Which of the following best describes how most of the land throughout Africa is used?
Hunting and gathering
Manufacturing and trading
Farming and nomadic herding
Which of the following statements best describes the information the information on the map?
The land of southern Africa is generally used for hunting and gathering, manufacturing and trading, and commercial agriculture
The land in northern Africa is generally used for commercial agriculture and subsistence farming
The land of central Africa is generally used for nomadic herding
The land of western Africa is generally used for manufacturing and trade and subsistence farming
SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: ELEVATION*
*Note: the darker the color, the lower the elevation, so that land areas in the lightest shades are over 3,300 feet, mid-gray areas are between 600 and 3,300 feet, and the darker grays are under 600 feet of altitude.
According to the map, most of the southern United States lays in which of the following elevation ranges?
Which of the following statements describes a feature that the states of Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana have in common?
They lie east of the Mississippi
They border the Gulf of Mexico
Their state capitals are located in mountain ranges
Their state capitals are located on rivers
Which of the following pairs of cities share the same longitude?
Baton Rouge, LA and Tallahassee, FL
New Orleans, LA and Memphis, TN
Montgomery, AL and Jackson, MS
Lexington, KY and Atlanta, GA
Which southern state is a peninsula?
Texas c. Georgia
Florida d. Alabama
Subtest B—Visual Analysis
…and he wonders why she said “NO!”
Could he have read her thoughts he would have not lost her. A picture of neatness herself, she detested slovenliness. And not once, but many times, she had noticed his ungartered socks crumpling down around his shoe tops. To have to apologize to her friends for a husband’s careless habits was too much to ask. So she had to say “NO”—and in spite of his pleading she couldn’t tell him why.
According to the advertisement, what should the man do to improve his standing with the woman?
Be less careless with his appearance
Take her to Paris
Buy her Paris garters
Take off his socks
Which of the following is closest to an equivalent modern-day scenario for this advertisement?
A girl taking a test glances at the answers of the boy in the seat next to hers
A young man pleads with his girlfriend to go on a roller coaster ride
A woman dancing with one man glances over his shoulder at another man
A woman turns away from a man holding a lit cigarette
Linked Increases in Cotton, Coal, and Iron in Britain, 1760-1840
Which of the following statements best characterizes the trends shown on the graphs?
The amount of coal, cotton, and iron generally increased each year between 1760 and 1840
Except in the 1810s, the amount of coal, cotton, and iron generally increased each year between 1760 and 1840
The amount of coal, cotton, and iron remained constant between 1800 and 1830
The consumption of cotton sharply decreased as more iron and coal was made available
In which year were approximately 55,000 metric tons of cotton consumed and 300,000 metric tons of iron produced?
1800 c. 1810
1005 d. 1815
Between which years did cotton consumption reach 140,000 metric tons and coal outputs reach 28 million tons?
1780-1790 c. 1820-1830
1800-1810 d. 1830-1840
What was the output of coal in millions of tons the year cotton consumption was 80,000 metric tons?
36 c. 8
16 d. 12
In 1790 approximately 8 mission tons of coal was mined. Approximately how many thousands of metric tons of iron were produced this same year?
4 c. 100
20 d. 300
Subtest C—Critical Thinking and Reading
Source: Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition, January 1996
Carl Jones never had a problem with the freight train that once rumbled across his 80-acre farm here.
It is the bicyclists in spandex pants who replaced the trains that he can’t tolerate. “Why don’t they go recreate on their own land?” he snaps.
Instead, they pedal across his land on a crushed-limestone pathway that once was a railroad line but has been turned into a public trail.
Or at least they try to. Mr. Jones has done his best to prevent people from coming through by piling 1,000-pound bales of hay and stringing electric fences across the corridor, and hiring a lawyer who threatens to sue anyone who sets foot on the path or promotes its use, including the publisher of a popular trail guide.
Trail users have retaliated by knocking down his fences and twice setting fire to the hay barricades. A sign outside a nearby bike shop proclaims: “Mr. Jones: Bicyclists Are Not Criminals.”
So much for warm, fuzzy notions about linking a community together with a trail. Like other so-called rails-to-trails projects around the country, this one has sent property owners onto the warpath
What is the main idea of this passage?
Mr. Jones has piles 1,000-pound bales of hay and put up electric fences to keep trespassers off his land, but they ignore his warnings.
Some landowners are unhappy about a public policy that attempts to link the community together by turning railroad tracks into public bike trails.
Rails-to-trails programs are becoming increasing popular with bike enthusiasts, but they have caused property owners to fear for their lives.
Carl Jones is leading the trails-to-rails program, which is turning old bike trails into railroad lines to help improve the economy of his community.
What is the most likely effect of the decision by some trail users to set fire to barricades built by Mr. Jones?
Mr. Jones will drop his opposition to the use of his property by bicyclists
Bicyclists who use the trail will replace the straw barricades with sturdier barricades
Mr. Jones will be less willing to work out a compromise with trail users
Mr. Jones’ lawyer will seek a court order preventing future barricades from being built
Which statement best describes the position of Mr. Jones?
Private property owners should be able to control how their property is used by others
Only professional bike riders should be allowed access to trails on private property
Bicyclists on public trails are criminals who should be sued in court
Railroads are less disruptive to property owners than public bicycle paths
Which of the following statements best explains the meaning o the message on the sign outside of the bicycle shop?
Bicycle riders have a right to be on Mr. Jones’ property because he shares the path with the city
Recreational bicycle riders must take property owners to court in order to freely use public trails
Recreational bicycle riders using a public trail are not breaking the law by doing so
Bicycle riders are trespassers who have been illegally using the path on Mr. Jones’ personal property
Which of the following people would most likely agree with the statement: “Anyone who uses the bikeway path for recreation or who promotes the use of this path in any way should be sued.”
Source: President Jimmy Carter, Voyager Spacecraft Message, 1977. The Voyager was launched to explore some planets of the solar system and travel beyond it.
This Voyager spacecraft was constructed by the United States of America. We are a community of 240 million human beings among the more than 4 billion who inhabit the planet Earth. We human beings are still divided into nation states, but these states are rapidly becoming a single global civilization
What is the purpose of this message?
To describe the purpose of the Voyager spacecraft
To explain where the Voyager spacecraft came from and who built it
To persuade countries on Earth to cooperate
To provide updated information about the Earth’s population
Which of the following two things does President Carter contrast in his message?
The Voyager spacecraft and nation states
Nation states and a global civilization
The Voyager spacecraft and the United States
The populations of the planets and the solar system
Which of the following statements from the message expresses an opinion?
This Voyager spacecraft was constructed by the United States of America
We are a community of 240 million human beings
More than 4 billion who inhabit the planet Earth
Nation states are rapidly becoming a single global civilization
Sterling C. Robinson, who had obtained a grant for a colony,…went up to Kentucky recruiting [settlers]. The glowing terms in which he talked of the advantages to be gained by [moving to Texas] were well calculated to further his scheme. To every head of a family, if a farmer, was promised 177 acres of farming land and 4,428 acres of pasture land for stock; colonists [were] to be exempt from taxation six years from the date of settlement, with the privilege of importing, duty free, everything they might desire for themselves and families; [and] abundance of game…. The climate was so mild that houses were not essential…. Corn in any quantity was to be had for the planting.
Source: Noah Smithwick, The Evolution of a State, 1900. Mr. Smith’s book is a memoir and the excerpt his recollection of why he decided to move to Texas in 1827.
Put the following events in the sequence in which they would have occurred, according to Noah Smithwick
Settlers in Texas begin paying taxes
Robinson convinces settlers to migrate to Texas
Settlers move to Texas and begin farming
Robinson receives a grant to start a colony
2, 3, 1, 4 c. 4, 2, 3, 1
3, 2, 1, 4 d, 1, 4, 3, 2
With which of the following statements would Sterling Robinson probably disagree?
A farmer who is given help starting out will succeed in Texas
Taxation is an unnecessary burden on families migrating to Texas
The expansion of farming in Texas will bring prosperity to the area
Farmers moving to Texas face many obstacles and challenges
Settlers in Texas could succeed only if they received free land and seed
Taxation should be prohibited in new territories for six years
Robinson had difficulty convincing enough settler to move to Texas
Suppose you are the mayor of a large East Coast city. A resident of your city says, “We rarely go downtown anymore. I work in the suburbs, and the whole family shops there. We find what we want at shopping centers scattered along the interstate highways.” Which of the following suggestions would you reject as you work to bring citizens back to the city?
Modifying tax laws to attract new industries to the downtown area
Convincing downtown restaurants to open franchises in the suburbs
Proposing a “tax amnesty” suspending city sales tax for a weekend
Supporting public festivals and reduced parking rates downtown
Source: Abraham Lincoln (Pennsylvania, 1863) at a dedication ceremony honoring soldiers who perished at the Battle of Gettysburg, a turning point in the Civil War
The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but we can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, and for the people call not perish from the earth.
What is the purpose of President Lincoln’s address?
To explain the purpose and progress of the Civil War
To describe the structure of the government of the United States
To memorialize the fallen soldiers and reaffirm the cause for which they died
To propose ways of rebuilding the country once the Civil War has ended
Which of the following things does Abraham Lincoln contrast in his address?
The action of the soldiers in Gettysburg and the attitude of the audience toward it
Government of the people and government for the people in the United States
The soldiers’ dedication to the Civil War and the listeners’ dedication to the Civil War
The soldiers’ ability to consecrate the cemetery and the speakers’ ability to consecrate the cemetery
A public television station plans to hold a debate among the candidates for governor. The race includes two candidates from major political parties and eight candidates from minor political parties. Polls show that the two major political party candidates can expect to capture about 95% of the vote statewide. The remaining eight candidates will likely split the remaining 5% of the vote. If the state invites all of the candidates to the debate, the two major party candidates will most likely decline to participate. If the station only invites the major party candidates, it risks charges of bias and a possible lawsuit on behalf of the minor party candidates.
The station manager has decided to invite only the two major party candidates. Which of the following statements would the manager most likely make to support her decision?
The station looks forward to presenting as many viewpoints as possible without favor to any of the candidates
Most of the voters plan to vote for one of the two major candidates, and the debate would be meaningless without their presence
If the major candidates choose not to make themselves available to the public, then they have to answer to voters on election day
The decision has been made in part because of economics; the station simply cannot afford a lawsuit
Which of the following statements best explains why the major party candidates would decline to participate in the debate if all candidates are invited?
The message of the major party candidates would be lost in such a big group, and their views would likely be attacked by the minor party candidates
The major party candidates would likely dominate the debate, prohibiting minor party candidates from having a fair chance to express their views
Inviting all of the candidates reveals that the station manager is biased toward the minority party candidates, and the debate would be unfair
Rodney’s Point of View about the Draft
The military draft would help democracy by compelling people of all races, economic backgrounds, and social classes to serve in the armed forces. Too many wealthy men avoid their military obligations. For example, African Americans comprise about 30 percent of the volunteer army’s personnel, although they constitute only 12 percent of the population. Furthermore, without a draft, many Americans remain ignorant about the importance of a strong national defense and perhaps be less supportive of American troops in a future conflict.
Alice’s Point of View about the Draft
The draft is a form of “involuntary servitude,” violating a person’s right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The current volunteer system should be retained, as it is more representative of American society than commonly believed. More than 95 percent of recruits are high school graduates. The volunteer force draws more people than did the draft during the Vietnam War. The greater numbers of African Americans in the volunteer army are due to educational and social opportunities available in the military which are denied to them as civilians.
What is Alice’s response to Rodney’s claim that African Americans comprise a larger share of the volunteer army’s personnel than the population in general?
The draft violates African Americans’ rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
The volunteer army does not represent American society, although African Americans make up 95 percent of military recruits
More than 95 percent of African Americans who enlist are high school graduates
The greater number of African Americans in the volunteer army are due to educational and social opportunities available in the military
With which of the following does Alice contrast the rates of volunteer recruits in the army today?
The draft during the Vietnam War
High school graduation rates
Educational and social opportunities
Which of the following statements from the passage states a fact?
The draft violates a person’s right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
More than 95 percent of recruits are high school graduates
Without a draft, many Americans remain ignorant about the importance of a strong national defense
Too many wealthy men avoid their military obligations
Rodney would most likely disagree with which of the following statements?
A mandatory draft would lead to wide-spread resentment of the military in the United States
The United States military has an obligation to increase its efforts to recruit African Americans
More members of the military come from low-income backgrounds than from high-income backgrounds
Countries that require all young men to serve in the military are better prepared during wartime
From a 1905 book describing the work of a “district leader” in the corrupt political organization of New York City
Nearly everybody goes to him for assistance of one sort or another, especially the poor of the tenements. He is always obliging. He will go to the police courts to put in a good word for the “drunks and disorderlies” or pay their fines, if a good word is not effective. He will attend christenings, weddings and funerals. He will feed the hungry and bury the dead. A philanthropist [someone who helps others out of sheer kindness]? Not at all. He is playing politics all the time.
According to the author of this passage, why does this man help the poor of the tenements?
Which part of this passage refutes the conclusion that the district leader helps others out of kindness?
He will go to the police courts to put in a good word for the “drunks and disorderlies” or pay their fines
He will attend christenings, weddings and funerals
Nearly everybody goes to him for assistance of one sort or another
A philanthropist? Not at all. He is playing politics all the time.
Major Manufactured Items and Exporters (late 1980s) by Percentage of US Dollars
A global economy exists because no single country can produce all the food and manufactured goods that its population needs and wants. The economic wealth of each nation depends on the success of its exports—goods sold to other countries—in the world marketplace. When a country buys more imports—goods from other countries—than it sells in exports, its economy may suffer.
Which of the following countries has the smallest percentage of exports for both automobiles and aircraft?
Canada c. the US
Italy d. France
Read the following sentences which contain information pertaining to the graphs
Another study was done that complied information about railways
China introduced a new automobile to the world market called the “Chia”
The circle graphs for automobiles and aircraft were created in 1990
The study was published in the Oxford Atlas of the World
Knowing these facts, what could you conclude about the graphs?
The information was not complied by experts
The information is flawed because it is out of date
The information is accurate because it used modern date research methods
The information is not conclusive because it includes countries that are world powers
Based on the information in these graphs, how could Italy improve its economic health?
By exporting more automobiles and importing more aircraft
By importing more automobiles and aircraft
By importing less than it exports
By selling more imports than it buys in exports
Which of the following statements about the circle graphs is correct?
The countries combined in the “other” category have exports of automobiles and aircraft that exceed those of Canada
Sweden had fewer car and aircraft exports than any other country in the world
If one disregards the “other” category, Japan exports more cars than any other country, and Japan exports fewer aircraft
The US and Japan export approximately the same number of cars and aircraft as they import
In the global economy, if the United States decides to stop selling goods to other countries, which of the following would most likely result?
Its economic wealth would suffer, because a nation’s economic wealth depends on the success of its exports
Its economy would thrive, because consumers would no longer be relying on foreign-produced goods
Its status as a world power would decline, because all world powers must export more than they import
Its manufacturing industries would thrive, because they no longer would have to compete in the world marketplace
Peggy Noonan worked as a speech writer for both President Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. In her book, What I Saw at the Revolution, she writes of her impressions of the Reagan administration and life at the White House. Here is Noonan’s account of her first meeting with President Reagan.
We waited outside the President’s office. An aide inside opened the door—the doors in the West Wing don’t make a sound, you feel the air and that’s how you know they are swinging—and motioned us in.
There he was, behind the desk, turning toward me: big, tall, radiant man, impeccably tailored. He twinkled at me. I was the new one, and the only woman. He walked to me and took my hand. It is the oddest thing, and true even if everyone says it: it is not possible to be nervous in his presence. He acts as if he’s lucky to be with you…
I had been at the White House less than five months at that point. I had seen how the White House works and how speechwriting works. What I was learning was…that speechwriting in the Reagan White House was where the philosophical, ideological, and political tensions of the administration get worked out.
Speechwriting was where the administration got invented every day. And so speechwriting was, for some, the center of gravity in that administration, the point where ideas and principles still counted.
Which of the following statements best explains Noonan’s credibility in making these observations?
She was the only woman speechwriter in the Reagan White House at that time
She had become a speechwriter for only a short period of time and did not have access to the President
She had no understanding of how speechwriting worked in the Reagan White House
She worked directly with the President and had first-hand knowledge of the White House
Which of the following statements does Noonan use as evidence of why people felt comfortable in the presence of President Reagan?
[Reagan] acts as if he’s lucky to be with you
Speechwriting was where the administration got invented every day
[Reagan was a] big, tall, radiant man, impeccably tailored
[Noonan] had been at the White House less than five months at that point
According to the passage, which of the following explanations is closest to Noonan’s opinion of speechwriting?
Speechwriting is not for women who are new to politics and who are awed by working for the President
Speechwriting provides a way for the administration to create and define its point of view
Speechwriting is the point at which the philosophical and political tensions of the President’s staff are at their worst
Speechwriting is not important to the administration because it is too ideological and philosophical
The Discount Rate and the Economy
Mr. Pryor has decided to buy new ovens for his pizza factory because bank lending rates are at an all-time low. If his actions are duplicated by most business owners in the nation, what, according to the diagram will result?
Economic activity will slow down
Economic activity will increase
The Federal Reserve will lower the discount rate
Businesses will put off borrowing
Which of the following statements about the diagram is true?
The actions of the Federal Reserve ripple though the economy, increasing or decreasing economic activity
If the Federal Reserve lowers the discount rate, interest rates will rise
If interest rates rise, the Federal Reserve will raise the discount rate
The Federal Reserve can raise and lower discount rates, but it cannot affect the economy of the banking system
The rising of interest rates is
A cause but not an effect
Reversing trends in banking activity
Both a cause and an effect
Continuing on an even path
What does the graph suggest about gender equality in the workplace?
High school graduates earn more than college graduates
Women must work twice as hard to get the same recognition as men
The difference between men’s and women’s earnings has decreased
Which of the following statements about the graph is correct?
Men with some high school experience earn nearly twice as much as women who have some high school
Men earn $936 per week if they are college graduates, whereas women earn only $476 per week
Women with some college experience earn slightly more than half what men with college degrees earn
At the post-graduate level, both men and women earn the same
As American settlers moved westward, the new nation confronted the issue of Native American resistance. These excerpts offer views on the westward expansion into Native American lands.
General Charles Scott, to the Miami tribe of the Ohio country, May 1791:
[The United States] has no desire to destroy the red people, although they have the power; but should you decline this invitation, and pursue your unprovoked hostilities, their strength will be exerted upon you; your warriors will be slaughtered, your towns and villages ransacked and destroyed, your wives and children carried into captivity…
Francis Bailey, English traveler journal entry of March 31, 1797:
The great cause of so many quarrels with the Indians has been, that the latter have always looked upon the attack of individuals as expressions of the disposition of the whole nation, and not infrequently have private quarrels been the cause of shedding of much blood. And it is worthy on both sides, between the Indians and those white people who live on the frontiers of the United States; so much so, that I have heard them talk with the same unconcern of killing an Indian, as of killing a deer or a turkey…
Which of the following statement best characterizes the difference between the two accounts?
Scott admits that the settlers are a weaker power but says if provoked they will retaliate, whereas Bailey sees the Native American attacks as unprovoked
Bailey attempts to understand and explain both sides of the conflict, whereas Scott’s account is threatening to the Native Americans
Unlike Bailey, Scott avoids explaining why Native Americans act the way they do and instead focuses on why the quarrels exist
Unlike Scott, Bailey believes that all warfare between the settlers and the Native Americans is caused by the native Americans
What seems to be the settlers’ opinion of Native Americans in these accounts? Settlers think Indians
Are difficult to overcome
Can be killed without guilt
Want to join their society
Which writer supports his position with evidence, and what is that evidence?
Scott says the United States has no desire to destroy the red people
Bailey says Indians look on their attacks as expressing the wishes of their entire nation
Scott says that their towns and villages will be ransacked
Statement 1: Death is the proper “repayment” for the terrible crime of murder
Statement 2: The State kills not to benefit society, but to satisfy the mob emotions of hate and revenge
Statement 3: The judicial system provides death row prisoners, even the poor, with ample opportunities for appeal
Statement 4: If it were not for the threat of executions, the murder rate in the United States would be far greater
Statement 5: Because many murders occur in the heat of emotion when the murderer is not thinking clearly, fear of the death penalty does not restrain a person from committing murder
Statement 6: The biblical idea of “an eye for an eye” applies here
Statement 7: The judicial system has historically been unable to apply punishments equally
Which of the following correctly categorizes the statements?
1, 3, and 4 favors the death penalty; 2, 5, 6 and 7 are against it
1, 3, 4, and 6 favors the death penalty; 2, 5, and 7 are against it
1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 favors the death penalty; 5 and 7 are against it
1, 4, 6 and 7 favors the death penalty; 2, 3, and 5 are against it
“Poor people and African Americans are the most likely people to be executed, and an individual who kills a white person is four times more likely to be executed than one who kills an African American.” Which of the statements would this quote best support?
3 b. 2 c. 6 d.
Diagnostic Pre-Test for High School Social Studies