Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme (2002-2006)
Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services)
Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services)
Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)
Due date of deliverable:
Actual submission date:
Start date of project: 1.12.2008 Duration: 36 months
WP02 Professor Tom Sorell
Author(s): Dr. John Guelke UoB
Detection Technology Survey no. 6
This is the sixth of 10 surveys and as such is a work in progress and should not be treated in any way as a ‘final analysis’. The taxonomy of risks and harms employed here is evolving and will not necessarily be the same used for subsequent surveys. Any comments, suggestions, errata or requests for more information should be sent to the author, John Guelke, at email@example.com.
The PRISE project categorises privacy dangers arising from applications of security technology. It conceives basic technologies (e.g. sensor, communications technology) and identifies specific vulnerabilities each suffers from. Thus more complex applications which involve a variety of the above inherit the problems of all: e.g. Machine Readable Travel Documents involve communications technology, sensors, data storage and biometrics.
However, the categorisation departs from those used by industry quite substantially – there is no systematic presentation of the risks posed by the categories of DT as understood by industry. My categorisation of the technologies is written so as to be as continuous with, and user friendly to, industry as is practical.
Note on the Table of Moral Risks
The table introduced in this survey is designed to visualise some of the analysis of the relative risks of detection technology from DETECTER Deliverable D05.2. Each table compares the moral risks incurred by CCTV in public places, full body scanners, substance detectors, covert cameras, bugging, phone monitoring, location tracking, internet monitoring and databases and datamining. There are four tables in total. Three dealing with the three key moral risks identified in D05.2 – intrusion, error and chill – and one final table summarising this information. Necessarily the analysis presented in the tables is simplified but in all cases more detailed argumentation backing up the conclusions reached can be found in paper D05.2.
The table highlights the severity of moral risks taken on the basis of a colour code: green to indicate the least risk, yellow to indicate an intermediate risk, and red to indicate the greatest risk.
In the table on intrusiveness I identify four sources of intrusion: invasions that penetrate the privacy of the home and what I call after deliverable D05.2 ‘home spaces’;1 Invasions that penetrate the zone covering the body;2 invasions into private life;3 and accessibility of information acquired by further agents.
In the table on error I examine four issues affecting each technology’s risk of producing mistakes. First, whether the information acquired is itself prone to false positives/ambiguity. Second, whether sanction against the individual is possible on the basis of errors generated. Third, whether errors can result from the storage of information. Fourth, whether errors can result from a lack of training. In the case of each of these four issues I further consider whether these sources of error raise problems of a particularly significant species of error: discrimination.
The European Parliament ratifies SWIFT agreement allowing US access to EU member states’ citizens’ banking data.4
The European Parliament proposes clear framework on the concept of ‘the internet of things’ – the proposal to increase the capacity to monitor the location of everyday items through the use of RFID technology. The statement calls for a strengthening of public trust by clarifying privacy and health implications; a clear legal framework for the regulation of use and possible changes to the European Data Protection Directive. The statement also notes with approval the European Data Protection Supervisors calls for increased privacy by design.5 Subsequently a privacy impact assessment on RFID is jointly produced by the Federal Office for Information Security and the Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility Germany.6
The Council of Europe issues draft recommendation on profiling, noting human rights dangers arising from lack of transparency, error susceptibility and the discriminatory nature of the technique. It recommendations insist upon the respect for fundamental rights and freedoms, including under this heading the right to privacy and the principle of non-discrimination, and that procedures must be designed from the beginning in accordance with privacy and data protection law, possibly through the use of privacy enhancing technologies.7
The Article 29 Working Group on Privacy issues its opinion on cookies for behavioural advertising in the E-Privacy directive. The opinion states that such practices should not take place at the expense of the right to privacy and data protection and declares the placing of cookies or gathering of information on the user as only permissible with informed consent, often inadequate with current available browsers.8
Google Street View admits to inappropriately acquiring WiFi data. They are strongly criticized in a number of countries and quickly told they must destroy this data.9 Privacy International threatens to file criminal proceedings,10 and the UK police begin an investigation.11
The European Data Protection Supervisor calls on the European Commission for a wide ranging update to the Data Protection Directive. The main recommendations he calls for are the integration of privacy by design and privacy by default in information and communication technology; increased accountability for those granted power over data and stronger enforcement powers for data protection authorities.12
The European Commission issues a green paper on body scanners. Examining both health and privacy threats, amongst its conclusions is a recommendation that “there ought to be alternatives to Security Scanners based on ionizing radiation technology where specific health related risks apply” (e.g. pregnant women, children and the disabled).13
The Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, the Directorate for Personal Data Protection, various NGOs, the opposition and the public prosecutor all come against proposals to allow the Ministry of the Interior direct access to communication networks, citing incompatibility with the constitutional right to privacy.14
Two large Internet Service Providers, TalkTalk and BT, force a judicial review of the Digital Economy Bill objecting that the law could “infringe basic rights and freedoms”. The act applies to ISPs with more than 400,000 customers, prompting fears of mass migration to smaller ISPs to escape the Bill’s provisions.15
Privacy International and the Law society collaborate on a project to aid individuals who want to resist “oppressive surveillance technologies”.16
A programme of smart cameras targeting the largely Muslim area of Sparkbrook in Birmingham is revealed and found to be funded with money reserved for counterterrorism measures.17
The new Home Secretary Theresa May insists that the use of Automatic Number Plate Recognition systems must be regulated.18
The new coalition government launches website for public consultation on reforming unnecessary laws – with a particular emphasis on those concerned with civil liberties and surveillance.19
Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi proposes a law restricting the use of wire tapping.21 There is wide criticism that the motivation is a political attempt to resist the repeated exposure of corrupt practices in his government and the proposals are subsequently attenuated.22
More IP cameras and more facilities for analytic searching of footage (including as an upgrade option to more basic CCTV functionality).
Improved technology for tracking the locations of mobile phones.
More spyware marketed to businesses and parents.
NDI Recognition System’s ST200 – Portable Automatic Number Plate Recognition system. http://ndi-rs.com/ukrs/st200
Samsung Techwin SCP – Fixed dome Internet Protocol cameras with video analytics. http://www.samsungtechwin.com/prd/pro_view.asp?pro_uid=5502&cat_uid=129&cat_biz=CTV&cat_lev=AG
Sanyo HD CCTV Cameras http://www.fullhdcctv.com/ and http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Analogue_and_HD_Cameras/Full_HD_Cameras_Draw_IFSEC_Visitors_to_Sanyo_Stand.asp
iOmiscient Smart Cameras http://iomniscient.com/index.html and http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Video_Analytics_and_ANPR/Crowded_Scene_Analysis_Brings_BAE_Award_To_iOmniscient.asp
Vivotek’s IP7361 – Internet Protocol Bullet Camera http://norbain.co.uk/go.php?structureID=S3EC0C6423876F&ref=G4C04CB7326550
Samsung/Techwin SCB-3001 – Analogue day and night camera with built in video analytics23http://www.sourcesecurity.com/docs/fullspec/SCB-3001ENG%20Catalog.pdf
Vista VBC 300 – Day and night bullet cameras http://www.vista-cctv.com/go.php?structureID=S45C8A2209666D&ref=I4C07631ADF13A
Human Recognition System’s Mguardian – Video analytic management system (including facial recognition) http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=27
Vi-System Event Dispatcher – Sends real time notifications of particular events identified by video analytic systems http://www.agentvi.com/61-Products-62-Vi_System
Smart-tec STC-3002 – Day and night CCTV camera http://smartec-security.eu/en/new/2010/stc-3002.htm
Bosch Autodome Easy – Internet Protocol dome camera. Can be adapted to have point, tilt and zoom, day and night or motion tracking functionality. http://www.autodome.com/
Nanjing Yuan Tuo’s HRC-168-IIATM – Digital Video Recorder designed for use of footage of bank atm machines. Enables search by, for example, card no. Date or time. Also certain algorithms can be set to trigger alarms. http://yuantuo.en.alibaba.com/product/298405830-209836346/ATM_DVR.html
Nextiva S5000 – Internet Protocol dome camera http://verint.com/video_solutions/section2b.cfm?article_level2_category_id=7&article_level2a_id=359&article_level2b_id=759
Iscon 1000D – Full body scanner based on infrared screening to detect objects of a different temperature. Image does not show the body underneath clothing but does highlight foreign objects. Stores images and makes use of facial recognition technology. http://www.isconimaging.com/iscon1000d.html
Iscon GamechangeIR – Handheld scanner based on infrared scanning. http://www.isconimaging.com/gamechanger.html
Thruvision TS4 – Passive body scanner revealing minimal body detail. Detects weapons, drugs and other contraband. http://www.thruvision.com/Our_Products/TS4_Sub_Pages/TS4%20Info%20Page.htm
Authenware 2.0 – Identifies individuals through the development of a user specific ‘signature’ based on the way a person types, for example, username and password information. http://www.authenware.com/whatis.php
Spector 360 – Internet monitoring software package aimed at employers. Records email/webmail, online searches, file transfers, chat/instant messages, key strokes, document, websites visited and programme use. http://www.spector360.com/
PC Pandora 6.0 – Internet monitoring software package aimed primarily at parents. Records email, instant message and keystrokes and allows live remote monitoring. http://www.pcpandora.com/
Trueposition LMU-Universal - Software-defined receiver, installed at wireless cell towers and used to locate people who dial emergency numbers from their mobile phone. http://www.trueposition.com/web/guest/press-releases?p_p_id=62_INSTANCE_lSc3&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=maximized&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-2&p_p_col_count=1&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_struts_action=%2Fjournal_articles%2Fview&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_groupId=10124&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_articleId=28038&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_version=1.0
Ascom Wireless Solutions telePROTECT – Designed for use by warders in prisons: location based duress alarm system. http://www.ascom.co.uk/uk-en/index-uk/news/ascom_provides_high_security_prison_with_teleprotect_duress_system/news-country.htm
Connexion 2’s Lone Worker Device – covert bug to designed to be worn by social workers going in to potentially hostile situations. When activated works as a bug. Also available as software to be loaded onto a blackberry smart phone. http://www.connexion2.com/content/88/index.html and
Previously Surveyed Products
Secura Systems Mobile Video Unit - Stand-alone container equipped with pneumatic telescopic pole of 6 meters, 230V power connector with inverter, backup power supply with a 1000 Ah battery and cameras and recording equipment. Optional intra red illuminators. Can be equipped with GPRS / UMTS / HSDPA and/ or Wavesight Wireless Transmission products. http://www.securasystems.de/index_en.php?content=mobile&item=p04
OnSSI’s NetDVMS – multi site, multi server, network video recorder and camera management system, with integrated video analytics. http://www.onssi.com/component/option,com_product/Itemid,30/attributes,2/option_id,2/task,attributes/id,1/detail,description/
Redvision RV Dome Camera – Built in infra red illumination http://www.norbain.co.uk/news/ref:N4B1E3AA8A0276/
Pentax Atmospheric Interference Reduction Technology – Enables surveillance cameras to continue working effectively in adverse weather conditions. http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Optics_and_components/Surveillance_lens_overcomes_weather_interference.asp
Samsung SID-70 – Day and night dome camera. http://www.samsungtechwin.com/product/pro_view_eng.asp?pro_uid=4753&cat_uid=16&cat_biz=CTV&cat_lev=AC
IndigoVision PTZ 11000 – IP HD dome camera. http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Fixed_and_PTZ_dome_cameras/Low_bandwidth_High_Definition_IP_dome_camera.asp
Napco IVR250 – Internet based video recorder. Access to footage via password protected website (actively marketed at security dealers who can maintain control and cut off access in the event of non-payment). http://www.napcosecurity.com/images/web%20pdf/A594_Napco%20iSee-IVT-250.pdf
Samsung iPOLIS Dome Camera Range – Features MPEG-4 and JPEG codecs to enable multiple streaming. http://www.sovereigncctv.co.uk/cat--Samsung-Techwin-IP-Monitoring-home--7.8.9.html
FLIR SR 304 – Long range infra red camera. Can identify human at 2 km. http://www.flir.com/uploadedfiles/Eurasia/MMC/Comm_sec/SS_0020_EN.pdf
Mel Secure Systems Talkback System – Enable user of a CCTV system to communicate via a loudspeaker with the subject. http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Alarms/Alarm_signalling_transmission_and_notification/Talkback_system_enables_warnings_to_be_broadcast.asp
Smartvue Network Video Surveillance Systems: An integrated network video system with wireless and wired cameras, network video recorders, and remote access. http://www.kanecomputing.co.uk/smartvue.htm
Genetec – Security Center Unified Security platform: Integrates IP camera network, IP access control and licence plate recognition. http://www.genetec.com/English/Products/Pages/security-center-unified-security-platform.aspx
TSS DVR: Mobile CCTV (mounted on police vehicles) - http://www.tssltd.co.uk/mobile-cctv.html
Agent Vi Analytics: Allows search of CCTV video “by event (e.g. crossing a line, movement) or target parameters, including type (people, vehicle, object), size and color” and performs real time ‘analysis’ which identifies and generates alerts for a variety of user-defined events “relating to people, vehicles and objects” – http://www.agentvi.com/category.aspx?catid=2
Ioimage Ioicam Sc1dn: Integrated system combining IP CCTV cameras (with night vision) with onboard video analytics (for example can Intrusion Detection, Tripwire Crossover, Fence Trespassing and Camera Tampering. The unit can also be easily configured to detect unattended baggage, object removal, loitering and stopped vehicles. ) – http://www.ioimage.com/?p=ProductDetails&ClusterID=1599&ParentID=624&FatherID=775
Smart Witness Journey Recorder: Camera and GPS device for evidence gathering on a vehicle – http://www.smartwitness.com/product/3/vehicle_journey_recorder_with_cctv_camera_and_gps_logging