Directions: Read each text and answer the questions below.
Would You Like a Liger?
Biologists have found that about 10 percent of animal species may sometimes breed with other species. This means that two animals of different species can produce offspring. Scientists have discovered more of these animals in the last 25 years. One example of a hybrid animal is the mule, which is a cross between a donkey and a horse.
It is more difficult for hybrid species to survive in the wild, however. Occasionally, species that are too different genetically might mate in nature. Many babies that come from the different species are unable to reproduce. This means that the hybrid species cannot grow in number. Zorses, which are a hybrid of a horse and a zebra, and mules, are two examples of species that cannot reproduce. Another problem that hybrid species have is that they face competition from the members of their parent species.
There are also positive things about producing hybrid species in the wild. Hybrids may develop adaptations to conditions that neither of their parents was able to live in. This could happen because of new gene combinations being produced in hybrids. Scientists have studied the adaptation of hybrid species using sunflower and honeysuckle plants.
Two common species of sunflower are the common sunflower and the prairie sunflower, and both species only grow in moist soil. Their hybrids can grow in desert climates and salt marshes, however. When parent sunflowers were planted in the desert, they failed to survive. Results of the studies done with plants are comparable to similar things that have happened in animals. The studies of animal and plant hybrids could help us discover how humans have adapted.
1. Which statement supports the idea that animal hybridization is unsuccessful?
Many babies that come from the breeding of different species are unable to reproduce.
The studies of animal and plant hybrids could lead to discoveries about how humans have adapted.
One example of a hybrid animal is the mule, which is a cross between a donkey and a horse.
Scientists have studied the adaptation of hybrid species using sunflower and honeysuckle plants.
2. Read this sentence from the passage.
When parent sunflowers were planted in the desert, they failed to survive.
Hybrid species will be wiped out by lack of adaptation in several years.
Parent species may be less able to adapt than their hybrid offspring.
Hybrids are born without the ability to adapt to the parents' conditions.
Parent species will be unable to adapt after their offspring are born.
3. What does the statement "Results of the studies done with plants are comparable to similar things that have happened in animals" mean?
Humans are unable to produce hybrid offspring like animals.
Animals and plants are able to adapt but humans are not.
Plant hybrids are more able to adapt than animal hybrids.
Animal hybrids and plant hybrids are both able to adapt.
Passage 2 On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 became the first manned mission to land on the Moon. The mission involved astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Armstrong’s first steps on the Moon were accompanied by his historic words: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
The landing fulfilled the goal set by President John F. Kennedy eight years earlier. He wanted the United States to make it to the Moon within the decade. He believed this to be an important accomplishment in the space race against the U.S.S.R. Kennedy said, "We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."
On the Moon, Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin experimented with various methods of movement in the diminished gravity. Long leaping steps seemed to work best for moving about. They explored the surface for about two hours, collected 47 pounds of lunar samples, and planted the American flag on the Moon’s surface. The crew safely returned to earth a little over eight days after leaving.
4. Which of these best summarizes the passage?
Apollo 11, with astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins, landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969, fulfilling the goal set by President Kennedy. After taking samples and placing a flag on the Moon, the mission returned to Earth.
The astronauts of Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins, explored the surface of the Moon, experimented with movement, planted a flag on the Moon's surface, and returned to Earth.
When Apollo 11 landed on the Moon, Neil Armstrong said the famous words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." The mission, which also involved astronauts Aldrin and Collins, was the first to successfully land on the Moon.
The Moon landing by Apollo 11, and astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins, fulfilled the goal set by President John F. Kennedy to reach the Moon in the decade. Kennedy wanted to stay on top in the space race against the U.S.S.R.