According to EMIS data 2012, Bor County of Jonglei State had 34,815 pupils in primary school alone. Following the onset of the conflict between government and opposition on 15 December 2013, approximately 41,048 children from pre-primary, primary, AES and special needs from Bor County were affected and displaced into Lakes State causing damage and occupation of a school since December 2013. This number excludes secondary students who are yet to be assessed. These IDP students spread to a number of counties in Lakes State including Awerial, Yirol East, Yirol West and Rumbek Centre, but the education authorities from Bor estimated that 80% of them are in Mingkaman payam in Awerial County. The South Sudan academic calendar begins in the first week of February up to second week of December with short breaks in between.
In the light of this, the Education Cluster in Lakes State conducted a cluster meeting on 10th January 2014 and decided that the Cluster conducted an assessment first in Awerial and secondly in Yirol West and Yirol East counties. Hence an inter-agency assessment team comprising UNICEF, Save the Children, Plan South Sudan, SMoE Lakes and RRC conducted two days assessment starting from 15th. – 16th.January 2014.The assessment covered 3 out of 6 payams namely Mingkaman, Bunagok, and Puluk . Local authorities from these payams and education authorities from the displaced people were met and they provided the information in this report. The estimated total number of school children affected in these payams is 41,048 including 16,890 girls.
The influx of over 84,000 IDPs into Awerial has resulted into trauma, occupation of schools, missing and destroyed learning materials, destruction of school office equipment, misuse of school latrines, and break down of school water point. As schools are due to open next month, the educational intervention before schools reopen has become a priority to provide temporary learning spaces, advocacy for evacuation of schools, provision of school supplies, provision of life skills training, psychosocial support for the teachers, and teacher training. Cluster partners are expected to provide these essential educational services such as life skills training and psychosocial support for teachers to enable affected children continue their learnings when schools re-open next month.
The type of emergency in Awerial County is man-made. It is caused by conflict between government and opposition which started on 15 December 2013 in Juba and spread to Bor where these IDPs have come from. As a result lives have been lost, food crops have been left behind or destroyed, houses burnt and approximately 84,000 people displaced. The displacement made IDPs leave everything behind and stretched available food items and services within vulnerable host communities.
Humanitarian community made assessment in January 2014. Most clusters have started to respond to that assessment, but the Education Cluster could not respond immediately because all schools in South Sudan are still on holidays. However, the Cluster conducted its cluster meeting on 10 January 2014 and decided to conduct an assessment between 15 and 16 January 2014. With this report the Education Cluster scheduled its cluster meeting on 21st January 2014 in order to prepare a joint response plan to deliver education services before schools re-open in the first week of February 2014.
These two Tables below show the enrolment of students and the number of teachers in Bor County in 2013 before the crises erupted.
Table No.1: Enrolment figures in Bor before the crises
Children with special needs
Table No.2: Number of teachers in Bor County as of December 2013
Children with special needs
Table No.3 below shows schools affected by displacement in the host community in Awerial County
1 concrete block with 4 class rooms,2 other classes under trees.
Windows made of wire mess but no doors.
1 latrine block with 2 doors.
No water source within school premises.
Dwany Gok Primary School
4 temporary class rooms, 2 other class rooms under the tree.
No doors, no windows.
1 latrine block with 6 doors collapsing.
There is one bore hole 30 metres away.
Out of 106 desks, only 68 are available and 37 used as firewood.
Panyang Primary School
5 classes under trees.
No pit latrine
No water point
Methodology__Team_Composition'>Team Composition, Objectives and Methodology
A joint inter-agency rapid assessment team composed of 5 people from UNICEF, Save the Children, Plan South Sudan, SMoE and RRC conducted the assessment on 15th and 16th January 2014 in Mingkaman Awerial County in Lakes State. The assessment team was accompanied by local education authorities conducting interviews with the local education authorities, head teachers, RRC, host community and IDPs. The full list of the team members is provided in Annex 1.
The Assessment was intended to assess the impact of the conflict on the education system and infrastructure in Awerial County and ascertain the number of pupils affected from both IDP and host community school children and their needs so that humanitarian actors in the education sector could be in position to make a response plan and provide response.
The team adopted multiple approaches in the assessment. The main tool used was the South
Sudan Initial Education Inter cluster Rapid Assessment Tool in Annex 3. However there were interviews and observation. Local authorities from both host community and IDP population such as the Education authorities and, payam education supervisors, planning and budgeting officer were interviewed. The list of key informants with their tittles and contacts numbers is provided in Annex 2.
The team adopted various methods in conducting the assessment and they include the following:
IDPs inhabited many locations in the county some of which are very far from each other. The team therefore selected those locations which are highly occupied by IDPS namely Mingkaman, Kalthok, YolAkot, Bunagok , Dwanygok Panyang and due to time constraint, the team visited only five locations out of six.
The assessment team conducted meetings with local authorities RRC of Lakes, officials of SMoE Jonglei currently displaced in Awerials i.e. County Planning and Budgeting Officer Payam Inspectors, payam education supervisor, head teacher and host community and pupils.
The team conducted interview with Planning and Budgeting Officer, Mr.John Majer of Jonglei SMoEST who is currently displaced in Awerial.
According to the respondents from the education authorities amongst IDPs and education personnel within the host community there are approximately 41,048 school children whose learning has been affected by the conflict in Bor. Most of the IDPs moved from Bor to Awerial, Yirol East and Yirol West counties in Lakes State, but majority of them are in Awerial County where they concentrated in Mingkaman Boma. According to the education authorities, 80% of these school children are in Mingkaman. However, education authorities were unable to provide data for secondary school children and university students. All seven primary schools in Awerial County are not functioning because they are on long break. Five schools were visited; two are permanent, and one with temporary structure and two are under trees. School learning materials and office equipment in Mingkaman primary school were vandalized and occupied by IDPs. It is being occupied by IDPs and NGOs which are using classrooms as stores for their supplies and as a clinic.
Teaching and Learning
Schools in Awerial County are not working simply because they are on long holidays. Teaching and learning is expected to resume in the first week of February for the whole country as per the new school calendar. The main language of instruction in the County is English. Therefore distribution of school materials can only be done when schools reopen, however there is need to pre-position them to the county level before February. As stated earlier all schools were closed down in the County not because of the emergency, but the long school holidays. Affected children and parents stated that most of their learning materials such as books, pen and pencil were destroyed during the incident in Bor. Displaced parents and children expressed their willingness despite shocks and difficulties to start schooling in February 2014 of new academic year.
Table No.2 above shows there were 536 teachers in Bor County prior to the displacement to Awerial. According to the education authorities within the IDPs, 60% of these teachers are estimated to be in Mingkaman and 40% in other camps such as Yirol. The host community in Mingkaman payam has 7 schools with 40 teachers only. These schools have PTAs but they are not trained and so they need training. The local educational authorities are functioning in Awerial County, but they are located in Bunagok payam which is 10 kilometers from Mingkaman. Given the scale of the IDP students there is need to liaise with the government so that IDP teachers can be engaged in teaching since they are in the government payroll.
During the assessment, the team found that the number of girls enrolled to school and female teachers are very low. There is a critical need for advocacy to increase girls’ enrolment and recruitment of female teachers. The official school calendar begins in the first week of February, yet head teachers were not sure of the opening day of the school. Advocacy with local authority for school enrolment and school calendar will be vital. School children are expected to be enrolled into existing schools by adding more temporary classes to prevent from overcrowding. In areas where there are no schools, an emergency learning space can be set up. Influx of IDPs into existing schooling might create tension amongst host communities and IDPs. There is need for the government to encourage both communities to accept IDP learners without discrimination. Government should ensure that all schools occupied by IDPs be vacated before 1st February without violating the rights of IDPs by close collaboration and coordination with RRC, SMoEST, Protection Cluster, Shelter Cluster, CCCM Cluster and Education Cluster.