Review for Middle East Test Indicate whether the statement is true or false
for Middle East Test
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
1. On the steppes of Central Asia, the most important crops grown are citrus fruits.
2. The Bosporus is a sea in the Northeast region that encompasses a vast area, covering about 180,000 square miles (466,200 sq. km).
3. The Elburz Mountains cover northern Iran with a series of peaks that are more than 9,000 feet (2,743 m) high.
4. The Dead Sea, located in the Jordan Rift Valley, is the lowest point on the Earth’s land surface.
5. The laws of migration are designed to reduce illegal immigration to the region.
6. The bedouin nomads of Saudi Arabia established permanent homesteads in prime agricultural areas.
7. The Tian Shan is a river in Kazakhstan.
8. Sturgeon fishing has long been an important industry in the Caspian Sea.
9. Until the twentieth century, control and governance of the Arabian Peninsula was mostly maintained by families, and most governments in the region today are monarchies.
10. Most countries on the Arabian Peninsula have universal healthcare, equality for women, and mandatory education for males and females.
is a single communal farm or settlement in Israel, while a
is a cooperative settlement of multiple small farms.
12. Most of Lebanon’s agricultural activity occurs along the highly populated Anti-Lebanon mountain range, due to the nutrient-rich soil conditions there.
13. The Caspian Sea is shrinking due to evaporation.
14. Coastal and highland areas near mountain ranges usually receive the most rainfall due to winds that push moisture from snowmelt down from the mountains.
15. The Jordan River flows through all the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean subregion, but it is not as vital as the Dead Sea in terms of agricultural and economic importance.
16. The Kara-Kum is a forest that covers most of Turkmenistan.
17. The Eastern Mediterranean subregion comprises Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories.
18. The North Anatolian Fault has been among the most active faults in the world, with nearly a dozen quakes exceeding 6.7 on the Richter scale of earthquake magnitude.
19. Most people in the region speak Arabic and are Muslims.
20. Kazakhstan is one of the more prosperous countries of Central Asia because it is rich in oil and natural gas resources.
Enter the appropriate word(s) to complete the statement.
21. In the A.D. 1000s, the ________ migrated to the western Anatolian Plateau from Central Asia.
22. A territory that belongs to a particular political unit but is separated from it and surrounded by another political unit is a(n) ________.
23. Of the three Northeast countries, only ________ is aligned militarily with Western Europe as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and is seeking UN membership.
24. Increased population has led countries in the Arabian Peninsula to draw freshwater from underground ________ at an unsustainable rate.
25. As the petroleum industry has grown, the Arabian Peninsula has seen a large increase in ________ “guest” workers.
26. Chemicals used to promote crop growth called ________ become pollutants when they are washed away
into areas where they do harm
, such as sources of drinking water and habitats of marine life.
27. Oil was discovered in the ________ waters southwest of Iran around 1900.
28. A major cause of loss of arable land is ________, which depletes vegetation and causes erosion.
29. Because the region has little ________ water in rivers or oases, countries are draining groundwater supplies and looking for other sources of freshwater.
30. In 1990, Iraq created unrest in the volatile oil-producing region when it invaded Kuwait, which led to the ________ War.
31. ________ was one of the world’s first culture hearths.
32. The majority of people living in Iraq have ethnic ties to the ________ Peninsula.
33. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, they met resistance from Islamic guerrilla fighters known as ________.
34. In colder weather, nomads graze their herds on the fertile, grassy ________ of Central Asia.
35. A distinct cultural area or territory located within a political unit’s territory is a(n) ________.
36. Runoff of chemicals called ________ that are used in the agricultural industry to kill unwanted insects or rodents have limited the use of the Mediterranean Sea as a water source.
37. Israel has augmented its limited natural freshwater resources by using ________ to make sea water drinkable.
38. ________ is the process in which arable land, or land suitable for farming, is gradually lost due to erosion and deforestation.
39. Up to 30 percent of Saudi Arabia’s energy is used in ________ plants, which are an expensive alternative source of freshwater.
40. Under the fundamentalist Islamic ________ government, Afghan women were prevented from getting an education and from working outside the home.
41. a place in which many people continue to be killed or injured by land mines and ammunition left over from periods of war
42. a place with a controversial nuclear power plant in an area prone to earthquakes
43. an area that has been described as the most environmentally damaged land on Earth
44. a place that was once on the coast of one of the world’s largest seas but now lies over 60 miles from the diminished sea’s waters
45. a place that is still affected by radioactive material left at numerous Soviet-era nuclear bases
46. a landform composed of hard, ancient rocks
47. an area of land almost entirely surrounded by water
48. a hill of sand deposited
and shaped by the wind
49. an extremely dry climate
50. a strong wind that alternates directions with the seasons
51. a very narrow part of the Turkish Straits that opens on its eastern end to the Sea of Marmara
52. a meeting in Iran that produced an international treaty to monitor and preserve wetland resources
53. the practice of livestock farming, which may have begun in what is now Iraq
54. a place whose name means “land of the Aryans”
55. a system of wedge-shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets
56. a place that nurtures the growth of a new culture that grows and spreads to other places
57. an endangered natural resource that provides freshwater and floodwater containment in a typically grassy, wet area
58. the homeland of the ancient Sumerians known as “the land between two rivers”
59. a central massif that lies at a high elevation between Turkey’s Pontic and Taurus mountains
60. a city in which air pollution has caused thousands of deaths
61. a concern for United States military members serving in Iraq, because of dust storms and large amounts of airborne particulates
62. the process of removing fertile earth as a result of deforestation and excessive cultivation
63. a part of the strategy to protect environments by closely watching and evaluating
64. an environmental issue often caused by vehicle emissions in urban areas
65. an ecosystem near the Tigris and Euphrates that is being drained to create farmland
Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Oman
66. the landform that includes a tall range of extinct volcanoes and ancient rocks along the west coast of the Arabian region
67. the northern end of the Indian Ocean between India, the Arabian region, and Africa
68. the “empty quarter” desert that is ten times the size of the other desert in the region
69. the body of water to the east of the Arabian countries that connects a gulf by the major oil
producing countries and a sea
70. the body of water “choked” by the Strait of Hormuz through which much of the world’s oil is shipped
71. the regional landform mostly surrounded by gulfs and seas to the east, west, and south
72. the northern desert that contains reddish dunes spread across 25,000 square miles (65,000 sq. km)
73. the body of water that connects two seas to the west and south of the Arabian region
74. the part of Earth’s mantle on which the region’s countries are located
75. the body of water that fills a tectonic rift and serves as a transportation route between Europe and Asia
76. a type of climate common to coastal areas of the region, in which summers are hot and dry and winters mild and rainy
77. a type of land that is suitable for farming
78. a loss of vegetation in wooded areas sometimes caused by fires and leading to erosion and desertification
79. the ethnic group that makes up most of the population in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan
80. an elongated lowland created by the separation of tectonic plates
81. a part of the Hebrew Bible containing sacred writings and the books of the prophets
82. a religious teacher who established the Islamic religion
83. an ethnic group,
such as the Palestinians
, that has no formal country
84. Muslim house of worship
85. an agricultural chemical used to improve crop growth that may become a water pollutant if washed into oceans, rivers, or bodies of freshwater
the Turkish Straits
86. the highest peak in Iran
87. a restriction against buying or selling a certain product or with a certain country
88. a key waterway that marks the border between Asia and Europe and consists of three smaller waterways
89. the type of dry and mild climate found in Turkey’s interior
90. a deterioration of land due to the removal of trees and the excessive cultivation of soil
91. a physical feature, such as a mountain, river, or strait, that serves as a border
92. a waterway that flows into a larger river
93. an underground waterway first built
during the Persian Empire
94. a pyramid-shaped temple built with mud bricks by the Sumerians
95. a group that considers itself a nation based on a common culture, but that has no physical location of its own
96. an inland body of water to the west of the Caucasus and the Caspian
97. Afghan guerrillas who fought against Soviet invasion
98. a sandy desert in Central Asia
99. a trade route connecting China and Europe that passed through Central Asia
100. the most populous city in Central Asia
101. any grain—such as barley, oats, or wheat—that is grown for food
102. the majority religion in Central Asia
103. a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim group which controlled the Afghan government from 1996 to 2001
104. a shrinking and increasingly saline body of water in Kazakhstan
105. the majority religion in Georgia and Armenia
Osama bin Laden
106. the leader of Al-Qaeda
107. a cultural area or territory that is distinct from but entirely
within a foreign territory
108. once a large inland body of water that is now several small, disconnected bodies of water
109. a black-sand desert that covers most of Turkmenistan
110. the area of western Central Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea
111. a wide, grassy plain often found beside desert regions in Central Asia
112. the leader of the Mongol tribes who conquered Central Asia
113. a territory or cultural area separated from the political entity to which it belongs
114. a dune-covered desert in Central Asia
115. the world’s largest inland body of water
Jordan Rift Valley
116. one who is believed to have delivered messages from God, such as Abraham
117. the depletion of ground vegetation by livestock to the point that erosion may cause desertification
118. one of the most important rivers of the Eastern Mediterranean, flowing through all the states of the subregion
119. the process of removing salt from sea water so that it is drinkable
120. a harmful effect of erosion and deforestation where soil conditions
supporting vegetation is lost
121. a group of small, individual Israeli farms, forming a single community
122. a communal Israeli farm or settlement
123. a chemical used to kill or repel unwanted insects or animals; also major water pollutant
124. a stateless nation that is comprised of Muslim Arabs engaged in a long conflict over land with Israel
125. an Eastern Mediterranean landform created by tectonic activity, featuring the Dead Sea, the lowest elevation on Earth’s surface
126. a system in which an employer sponsors a migrant worker by paying his or her expenses
127. a plant chewed as a mild stimulant and on which much groundwater is wasted
128. a brief but dangerously hot “poison” wind
129. a “north” wind that blows sand and dust during midwinter and early summer
130. the law of Islam which governs every aspect of a Muslim’s life
131. a branch of Islam that regards Muhammad’s son and the imams as rightful successors
132. a branch of Islam that regards the first four successors of Muhammad as his rightful successors
133. a religious journey Muslims are expected to complete at least once
134. the holiest city of Islam to which many
Muslims make a pilgrimage
135. the central, desert portion of the Arabian Shield
136. Islamic house of worship
137. a political party holding to Islamic beliefs
138. a person believed to be a divine messenger, such as Abraham
139. a paramilitary group determined to eliminate Israel
140. a belief in one God, common to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
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