Review for Middle East Test Indicate whether the statement is true or false



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Review for Middle East Test

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

1. On the steppes of Central Asia, the most important crops grown are citrus fruits.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






2. The Bosporus is a sea in the Northeast region that encompasses a vast area, covering about 180,000 square miles (466,200 sq. km).

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






3. The Elburz Mountains cover northern Iran with a series of peaks that are more than 9,000 feet (2,743 m) high.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






4. The Dead Sea, located in the Jordan Rift Valley, is the lowest point on the Earth’s land surface.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






5. The laws of migration are designed to reduce illegal immigration to the region.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






6. The bedouin nomads of Saudi Arabia established permanent homesteads in prime agricultural areas.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






7. The Tian Shan is a river in Kazakhstan.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






8. Sturgeon fishing has long been an important industry in the Caspian Sea.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






9. Until the twentieth century, control and governance of the Arabian Peninsula was mostly maintained by families, and most governments in the region today are monarchies.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






10. Most countries on the Arabian Peninsula have universal healthcare, equality for women, and mandatory education for males and females.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






11. A kibbutz is a single communal farm or settlement in Israel, while a moshav is a cooperative settlement of multiple small farms.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






12. Most of Lebanon’s agricultural activity occurs along the highly populated Anti-Lebanon mountain range, due to the nutrient-rich soil conditions there.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






13. The Caspian Sea is shrinking due to evaporation.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






14. Coastal and highland areas near mountain ranges usually receive the most rainfall due to winds that push moisture from snowmelt down from the mountains.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






15. The Jordan River flows through all the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean subregion, but it is not as vital as the Dead Sea in terms of agricultural and economic importance.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






16. The Kara-Kum is a forest that covers most of Turkmenistan.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






17. The Eastern Mediterranean subregion comprises Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






18. The North Anatolian Fault has been among the most active faults in the world, with nearly a dozen quakes exceeding 6.7 on the Richter scale of earthquake magnitude.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






19. Most people in the region speak Arabic and are Muslims.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






20. Kazakhstan is one of the more prosperous countries of Central Asia because it is rich in oil and natural gas resources.

 

a. 

True

 

b. 

False






Enter the appropriate word(s) to complete the statement.



21. In the A.D. 1000s, the ________ migrated to the western Anatolian Plateau from Central Asia.



22. A territory that belongs to a particular political unit but is separated from it and surrounded by another political unit is a(n) ________.



23. Of the three Northeast countries, only ________ is aligned militarily with Western Europe as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and is seeking UN membership.



24. Increased population has led countries in the Arabian Peninsula to draw freshwater from underground ________ at an unsustainable rate.



25. As the petroleum industry has grown, the Arabian Peninsula has seen a large increase in ________ “guest” workers.



26. Chemicals used to promote crop growth called ________ become pollutants when they are washed away into areas where they do harm, such as sources of drinking water and habitats of marine life.



27. Oil was discovered in the ________ waters southwest of Iran around 1900.



28. A major cause of loss of arable land is ________, which depletes vegetation and causes erosion.



29. Because the region has little ________ water in rivers or oases, countries are draining groundwater supplies and looking for other sources of freshwater.



30. In 1990, Iraq created unrest in the volatile oil-producing region when it invaded Kuwait, which led to the ________ War.



31. ________ was one of the world’s first culture hearths.



32. The majority of people living in Iraq have ethnic ties to the ________ Peninsula.



33. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, they met resistance from Islamic guerrilla fighters known as ________.



34. In colder weather, nomads graze their herds on the fertile, grassy ________ of Central Asia.



35. A distinct cultural area or territory located within a political unit’s territory is a(n) ________.



36. Runoff of chemicals called ________ that are used in the agricultural industry to kill unwanted insects or rodents have limited the use of the Mediterranean Sea as a water source.



37. Israel has augmented its limited natural freshwater resources by using ________ to make sea water drinkable.



38. ________ is the process in which arable land, or land suitable for farming, is gradually lost due to erosion and deforestation.



39. Up to 30 percent of Saudi Arabia’s energy is used in ________ plants, which are an expensive alternative source of freshwater.



40. Under the fundamentalist Islamic ________ government, Afghan women were prevented from getting an education and from working outside the home.



 

Kazakhstan

Armenia




Afghanistan

 

Aral City

Apsheron Peninsula







41. a place in which many people continue to be killed or injured by land mines and ammunition left over from periods of war



42. a place with a controversial nuclear power plant in an area prone to earthquakes



43. an area that has been described as the most environmentally damaged land on Earth



44. a place that was once on the coast of one of the world’s largest seas but now lies over 60 miles from the diminished sea’s waters



45. a place that is still affected by radioactive material left at numerous Soviet-era nuclear bases





 

dune

 

arid

 

shield

 

monsoon

 

peninsula







46. a landform composed of hard, ancient rocks



47. an area of land almost entirely surrounded by water



48. a hill of sand deposited and shaped by the wind



49. an extremely dry climate



50. a strong wind that alternates directions with the seasons



 




pastoralism

 

marsh

 

the Dardenelles

 

Tehran

 

cultural hearth

 

Iran

 

Ramsar Convention

 

cuneiform

 

Anatolian Plateau

 

Mesopotamia







51. a very narrow part of the Turkish Straits that opens on its eastern end to the Sea of Marmara



52. a meeting in Iran that produced an international treaty to monitor and preserve wetland resources



53. the practice of livestock farming, which may have begun in what is now Iraq



54. a place whose name means “land of the Aryans”



55. a system of wedge-shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets



56. a place that nurtures the growth of a new culture that grows and spreads to other places



57. an endangered natural resource that provides freshwater and floodwater containment in a typically grassy, wet area



58. the homeland of the ancient Sumerians known as “the land between two rivers”



59. a central massif that lies at a high elevation between Turkey’s Pontic and Taurus mountains



60. a city in which air pollution has caused thousands of deaths



  

Mesopotamian Marsh

 

monitor




air quality




soil erosion










air pollution







61. a concern for United States military members serving in Iraq, because of dust storms and large amounts of airborne particulates



62. the process of removing fertile earth as a result of deforestation and excessive cultivation



63. a part of the strategy to protect environments by closely watching and evaluating



64. an environmental issue often caused by vehicle emissions in urban areas



65. an ecosystem near the Tigris and Euphrates that is being drained to create farmland



 

 

Persian Gulf

 

an Nafud

 

Arabian Plate

 

Arabian Peninsula

 

Gulf of Aden

 

Rub’ al-Khali

 

Arabian Shield

 

Arabian Sea

 

Red Sea

 

Gulf of Oman







66. the landform that includes a tall range of extinct volcanoes and ancient rocks along the west coast of the Arabian region



67. the northern end of the Indian Ocean between India, the Arabian region, and Africa



68. the “empty quarter” desert that is ten times the size of the other desert in the region



69. the body of water to the east of the Arabian countries that connects a gulf by the major oil producing countries and a sea



70. the body of water “choked” by the Strait of Hormuz through which much of the world’s oil is shipped



71. the regional landform mostly surrounded by gulfs and seas to the east, west, and south



72. the northern desert that contains reddish dunes spread across 25,000 square miles (65,000 sq. km)



73. the body of water that connects two seas to the west and south of the Arabian region



74. the part of Earth’s mantle on which the region’s countries are located



75. the body of water that fills a tectonic rift and serves as a transportation route between Europe and Asia



 

 

deforestation

 

rift valley

 

Arab

 

Muhammad

 

fertilizer

 

stateless nation

 

mosque

 

Mediterranean

 

Torah

 

arable







76. a type of climate common to coastal areas of the region, in which summers are hot and dry and winters mild and rainy



77. a type of land that is suitable for farming



78. a loss of vegetation in wooded areas sometimes caused by fires and leading to erosion and desertification



79. the ethnic group that makes up most of the population in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan



80. an elongated lowland created by the separation of tectonic plates



81. a part of the Hebrew Bible containing sacred writings and the books of the prophets



82. a religious teacher who established the Islamic religion



83. an ethnic group, such as the Palestinians, that has no formal country



84. Muslim house of worship



85. an agricultural chemical used to improve crop growth that may become a water pollutant if washed into oceans, rivers, or bodies of freshwater



 

 

ziggurat

 

erosion

 

the Turkish Straits

 

Mount Damāvand

 

qanat

 

natural boundary

 

embargo

 

semi-arid steppe

 

feeder stream

 

stateless nation







86. the highest peak in Iran



87. a restriction against buying or selling a certain product or with a certain country



88. a key waterway that marks the border between Asia and Europe and consists of three smaller waterways



89. the type of dry and mild climate found in Turkey’s interior



90. a deterioration of land due to the removal of trees and the excessive cultivation of soil



91. a physical feature, such as a mountain, river, or strait, that serves as a border



92. a waterway that flows into a larger river



93. an underground waterway first built during the Persian Empire



94. a pyramid-shaped temple built with mud bricks by the Sumerians



95. a group that considers itself a nation based on a common culture, but that has no physical location of its own



 

 

Christianity

 

cereal

 

Black Sea

 

Taliban

 

Lake Balkhash

 

Silk Road

 

kum

 

Tashkent

 

Islam

 

mujahideen







96. an inland body of water to the west of the Caucasus and the Caspian



97. Afghan guerrillas who fought against Soviet invasion



98. a sandy desert in Central Asia



99. a trade route connecting China and Europe that passed through Central Asia



100. the most populous city in Central Asia



101. any grain—such as barley, oats, or wheat—that is grown for food



102. the majority religion in Central Asia



103. a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim group which controlled the Afghan government from 1996 to 2001



104. a shrinking and increasingly saline body of water in Kazakhstan



105. the majority religion in Georgia and Armenia



 

 

steppe

 

kum

 

enclave

 

Aral Sea

 

Osama bin Laden

 

Caucasus

 

Genghis Khan

 

Caspian

 

Kara-Kum

 

exclave







106. the leader of Al-Qaeda



107. a cultural area or territory that is distinct from but entirely within a foreign territory



108. once a large inland body of water that is now several small, disconnected bodies of water



109. a black-sand desert that covers most of Turkmenistan



110. the area of western Central Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea



111. a wide, grassy plain often found beside desert regions in Central Asia



112. the leader of the Mongol tribes who conquered Central Asia



113. a territory or cultural area separated from the political entity to which it belongs



114. a dune-covered desert in Central Asia



115. the world’s largest inland body of water



 

 

Palestine

 

Jordan

 

kibbutz




overgrazing

 

Jordan Rift Valley

 

pesticide

 

desalination

 

moshav

 

desertification

 

prophet







116. one who is believed to have delivered messages from God, such as Abraham



117. the depletion of ground vegetation by livestock to the point that erosion may cause desertification



118. one of the most important rivers of the Eastern Mediterranean, flowing through all the states of the subregion



119. the process of removing salt from sea water so that it is drinkable



120. a harmful effect of erosion and deforestation where soil conditions supporting vegetation is lost



121. a group of small, individual Israeli farms, forming a single community



122. a communal Israeli farm or settlement



123. a chemical used to kill or repel unwanted insects or animals; also major water pollutant



124. a stateless nation that is comprised of Muslim Arabs engaged in a long conflict over land with Israel



125. an Eastern Mediterranean landform created by tectonic activity, featuring the Dead Sea, the lowest elevation on Earth’s surface





 

Makkah

 

hajj

 

shamal

 

kafala

 

Sunni

 

khat

 

Shia

 

simoom

 

Najd

 

shari’ah







126. a system in which an employer sponsors a migrant worker by paying his or her expenses



127. a plant chewed as a mild stimulant and on which much groundwater is wasted



128. a brief but dangerously hot “poison” wind



129. a “north” wind that blows sand and dust during midwinter and early summer



130. the law of Islam which governs every aspect of a Muslim’s life



131. a branch of Islam that regards Muhammad’s son and the imams as rightful successors



132. a branch of Islam that regards the first four successors of Muhammad as his rightful successors



133. a religious journey Muslims are expected to complete at least once



134. the holiest city of Islam to which many Muslims make a pilgrimage



135. the central, desert portion of the Arabian Shield



 

 

prophet

 

mosque

 

Hezbollah

 monotheism




 

Hamas



















136. Islamic house of worship



137. a political party holding to Islamic beliefs



138. a person believed to be a divine messenger, such as Abraham



139. a paramilitary group determined to eliminate Israel



140. a belief in one God, common to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam



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