13. In a communist (command) economy, economic resources are distributed
1. by the military.
2. by local churches.
3. according to the plans of the central government.
4. based on the principles of supply and demand.
The Cold War
14. During the Cold War Era (1945_1990), the United States and the
Soviet Union were reluctant to become involved in direct military conflict
mainly because of
1. the peacekeeping role of the United Nations.
2. pressure from nonaligned nations.
3. the potential for global nuclear destruction.
4. increased tensions in the Middle East.
15. In the Soviet Union a negative aspect of the Cold War Era was the
1. attempt to preserve democratic ideals.
2. development of peaceful uses for modern technology.
3. development of effective means of international cooperation.
4. high cost of maintaining the arms race.
16. During the late 1980's in the Soviet Union, the policy of perestroika
was an attempt to solve economic problems by
1. introducing elements of capitalism into the Soviet economy.
2. limiting imports into the Soviet Union.
3. relying more heavily on central planning of the Soviet economy.
4. cutting back the amount of credit given to small businesses.
Base your answer to question 17 on the list below and on your
knowledge of social studies.
Selected Cold War Events:
Berlin blockade (1948-1949); Premier Khrushchev's visit to the United States (1959); Cuban missile crisis (1962); Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963); Joint Apollo-Soyuz space mission (1975); Russian invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
17. What does this list of events suggest about the Cold War Era?
1. Throughout the period, the United States and the Soviet Union
were reluctant to solve conflicts.
2. The level of tension between the United States and the Soviet
3. Economics played a key role in causing conflict between the
United States and the Soviet Union.
4. The United Nations was instrumental in reducing tensions
between the United States and the Soviet Union.
18. The end of the Cold War is best symbolized by the
1. establishment of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
2. formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and
the European Common Market.
3. withdrawal of United Nations forces from Somalia and from
4. destruction of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany
19. One similarity between V. I. Lenin's New Economic Policy of the early 1920's and Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika policy of the late 1980's was that they both
1. stimulated agricultural and industrial production by implementing
some elements of capitalism.
2. reduced Russia's trade deficit by importing more grain from
3. prevented foreign economic competition by imposing high tariffs.
4. expanded trade into newly acquired colonies
20. One result of the collapse of the Soviet Union has been that
1. some former republics have reorganized the Warsaw Pact.
2. ethnic violence has broken out in some regions.
3. an era of peace and stability has emerged in most of the former
4. the republics have made an easy transition to a market economy
21. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990's, Russia has
attempted to build an economic system based on
1. a return to feudalism.
2. the ideas of Marx and Lenin.
3. the writings of Mao Zedong.
4. a free-market system.
Establishes Diplomatic Relations with Croatia," "Latvia Joins the United
These headlines illustrate the
1. collapse of the governments of these nations.
2. strength of the Russian Empire.
3. beginning of a united Europe.
4. increase in international support for self-determination.
23. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the major problems in
Eastern Europe and Russia have primarily resulted from the
high rate of illiteracy found in most of these nations.
2. refusal of government leaders to allow foreign investments.
3. switch from a command economy to a free-market economy.
4.unwillingness of the industrialized nations to provide advisors.
Which generalization can be made about the headlines above?
1. The United Nations has solved most international disputes.
2. Territorial disputes always result in war.
3. The collapse of communism has resulted in peace and stability in
4. Ethnic conflicts remain a major problem in Eastern Europe.
25. The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in
1. a decrease in the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church.
2. more restrictions on free speech in Russia.
3. the election of women to most of the important positions in the
4. the creation of several independent nations