Reading passages

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The official language of the Czech Republic is Czech, a highly complex western Slavic tongue. Any attempt from foreigners to speak Czech will be heartily appreciated, so do not be discouraged if people fail to understand you, as most will be accustomed to hearing foreigners stumble through their language. If you don't know any Czech, brush up on your German, since, among the older generation at least, it is still the most widely spoken second language. Russian, once the compulsory second language has been practicaily wiped off the school curriculum, and the number of English speakers has been steadily increasing, especially among the younger generation.
1-It is clear from the passage that....
A) more Czechs speak German than any other foreign language
B) as their own language is so difficult, Czechs prefer German
C) everyone in the Czech Republic speaks several languages
D) Czechs usually laugh at foreigners who try to speak Czech
E) Czechs learn English during childhood and German later
2-The author informs us that----
A) it is now illegal for Czechs to speak Russian
B) Czechs do not want to speak German as it reminds them of the German occupation
C) most Czech schools offer courses in the Russian language
D) the influence of Russia is still felt in certain areas of the Czech Republic
E) Czechs were once required to study Russian at school
3-This passage would most likely appear in ----
A) a grammar book of the Czech language
B) a history book of the Czech Republic Ca book about English language teaching
D) a travel guide for the Czech Republic
E) an article on the social history of the Czech people
The religion of the Jewish people, Judaism, is based largely on the teachings of Moses and other leaders as recounted in the Old Testament of the Bible. It is significant for being the oldest monotheistic religion-belief in one Supreme Being, which is given various names by the jews themselves, including Yahweh, Jehovah and God. The two other important sacred books are the Talmud and the Torah, which contain the many laws and observances orthodox Jews are supposed to keep. The principal festival is the Feast of Passover: the principal place of worship is the synagogue and the priests are called Rabbis. Judaism is also noted for being the religion from which Christianity and Islam developed. There are about 14 million followers, about 3 million in Israel itself, and the remainder distributed throughout the world.
4-The passage suggests that Judaism is an important religion because......
A) it has three gods, all of whom are extremely powerful
B) it has many laws that the orthodox must follow
C) Moses was brought up under Jewish tradition
D) it was the first religion to believe in a single god
E) it has the largest number of followers among the major religions
5-It can be understood from the passage that -----
A) Yahwah and Jehovah are the names of Jewish holy writings orthodox
B) synagogues are rarely used these days, except by the
C) the constitution of Israel is based largely on the Torah
D) the job of the Rabbi is to enforce the law of the Talmud
E) the Jewish religion has at least three important sacred books
6-According to the passage........
A) a large majority of the world's Jews live in Israel
B) Christianity and Islam have historical ties with Judaism
C) Judaism is the most common religion in the world
D) there is quite a strong Christian influence on Judaism
E) the Jewish religion is influenced by the teachings of both Islam and Christianity
Laws are the collection of rules by which any state maintains order within a society. In Great Britain, the law-making process is conducted by Parliament. Proposed new laws are presented as Bills and if, after debate, they are accepted by a majority vote in the House of Commons, they duly become law. In Great Britain, as in most countries, there are several distinct types of laws. Constitutional law is concerned with the processes of the government itself Company law deals with the operation of many of the nation's commercial and financial activities. These are branches of State law, that is, laws made by acts of Parliament. Common law, by contrast, is based on past decisions taken by the courts on various issues.
7-The aim of laws, as described in the passage, is-------- .
A) to punish people who insist on violating them
B) to secure the people's control of the government
C) to protect the government and people from chaos
D) to increase the government's authority over the people
E) to keep threats to the existence of the state under control
8-The author informs us that Constitutional law......
A) cannot be changed by simple acts of Parliament
B) is composed of several distinct types of Bills
C) causes great concern to Members of Parliament
D) has little bearing on the government of Britain
E) is related to the way the government does its job
9-As is stated In the passage, the difference between State and common laws is that--------.
A) State laws only effect Members of Parliament, not common people
B) common law was only valid in the past, while State law is still used
C) only State laws actually have financial consequences to the people
D) the former are made by acts of Parliament, the latter, by the courts
E) the latter is applied to common people, but not to parliamentarians
The term 'castle' is most commonly applied to the fortresses belonging to European kings or important nobles during the Middle Ages. The first of this type were built by the Normans in France, during the eleventh century. They were constructed of wood and consisted simply of tower built on a mound and stood in a courtyard, which was surrounded by a fence and a ditch. By the twelfth century, the wooden tower had given way to a stone one, containing living accommodation for the whole household, centred on the Great hall, and surrounded by a strong wall. As new methods of attack developed, the outer fortifications became more elaborate in order to withstand them.
10-We can conclude from the passage that-------.
A) a castle was a certain type of early defensive structure
B) every noble in the Middle Ages had his own castle
C) the first fortress was built in Europe in the Middle Ages
D) the first castle built by the Normans remained inhabited for a century
E) castles were used for defence, not as residences
11-The author makes it clear that in the12th century,---------.
A) the Normans became less influential in Europe"
B) the towers were built of stone
C) a castle consisted only of a tower
D) a castle was still a residence only for the army
E) castles were strong enough to repel any attack
12-We learn that castles became stronger and more defensive ---
A) as new and better construction methods were developed
B) as they began to accommodate larger populations
C) in reaction to the development of new military strategies
D) as more and more buildings were added for the increasing population
E) when stone and wood were used together as building materials
Mozart made his first visit to Prague with his wife Constance in 1787, staying with his friend and patron Count Thun. A year earlier, his opera The Marriage of Figaro, which had failed to please the opera snobs in Vienna, was given a marvellous reception in Prague. Encouraged by this, he chose to premiere his next opera, Don Giovanni, in Prague rather than in Vienna. He arrived with an incomplete score in hand, and finished it there, dedicating it to the 'good people of Prague'. Mozart's final visit to Prague took place in 1791, the year of his death. The climax of the stay was the premiere of Mozart's final opera, La Calmness di Tito, according to legend, completed on the coach from Vienna to Prague.
13-We learn from the passage that The Marriage of Figaro........
A) was given its first ever performance in 1786, in Prague
B) was more highly appreciated in Vienna than in Prague
C) had obviously not been a success in Vienna
D)was clearly the first opera that Mozart had ever written
E) encouraged Mozart to write his next opera Don Giovanni
14-The passage tells us that Mozart--------.
A) gave the first performance of Don Giovanni in Prague
B) wrote and performed two complete operas while in Prague
C) only visited Prague twice, 4though he really liked the city
D) died in 1791 while he was visiting Prague to see his opera
E) moved from Vienna to Prague, where he was more appreciated
15-It is mentioned in the passage that La Clemenza di Tito----.
A) was Mozart's least popular opera in Prague
B) was based on a legend which Mozart had heard in Prague
C) brought Mozart to Prague for a very short visit
D) was given its final form in Prague
E) was apparently unfinished when Mozart left Vienna
Ever since the 1978 Camp David Agreement and the 1979 peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel, the Suez Canal has been filled with a constant flow of maritime traffic. It is 163 km long, but still not wide enough to accommodate modern ships sailing in opposite directions. There are plans to widen the canal but, for now, ships can pass only at two points-the Bitter Lakes and Al Ballan. With a depth of 19,5 metres, the canal is deep enough for most ships, except for super tankers. The canal is the prime source of hard currency for Egypt's troublesome economy. Each of the 50 ships that pass through the canal each day is charged a fee based on its size and weight. The average fee is about $70,000.
16-It is implied in the passage that..........
A) the famous Camp David is located near the Suez Canal
B) the Suez Canal was constructed sometime after 1979.
C) there are no bridges anywhere that cross the Suez Canal
D) in the period before 1979, fewer ships used the Suez Canal
E) the traffic on the Suez Canal makes shipping dangerous
17-The passage suggests that ------.
A) the Egyptians could make more money if they widened the Suez Canal
B) without the canal, the Egyptian government would be much better off
C)super tankers must proceed very carefully while going through the canal
D) the bigger and heavier a ship is, the more it has to pay to use the canal
E)the Israelis get a sizeable commission from the Suez Canal's traffic
18-It can be determined from the figures in the passage that ...........
A) most ships on the Suez Canal are under 20 metres tail
B) a large ship pays about $1,400 to pass through the canal
C)the Egyptians make, on average, Over $3.500.000 a day from the canal
D) the Suez Canal is less than 20 metres wide in most parts
E) passage through the canal costs aimost $100 per kilometre
The Normans originally came from Scandinavia and were of Viking descent. During the tenth century they invaded and conquered the northern part of France, which is still called Normandy. In the next century, under William the Conqueror, they invaded and subdued England. This event brought about the end of Saxon England and saw the start of a new era of English history, with new forms of architecture and a new form of social and political order called the feudal system. It is interesting to note that while William was conquering England, other Norman chiefs sailed down the coast of France and Spain, entered the Mediterranean Sea and conquered Sicily and some parts of southern Italy. Norman knights from France and Italy also played a leading role in the Crusades.
19-It can be determined from the passage that......
A) for centuries, there was a war between the Normans and Vikings
B) before coming to France, the Normans were peaceful people
C) the Normans conquered France with the help of the people living in Normandy
D) England was conquered by William in the eleventh century
E) the Normans escaped from Scandinavia due to the oppression of the Vikings
20-In addition to changing the government of England, the Normans -----
A) incorporated many Saxon words into their language
B) brought an end to the English feudal system
C) altered the way the English constructed buildings
D) forced the Saxons to help them invade Sicily and Italy
E) ordered the re-writing of English history books
21-From the passage, we understand that ------
A) the Sicilians and Italians welcomed the Norman conquerors B
B) the Normans were involved in conflicts in many places
C) the Crusades were lost largely because of the Normans
D) the French and Italians are essentially the same people
E) the Norman chiefs had soldiers of many nationalities
Each year, about 7.000 people in the United States are bitten by poisonous snakes. Fewer than a dozen of these persons die, but many are left with disability of a limb and scarring at the site of the bite. Persons at greatest risk are those who handle snakes for purposes of entertainment, religion or science. Outside the high-risk group, hunters, farmers and fishermen are the most likely to be bitten. The best way to tell the difference between a poisonous and a non-poisonous bite is to identify the snake. A non-poisonous bite doesn't usually cause much pain or swelling though the wound may bleed freely. When there is any doubt as to whether the snake is venomous, presume that the bite was poisonous and take precautions.
22-According to the passage, the people who have the highest chance of being bitten by a snake are those who......
A)hunt animals for sport or who deal with farming
B) try to catch snakes and put them in captivity
C) are unable to distinguish between different snakes
D) work directly with snakes or worship using them
E) are very religious and don't think they'll be bitten
23-The passage informs us that in the USA -------.
A) fewer than twelve people die of snakebites annually, although many people are bitten
B) people who have been bitten by snakes get rid of its effects
C) completely in the long term only twelve percent of those who have been bitten by snakes lose their lives
D) farmers and fishermen are more likely to be bitten by snakes than entertainers using snakes E) many people bitten by snakes are too afraid to revisit the place where it happened
24-The author suggests that if you have been bitten, and haven't managed to identify the snake......
A) you shouldn't panic but should wait to see whether the bitten area will swell or not
B) you should make the wound bleed in order to remove any poison
C) you can assume you're not at risk if the bite doesn't hurt a lot
D) it is doubtful that the snake that bit you was venomous
E) you should be treated as if the snake was poisonous
The word 'politics' comes from the Latin politia, meaning 'policy, and politics is generally defined as the science or art of government. Politics has played ah increasing part in human affairs since men and women first organised themselves into societies, and most of history is an account of politics in one form or another. There were brief periods, of relatively free or representative government during the Greek and Roman eras. But until the seventeenth century, politics was inostly the concern of powerful monarchs or other people in positions of high authority, such as church leaders. The rise of political parties during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries introduced the concept of government by consent rather than by force.
25-In the writer's opinion, politics →→→→→
A) has always been dominated by monarchs or religious leaders
B) has had little effect on ordinary people since the beginning of history
C) is really what a great deal of history is about
D) has always been a very expensive business
E) is a much more interesting subject than history
26-Obviously, during the Greek and Roman eras, there were short periods ..............
A) when the government members represented the people
B) when people didn't have to give taxes to the government
C) which were completely free from any kind of politics
D) when government members all came from the same, royal family
E) when there was absolutely no government whatsoever
27-It is clear from the passage that in the 17th century.............
A) government and politics were always in the hands of kings
B) there was a change in that governments started to rule by force
C) church leaders began to govern countries instead of kings
D) the state of politics was a cause of great concern to most leaders
E) a radical change in the concept of government began to take place
Rubber trees are tapped-that is, cuts are made in the bark so that the latex, a milk -like juice, containing about 30 -40% rubber, can be obtained. The latex is then processed by exposing it to heat and wood smoke, or by mechanical means, so as to separate the rubber from the water, mineral salts, sugars, resins and protein matters. The rubber obtained in this way is known as 'crude'-latex is extensively used in industry for making foam rubber, products, footwear, dolls etc. Untreated crude rubber is naturally soft and lacks the required strength for making into manufactured articles. To improve its strength and usefulness, it is vulcanised, or heated with sulphur, and the proportion of sulphur used determines the hardness and elasticity of, the rubber.
28-From its description, we can say that latex ----------
A) is a hard substance similar to rubber
B) must be a fairly thin, white liquid
C) is almost entirely pure rubber
D) is a by-product of rubber
E) is less useful than crude rubber
29-It's stated in the passage that untreated crude rubber is not used in industry, because ------.
A) its content of sulphur carries a nasty odour
B) its milky colour is undesirable
C) it lacks any kind of elasticity
D) it's neither hard nor strong enough
E) it contains far too many impurities
30-In the process of vulcanisation, the principle is, that............
A) the heat applied to the mixture should be high enough for rapid evaporation
B) the sulphur contained in the rubber should be extracted as much as possible
C) how hard or flexible the rubber becomes depends, on its sulphur content
D) the more sulphur is used, the harder and the more elastic the rubber becomes
E) the rubber can be separated from water by being heated at high temperatures
The origins of a written literature can be found in most of the civilisations of the ancient world; in India. China and among the Jewish people, whose great work of literature is the Old Testament of the Bible. However, It is the Greeks whose literature is taken to represent the start of Western literature. Their Breatest single contribution was drama, a form of literature that has continued undiminished the present day. Other literary forms that developed from the time of the ancient to Greeks and Romans onward have been poetry in its many different styles and forms, the essay. biography and autobiography, and the novel. Other types of written work from these periods. dealing with such matters as history, philosophy, politics, religion, science and criticism may also be classified as literature from the point of view of style.
31-We understand from the passage that.........
A) the Greeks were not alone as writers of early literature
B) The Romans greatly influenced the Greek playwrights
C) Jews wrote the Bible in places like India and China
D) the Jews are responsible for the start of religious writing
E) all ancient civilisations had their own characteristic literature
32-It is clear from the passage that-----
A) the best drama ever written was that of the Greeks
B) drama is only one of many forms of literature
C) drama has become increasingly better through the ages
D) of all Greek literature, only drama remains today
E) Greek and Roman drama contains lots of poetry
33-This passage suggests that written history, philosophy and science..........
A) generally appear to have much more style than other literature
B) are quite unrelated to what most scholars usually call literature
C)can be considered literature because of the way they were written
D) are much more important than forms stitch as drama and poetry
E) frequently receive large amounts of criticism by literary people
Our tour group of forty people made the train Journey from Hong Kong to Guangzhou on Christmas Day, 1979. We were taken to the thirty-three storey White Cloud Hotel. Even though it was only two years old, the rooms and furnishings already seemed frayed and old. Tips were not allowed and the hotel staff appeared rude. Breakfast was served promptly at seven forty -five. Forty fried eggs appeared on forty plates laid out at four separate tables, ten to a table. Most of our group were still asleep in their beds while their eggs awaited them. Metal, teapots were banged on to the tables, together with eighty pieces of toast, twenty per table. At nine sharp. breakfast was over. Eggs, tea and toast were taken away by waitresses within five minutes. This was our introduction to life. Communist China.
34-The author makes it clear that the white Cloud Hotel ----------.
A) was really quite a small hotel
B) was modern but lull of antiques
C) had thirty three rooms in total
D) had rather unfriendly staff
E) was close to a train station
35-It's implied in the passage that breakfast at the White Cloud Hotel...............
A) was served from seven to seven forty-five
B) was delivered by room service to some guests
C) could be selected from a wide-ranging menu
D) was generous and delicious with fast service
E) was served whether guests wanted it or not
36-We can conclude from the author's statements that her overall impression of the hotel was that.............
A) it was generally efficient and well-run
B) it was extremely luxurious and relaxing
C) the service was slow and inefficient
D)it was shabby and totally impersonal
E)the catering at the hotel was superb
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