Supplementary Web Information (Torchin et al.) Examples of parasites and introduced species

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    1. Supplementary Web Information (Torchin et al.)

  1. Examples of parasites and introduced species

Most parasites of introduced species were parasites of native hosts that colonized introduced hosts. These parasites reached prevalences similar to parasites that were introduced from the native range of the invading host. For example, introduced populations of the mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, were infected with 31 parasite species. Of these, 21 do not occur in the duck’s native range. Additionally, the mean prevalence of the native parasites that colonized introduced populations was 12% compared to 10% for those that derived from the native range of the duck.

Introduced hosts may become sinks for some native parasites if they are insufficiently adapted to the novel hosts to complete their development. Some of these maladapted parasites can cause substantial pathology in their new hosts. As an example, the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was introduced from the eastern U.S.A. to the San Francisco Bay delta, where it became commonly infected by larval stages of the tapeworm, Lacistorhynchus dollfusi 1. The parasite elicits a strong immune response in the host, preventing its further development but also harming the fish. Such maladaptions may diminish over time due to natural selection. This was demonstrated by Sakanari and Moser2 who experimentally infected striped bass from San Francisco Bay as well as naïve bass from native Atlantic populations. They found that fish from naïve native populations had higher intensity infections and elicited a much stronger immune response, resulting in more tissue damage to the fish.

The likelihood that a parasite will encounter and shift to an introduced species may change over time, as will the potential for a parasite to evolve the ability to utilize a novel (introduced) host. This is supported by the positive association between parasite colonization on an invader and time since invasion3-5. Additionally, we surmise that species that invade regions with phylogenetically and ecologically similar species will experience higher rates of parasitization by native parasites than will hosts that became established in areas without similar species. Similarly, the larger the new geographic range of the invader, the more parasites it is likely to encounter6.

  1. Criteria for selecting studies

We generated a list of species for the analysis using a stratified random procedure designed to minimize biases associated with non-random selection. First, we identified lists of invasive species for particular geographic regions7-11. We then conducted a literature search of all species listed in these references using Biological Abstracts (1985-2001, online versions) using genus, species and parasit# or infect# or pathogen# as keywords. We selected host species where this search revealed ten or more citations, or those, which we knew had been parasitologically examined. For taxa that had over ten species which fit these criteria, we randomly selected ten species and continued our search. From this list, we compiled parasitological data from any available source. Several of these had been sufficiently studied to provide prevalence data in both the native and introduced ranges of the invader. We excluded studies focusing on a single parasite species. We also excluded host species under culture from our comparison because these species are introduced intentionally, are managed to reduce parasitism and are typically grown at unnaturally high densities which promotes disease transmission. As a result of our search strategy, for amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the parasitological studies used for comparing native and introduced regions were comprised exclusively of parasitic helminths.


1. Sakanari, J. A. & Moser, M. Lesion induction by the plerocercoid Lacistorhynchus tenuis (Cestoda) and wound healing in the striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Journal of Fish Biology 28, 289-296 (1986).

2. Sakanari, J. A. & Moser, M. Adaptation of an introduced host to an indigenous parasite. Journal of Parasitology 76, 420-423 (1990).

3. Blaustein, A. R., Kuris, A. M. & Alió, J. J. Pest and parasite species-richness problems. American Naturalist 122, 556-566 (1983).

4. Cornell, H. V. & Hawkins, B. A. in Parasitoid Community Ecology (eds. Hawkins, B. A. & Sheehan, W.) 77-89 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994).

5. Guegan, J. F. & Kennedy, C. R. Maximum local helminth parasite community richness in British freshwater fish: A test of the colonization time hypothesis. Parasitology 106, 91-100 (1993).

6. Combes, C. Parasitism: the ecology and evolution of intimate interactions (ed. Thompson, J. N.) (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001).

7. CIESM. Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean Sea, (2001).

8. Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff, P., Carlton, J. T., Wonham, M. J. & Hines, A. H. Invasions of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31, 481-531 (2000).

9. Smith, H. M. & Kohler, A. J. A survey of herpetological introductions in the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 80, 1-24 (1978).

10. USGS. US Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, (2001).

11. Contreras-B, S. & Escalante-C., M. A. in Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes

(eds. Courtenay, W. R. & Stauffer, J. R.) 103-130 (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1984).

Table of host species used in our comparison of parasites in native and introduced* regions. *References with asterisks indicate introduced host populations.

  1. Host Taxon

  1. Host Species

  1. References


Batillaria cumingii

Harada and Suguri, 1989; Rybakov and Lukomskaya, 1986; Shimura and

Ito, 1980; *Ching, 1991; *Torchin et al. (in review); *Whitlatch, 1974


Bythinia tentaculata

Mattison et al., 1995; Probert, 1966; Toledo et al., 1998; *Lepitski and Scott,

1994; *Lepitski et al., 1994, *Ménard and Scott, 1987


Dreissena polymorpha

Burlakova et al., 1998; Molloy et al., 1996; Wallet et al., 1985; *Conn and

Conn, 1995; *Conn et al., 1996; *Toews et al., 1993


Ilyanassa obsoleta

Curtis, 1997; Curtis and Hubbard, 1990; Stambaugh and McDermott, 1969;

*Grodhaus and Keh, 1958


Littorina littorea

Hughes and Answer, 1982; Huxham et al., 1993; Lauckner, 1987; Matthews

et al., 1985; Williams and Ellis, 1975; *Hoff, 1941; *Pohley, 1976


Melanoides tuberculata

Ismail and Abdel-Hafez, 1987; Ismail and Arif, 1993; *Mitchell et al., 2000;

*Salgado-Maldonado, 1995


Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Winterbourn, 1973; *Fretter and Graham, 1962; *Torchin (unpub. data)


Carcinus maenas

*Brattey et al., 1985; *Torchin et al., 2001


Cancer novaezelandiae

Kuris and Gurney, 1997; Torchin et al., 2002b


Hemigrapsus sanguineus

Yamaguchi et al., 1994; *McDermott, 1998; *Torchin et al., 2002a


Gambusia affinis

Davis and Huffman, 1977; Davis and Huffman, 1978; Marcogliese and

Esch, 1989; Overstreet, 1997; Winemiller and Winsborough, 1990;

*Dove, 2000; *Torres et al., 1991


Onchorynchus mykiss

Bortz et al., 1988; Ching, 1985; Kabata and Whitaker, 1989; *Kennedy

et al., 1986; *Poynton, 1986; *Weekes and Penlington, 1986


Perca fluviatilis

Halmetoja et al., 2000; Lucky and Navrátil, 1984; *Dove, 1999


Pimephales promelas

Dick, 1987; Dick et al., 1987; Marcogliese, 1991; Smith, 1986; *Brouder

and Hoffnagle, 1997; *Clarkson et al., 1997


Poecilia lattipinna

Hoffman, 1999; *Torchin (unpub. data)


Poecilia reticulata

Harris and Lyles, 1992; Lyles, 1990; *Dove and Ernst, 1998; *Font and

Tate, 1994


Bufo marinus

Galicia-Guerrero et al., 2000; McKenzie, 2000; *Barton and Pichelin, 1999; *Goldberg and Bursey, 1992; *Goldberg et al., 1995


Rana catesbeiana

Andrews et al., 1992; Bursey and DeWolf, 1998; McAlpine, 1997; *Goldberg

et al., 1998; *Oyamada et al., 1998


Lepidodactylus lugubris

Bursey and Goldberg, 2001; Goldberg et al., 1998;Goldberg et al., 2000;

Hanley et al., 1995; *Goldberg and Bursey, 1997


Anas platyrhynchos

Islam et al., 1988; Kulisic and Lepojev, 1994; *Eom et al., 1984; *Farias

and Canaris, 1986; *Shaw and Kogan, 1980


Passer domesticus

Borgsteede et al., 2000; Joszt, 1962; *Brasil and Amato, 1992; *Cooper

and Crites, 1974; *Cooper and Crites, 1976; *Hopkins and Wheaton, 1935


Sturnus vulgaris

Borggsteede et al., 2000; Gundlach, 1965; James and Llewellyn, 1967;

Owen and Pemberton, 1962; *Boyd, 1951; *Carter et al., 1973; *Cooper

and Crites, 1975; *Cooper and Crites, 1976; *Vincent, 1972


Oryctolagus cuniculus

Allan et al., 1999; Blasco et al.,1996; Boag, 1985; 1987;1988; Boag and

Iason, 1986; Boag and Kolb, 1989; Butler, 1994; Molina et al., 1998; *Bull,

1964; *Casanova et al., 1996; *Dudzinski and Mykytowycz, 1963;

*Dunsmore and Dudzinski, 1968; *Hobbs et al., 1999; *Pisano et al., 2001


Rattus rattus

Hasegawa et al., 1994; Hasegawa and Syafruddin, 1995; Huq et al., 1985;

Mafiana et al., 1997; Casanova et al., 1996; *Miquel et al., 1996;

*Pisano et al., 2001


Trichosurus vulpecula

O'Callaghan and Moore, 1986; Presidente et al., 1982; *Stankiewicz

et al., 1998


Vulpes vulpes

Criado-Fornelio et al., 2000; Deblock et al., 1988; Hofer et al., 2000;

Papadopoulos et al., 1997; Richards et al., 1995; *Coman, 1973;

*Conti, 1984; *Davidson et al., 1992; El-Shehabi et al., 1999; *Ryan,

1976; *Sato et al., 1999

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