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Early History

1. Russia was invaded by Napoleon in 1812 and by Hitler in 1941. Both
invasions failed because of Russia's

1. economic support from the United States.

2. large size and severe winters.
3. military help from Great Britain.
4. use of superior weapons.

2. Which statement describes the situation in Russia during the 200 years

when the Mongols ruled?

1. Russia experienced a cultural Renaissance.

2. Russia was isolated and paid tribute to the Khans.
3.Westernization and industrialization began in Russia.
4. Democratic reforms were encouraged in Russian society.

3. The events that led to the overthrow of Czar Nicholas II in 1917 and

to the forced resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1991 show that

1. economic crises often lead to political change.

2. Russian absolutism continued into the 1990's.
3. international conflicts often strengthen the power of leaders.
4. Russia is a ethnically unified nation.

Russian Communism

4. One similarity between the Russian Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the
Chinese Revolution of 1949, and the Cuban Revolution of 1959 is that
they all

1. brought communist governments to power.

2. led to world wars.
3. were fought to free ethnic minorities.
4. failed to overthrow existing governments.

5. One action taken by both V.l. Lenin and Joseph Stalin was

  1. attempting to bring democracy to Russia.
    2. jailing or murdering potential opponents.
    3. supporting the Russian Orthodox Church.
    4. providing economic aid to Japan after World War I and World War. 

6. After World War 11, the Soviet Union established satellites in Eastern
Europe to

1. support the remaining Fascist governments in Eastern Europe.

2. preserve capitalism in Eastern Europe.
3. establish democratic governments in Eastern European nations.
4. expand its power and control over Eastern Europe.

7. A major effect of Josef Stalin's policy of collectivization on Soviet

agriculture was

1. a widespread food shortage throughout the nation.

2. an increase in the export of agricultural products.
3. a surplus of agricultural goods.
4. the immediate creation of many small private farms.

8. Under Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union emphasized centralized economic

planning and five-year plans primarily to

1. produce more consumer goods.

2. expand exports.
3. create a demand for high-quality imports.
4. develop heavy industry.

9. Stalin's Five-Year plans and his decision to form collectives are examples


1. strategies to modernize the economy of the Soviet Union through

forced communism.
2. a more friendly foreign policy toward China.
3. methods of dealing with the United States during the Cold War.
4. programs to westernize, educate, and enlighten the population.

10. Between 1945 and 198O, the Soviet Union gained control over the

nations of Eastern Europe as a result of

1. prewar agreements between England and the Soviet Union.

2. free elections in those nations.
3. diplomatic and military pressure.
4. trusteeships established by the United Nations.

11. The Russian Revolution and the French Revolution both resulted in

  1. the establishment of direct democracies.
    2. the restoration of old monarchies.
    3. violent political change.
    4. increases in the power of the Catholic Church.

12. Which leader is most closely associated with a dictatorship in the
Soviet Union?

1. Lech Walesa 

2. Boris Yeltsin 
3. Margaret Thatcher 
4 Josef Stalin

13. In a communist (command) economy, economic resources are distributed

1. by the military.
2. by local churches.
3. according to the plans of the central government.
4. based on the principles of supply and demand.

The Cold War

14. During the Cold War Era (1945_1990), the United States and the
Soviet Union were reluctant to become involved in direct military conflict
mainly because of

1. the peacekeeping role of the United Nations.

2. pressure from nonaligned nations.
3. the potential for global nuclear destruction.
4. increased tensions in the Middle East.

15. In the Soviet Union a negative aspect of the Cold War Era was the

1. attempt to preserve democratic ideals.
2. development of peaceful uses for modern technology.
3. development of effective means of international cooperation.
4. high cost of maintaining the arms race.

16. During the late 1980's in the Soviet Union, the policy of perestroika
was an attempt to solve economic problems by

1. introducing elements of capitalism into the Soviet economy.

2. limiting imports into the Soviet Union.
3. relying more heavily on central planning of the Soviet economy.
4. cutting back the amount of credit given to small businesses.

Base your answer to question 17 on the list below and on your

knowledge of social studies.

Selected Cold War Events:

Berlin blockade (1948-1949); Premier Khrushchev's visit to the United States (1959); Cuban missile crisis (1962); Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963); Joint Apollo-Soyuz space mission (1975); Russian invasion of Afghanistan (1979)

17. What does this list of events suggest about the Cold War Era?

1. Throughout the period, the United States and the Soviet Union
were reluctant to solve conflicts.
2. The level of tension between the United States and the Soviet
Union varied.
3. Economics played a key role in causing conflict between the
United States and the Soviet Union.
4. The United Nations was instrumental in reducing tensions
between the United States and the Soviet Union.

18. The end of the Cold War is best symbolized by the

1. establishment of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
2. formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and
the European Common Market.
3. withdrawal of United Nations forces from Somalia and from
4. destruction of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany

19. One similarity between V. I. Lenin's New Economic Policy of the early 1920's and Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika policy of the late 1980's was that they both

1. stimulated agricultural and industrial production by implementing
some elements of capitalism.
2. reduced Russia's trade deficit by importing more grain from
3. prevented foreign economic competition by imposing high tariffs.
4. expanded trade into newly acquired colonies

Recent History

20. One result of the collapse of the Soviet Union has been that

1. some former republics have reorganized the Warsaw Pact.
2. ethnic violence has broken out in some regions.
3. an era of peace and stability has emerged in most of the former
4. the republics have made an easy transition to a market economy

21. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990's, Russia has

attempted to build an economic system based on

1. a return to feudalism.

2. the ideas of Marx and Lenin.
3. the writings of Mao Zedong.
4. a free-market system.

22. "Germany Recognizes the Independence of Slovenia," "United States

Establishes Diplomatic Relations with Croatia," "Latvia Joins the United

These headlines illustrate the

1. collapse of the governments of these nations.
2. strength of the Russian Empire.
3. beginning of a united Europe.
4. increase in international support for self-determination.

23. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the major problems in

Eastern Europe and Russia have primarily resulted from the

  1. high rate of illiteracy found in most of these nations.
    2. refusal of government leaders to allow foreign investments.
    3. switch from a command economy to a free-market economy.
    4.unwillingness of the industrialized nations to provide advisors.

24. "Croatians, Bosnians, and Serbs Battle as Yugoslavia Collapses,"
"Ukrainians Demand an End to Russian Control of the Crimea."

Which generalization can be made about the headlines above?

1. The United Nations has solved most international disputes.
2. Territorial disputes always result in war.
3. The collapse of communism has resulted in peace and stability in
4. Ethnic conflicts remain a major problem in Eastern Europe.

25. The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in

1. a decrease in the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church.
2. more restrictions on free speech in Russia.
3. the election of women to most of the important positions in the
Russian Government.
4. the creation of several independent nations

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