the french for some Indian bases. this really pissed the colonists off

Seven years war -1754-63. Lasts nine years in America. The french started building a series of forts on the edge of the ohio river valley. Washington fights a battle with the french but looses half his men

the British win by defeating the french on the battle of the Plains of Abraham

by the end of the seven years war America stayed part of the british empire b/c it wanted to

the Navigation Acts - a series of acts that clamp down on trade to and from the colonies. they become more and more mercantile and repressive on the colonies

jan 20 2009
the colonial population exploded in the 18th C and was increasingly diverse and urbanized.

with the increase in pop came an increase in the demand for consumer goods and services. This was the start of the consumer market economy in America

this lead to a growing trade network w/i the colonies and also to europe. roads, bridges and canals are built to better move goods in-between the colonies

even the poorest of colonists are better off materially and nutritionally than poor europeans. there was also greater class mobility

Tea drinking became an important ritual to show off your wealth

Craftsmen/artisans - owners of small family run workshops that were the most important economic unit in America

Apprentices - young people sent to and artisan to learn a trade. they worked not for wages but for food, shelter and an education for 4-7 years

journeymen - graduated apprentices

there was a growing gap b/w the rich and poor. it became harder for journeymen to make enough money to set up their own shop.
wealthy colonists attempted to set themselves apart from normal colonists by what they bought and what they owned

the refinement of america - the desire to replicate english culture

George Washington was a very wealthy landowner who tried to emulate a british gentleman

courtesy book- small books instructing people how to be more refined

As a Gentleman Washington served in the army and also had local political responsibilities

most english elite didn’t accept wealthy americans as elite men and that lead to wealthy americans creating their own distinct elite culture.

American enlightenment theorists Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson played a very important role in the enlightenment in american and and the creation and constitution of america

Benjamin Franklin - many consider him to embody the enlightenment in America. he was a scientist and inventor. he was the american ambassador to france during the american revolution and was also a delegate to the constitution convention

Thomas Jefferson - He was the author of the declaration of independence. Jefferson was a Diest and president of the USA from 1801-1809

the evangelical movement

the great awakening - waves of religious revivals that swept across the colonies. they combated ideas of the enlightenment such as dieism

Jonathan Edwards - from Mass. he and his followers believed that americans had strayed to far from the teachings of Calvinism and that man was a sinner in the hands of an angry God

those who embraced and took part in the great awakening were called the New Lights

Baptists lead the evangelical movement in the south. They welcomed blacks into the church and believed that all men were created equal

George Whitefield - one of the greatest preachers in the evangelical movement. He was from England but travelled and preached in the US. some of his meetings had over 30,000 people there. He used charisma and emotion to get his message out
The enlightenment led to innovations in science, education and politics. Evangelicalism led to changes in tradition and had a large impact on the establishment of educational institutes in the US
Jan 22 2009
French and native allies have early successes in the 7 years war by using guerilla tactics

William Pitt sent more troops to north america, replaced the english commander and promised to pay colonists who served for the crown

britain wins an expensive victory in the 7 years war and the issue over who should pay for it is one of the central issues of the struggle for american independence

Albany congress 1754 - colonial leaders meet b/c they are concerned w/ the chance of a union b/w the french and Iroquois . the Albany plan of the union is a plan to unite the colonies for protection and defense. doesn’t happen as the leaders are to suspicious of each other

Writs of Assistance - allowed customs officials to crack down on smugglers. was done to lower trade b/w america and france. Americans were resentful of the writs b/c they felt it was their right to trade with whoever they wanted

Proclamation of 1763 - prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains. This was done to slow westward expansion so the Natives could be dealt with. Americans saw this as an attempt by the British to stop and hinder the settlers

Conflicts over taxation and representation

Sugar Act - a revenue raising measure to help pay for the 7 years war and the cost of defense of the colonies. A tax on sugar that colonists objected to, transfered smuggling cases from a local court to the British naval courts

Stamp act 1765 - required that colonists purchase specially stamped paper for any publication. Colonists wanted representation in the British parliament at the stamp act congress leaders of the 13 colonies came together to protest the stamp act. in march 1766 parliament revoked the stamp act

Declaratory Act - confirmed the right of the british parliament to pass any act on the colony

American objections to the quartering act unleashed a torrent of anti-American feelings amongst the British. feeling that they didn’t want to pay their way w/i the empire
Townshend Duties 1767 - duties on glass, tea and other luxury goods, further sours British/American relations

Colonists boycotted British goods to force the repeal of the townshend duties. in 1770 all the townshend duties but tea were repealed.

Boston was a center of unrest in America and the British sent 2000 troops to Boston to quell the unrest

the Boston Massacre of 1770 in which 5 Bostonians were killed by British troops. American propaganda took the killing out of proportion.

the tea act lowered the price of tea to encourage colonists to buy tea. Bostonians reply by throwing a shipload of tea into the harbor “Boston tea party”

the Coercive/Intolerable Acts - ordered the navy to close Boston harbor unless the Bostonians paid for the tea they had dumped into the harbor. Also allowed the governor of New England to seize any empty building to quarter troops

the Quebec act - gave freedom of religion to French Catholics and sweeping power to the governor of Canada
the publication of common sense turns americans from resistors to revolutionaries. Common sense sold over 100000 copies in 3 months as in 1 in every 4-5 males bought a copy. it said that the empire and the monarchy were corrupt

The Declaration of Independence - justification for the colonists actions to the world and themselves said it was the Kings intent to create an absolutist tyranny

the first continental congress 1774 - an attempt to set up a unified colonist government. issued a statement that they didn’t have to listen to the coercive acts. they would also set up defenses in case of an attack

Olive Branch Petition - an oath of loyalty to the king and a set of 3 demand (seise fire in Boston, repeal of coercive acts and a guarantee of civil rights

British didn’t listen to the olive branch petition as they got it and word of the first battles at the same time. Britain declared that the colonies were in rebellion
minutemen - citizen militia meant to fight the British

april 19 1775 - 700 redcoats went to seize the militia’s arms in Concord they fought a brief battle against 70 minutemen at Lexington. was the shot that rang out around the world

w/i days 20,000 patriots besieged the British at Boston. At the Battles of Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill the british dislodged the siege but at great cost

by late 1776 the continental army (american) was in full retreat. over half of the american troops were unfit for duty

Washington won the offensive battles of Trenton and Princeton

The Marquis de Lafayette joined Washington’s army. he promised that if the Americans could show that if they could win some battles then the French would help them. W/ the win at Saratoga, France recognizes American independence and send troops

20% of the Americans were loyalist and were threatened w/ the confiscation of their property

The British army turned loyalist and neutral against them when they looted their property

Americans fought a war of attrition. they fought long enough that the British thought it no longer worth it to fight and that is how they won.

october 19 1781 - british commander surrendered and Yorktown as the British people demanded for peace

Jan 27 2009
colonies kept some colonial structures like self-government and property requirements

new elements were inspired by the state constitutions and included ratification by the people. the idea that a constitution must be clearly defined and written down

there were two fundamental principles of the articles of confederation - only stakeholders (property owners) could govern and vote - and the founders were republicans (believed in the rule of the wise) not democrats (mob rule) they didn’t want any one group to become powerful enough to seize control
Articles of Confederation - passed by continental congress in 1777. it maintained sovereignty of the states. formed a unicameral legislature in which each state had one vote. there was no executive or judiciary branch.

the articles gave the government very little power. it lacked the ability to tax the people or regulate interstate or international trade w/o the consent of the states.

b/c it was weak the gov couldn’t handle the challenges set on it. b/c of war debts and devalued money they tried to impose taxes and import duties but the states refused to allow this

Britain imposed strict trade regulations and this lead too an economic depression in the USA.

the gov was able to impose the Northwest ordinance which provided for the division and admission of new territories as a federal jurisdiction

Mass. imposed a new tax to pay off war debts. this started the Shays rebellion in 1786. US leaders thought this would encourage other rebellions and finally and mobocracy and called for a solution

Philadelphia , may 1787, 55 delegates meet to write a constitution all 55 shared a vision for a stronger central national government

Virginia Plan - a bicameral legislature with rep by pop in both houses. small states opposed this

New Jersey Plan - a unicameral legislature with one vote per state. larger states opposed this plan

The result was a compromise b/w the two plans. a bicameral legislature with the upper house having two votes per state and the lower house having rep by pop

delegates gave these two houses power to impose direct taxation, regulate trade and commerce. they also set up a clear set of checks and balances b/w the three created branches

Slavery - 3/5 clause - 3/5 of slave pop were treated as property and could be taxed and 3/5 could be counted towards state pop

congress was given control of the territories

the constitution was submitted to state delegations in each state for ratifications.

Pro-constitutionalists called themselves federalists and published many articles in favour of ratification

Anti-federalists held deep suspicions of centralized power. they thought to few people could have to much power. their reservations lead to the first 10 amendments - Bill of rights

on June 21 1788 the 9th state signed on and the constitution became law but most votes were very narrow margins. Rhode island last state to sign in 1790

framers of the constitution made the workings of the government very difficult so it could seize to much power. they also made it very difficult to change the constitution and thus far there have been only 26 amendments

the constitution created the office of the President (but not the name that was Washington) it mostly outlined how to get rid of a president

as first president Washington calmed many public fears of tyranny by limiting his role. he mostly just followed the advice of congress. he was very afraid of dying in office and thus only ran for two terms

again the constitution gives only vague outlines of the judiciary branch

congress established the federal courts in each state and the final authority of the supreme court in 1789

the supreme court established itself as the interpreter of the constitution. in 1803 in Marbury vs Madison the court for the first time overturned an act of congress as unconstitutional
there was no egalitarian movement after the revolution, wealth and class status didn’t disappear

slaves were 20% of the pop but very very few were free and even those that were had no guarantee of civil liberties

most people saw slavery as a necessary evil

native american also were excluded from citizen ship

women participated in political discussions but were not given a role in the government. the role of women was to raise good sons.

in 1791 a tax was placed on Whiskey. grain farmers protested violently in 1794. Washington marched with the militia and the rebels dispersed. this action set the limits of public protest against federal policies

the american revolution wasn’t a social or economical revolution
Jan 29 2009
Alexander Hamilton - Washington’s Sec Tres. his vision was

strengthen the nation against foreign enemies and lessen internal threats of disunion

development of America’s industrial strength

he argued that w/o self-sufficiency America would not survive

he issued the Report on the Public Credit in 1790

proposed that the national gov take over state debts

pay off foreign debt by selling western land

maintain other debt so that creditors would remain loyal to the nation

founded the national bank

report on manufactures - wanted to place high tariffs on imports to stimulate domestic production. Congress rejected this

Jefferson was against Hamilton’s broad interpretation of the constitution and was a member of the democratic-republicans

he favored a nation of small independent landholders (yeomen) as the future of America. he believed that the national debt should be eliminated

the democratic republicans would go on to form a political party and this would be the start of the party system in America
1794 there is clearly a party system in America. Republicans vs. Federalists and the electorate was equally divided b/w the two. John Adams won the presidency by only 3 electoral votes

in 1800 Jefferson is president it was called the revolution of 1800 for two reasons

it was the first ever peaceful transition of power w/o death

reversal of federalist policies was widely predicted but never really happened

Jefferson reduced; taxes, the national debt and the size of the army. to him the economy was more important that national defense

his most significant act was the Louisiana purchase in 1803. it doubled the size of America for only 15 million dollars. Only wanted to buy the city of New Orleans and Florida but Napoleon needed money more than land .

the Louis and Clark expedition was sent west to chart and explore the purchase. they were they first men to travel to the pacific ocean and also the first to discover that there were some mountains in the was of it.

Americans on the International Stage

Republicans were pro-French and Federalists were pro-British. In 1793 america chose neutrality when Britain and france were at war

Britain seized american vessels to press British subjects into working for the navy but sometimes they took american citizens as well.

Jay’s treaty of 1795 promised the with drawl of British troops from american soil but the americans had to promise the british trade concessions in the Caribbean

the french seized and plundered 300 american ships when john adams won the election.

Adams sent a peace delegation but the french foreign minister refused to meet with them and would only set up a meeting b/w them and three unnamed people and only if the US payed 12 million dollars. this came to be known as the XYZ affair.

this started a quasi-war b/w the french and American as the US armed ships captured 90 french privateers in the Caribbean. During this time the Americans relied on british protection of shipping and increased the size of its standing army

Alien and Sedition acts - said that the President could evict any foreigner even w/o proof. citizenship required 14 years of residence instead of 5. Sedition against the government was illegal

Jefferson, Madison and Foreign Affairs

Orders in council - British act that intended to blockade ports of europe and restrict american trade w/ france. France copied the orders

Both France and Britain seized american ships after they chose neutrality. but it was the british seizers that were the most galling as they did it in sight of the American coast. they also restarted the the impressing of Americans into the British navy.

the embargo act - prohibited vessels from leaving American ports headed for european ports. americans did this to avoid conflict. The embargo acts hurt the americans the most.

The Nation Jefferson left to Madison was in Bad shape

the non-tolerance act allowed american ships to trade with everyone but Britain and France

War of 1812

War Hawkes - believed britain was ruining america and wanted war

Madison sent a War message to Congress on June, 1 1812

American war aims were to end British land claims and imperial aggressions

the treaty of Ghent declared the status quo ante bellum

the battle of New Orleans - jan 8 1815 Andrew Jackson and American troops defeat the british with only 13 casualties

the war of 1812 established the americans sense of national identity

the time after the war of 1812 came to be known as the era of Good feeling

during this time symbols of american nationalism emerged - The White House and the Star spangled Banner

political parties for a short time disappeared John Quincy Adams is Monroe’s Sec state

Monroe Doctrine

the USA would avoid involvement in european wars

no more european colonization of the Americas

any attempt at colonization would be construed as an unfriendly act
Feb 3 2009
Andrew Jackson - self made man after he was orphaned at 14. 1787 moved to Nashville and grew rich land speculating. 1796 became first state representative from tennessee

1816 becomes national hero for leading american troops in the battle of new orleans

for jackson the personal was political and the political personal

jackson placed a high value on honor and wasn’t afraid to use violence to defend it. He killed Charles Dickinson in a duel over his honor in 1806

Jackson looses the 1824 election to John Quincy Adams even though he won the majority of the popular vote, he didn’t win enough electoral votes

1828 jackson elected president. His inauguration was a chaotic event as crowds surged into the white house to see him. He was the no president.

His political program called for the elimination of the national bank and tariffs. he didn’t want federal financing for internal infrastructure projects. he discouraged political discussions on slavery and was pro-immigration and expansion

Jackson shifted america towards a greater democracy by gradual removal of property requirements to vote, the intro of written ballots and the reduction of appointed offices

the general pop became far more politicized during this time. the start of political rallies
Europeans were struck by the sense of equality among the people and the lack of deference to a social hierarchy. Upper and lower classes dress the same.

social life was democratized and this lead to legal and medicine professionals being de-regulated, art and literature were also democratized.

Newspapers and magazines become more popular and widespread and people are more influenced by them.

believed that all people could understand truth and beauty and thus art often romanticized the frontier and was aimed more at the common public.

Authors like Hawthorn, E. A. Poe, Melville and James cooper help create an distinctly american style of writing.
Jackson’s chief political rival was Henry Clay and he was the exact of Jackson in his policies. great statesman and known as the great compromiser. he founds the Whig political party
Nullification crisis - Jacksons belief in a strong national gov conflicted with states rights

jackson was opposed by his own VP over the crisis

1828 congress passes tariffs which hurt the southern cotton ind. they protest the tariff and Jackson although opposing the tariffs believes that the gov has the right to impose any law or tariff it wants on the state.. he sees the anger and protests as an affront to his honor

1832 - S.C. nullifies the tariff. Jackson really mad at this but congress intervenes and makes a compromise

the tension and distrust coming out of this crisis are pointed to as one of the founding reasons for the civil war
Bank Crisis - Jackson thought the national bank made the rich, richer at the expense of the poor. he removed money from the national bank into banks owned by those loyal to him and then revoked the banks charter
Indian Act - 1830 - forced all natives east of the Miss. river to move to land on the west side of the river. was declared illegal by the supreme court but not enforced and thus natives were forced to leave. trail of tears - the forced march of natives from Ga. to modern day Ok. about 1/4 died on the way
1834 the return of the party system b/w Whigs and democrats

Martn Van Buren - Jacksons VP and successor as president. an advocate of the 2 party system as he viewed politics as a competition.

He lost the 1840 election in which 80% of eligible voters voted in. this election hardened the lines b/w the parties and people began to identify themselves politically by the party they supported.

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