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2.1.3 Ocean carbon fluxes

77. Arrigo,K.R., Van Dijken,G. and Long,M. 2008. Coastal Southern Ocean: A strong anthropogenic CO2 sink. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35:L21602, doi:10.1020/2008GL035624, 2008.

78. Bates,N.R., Moran,S.B., Hansell,D.A. and Mathis,J.T. 2006. An increasing CO2 sink in the Arctic Ocean due to sea-ice loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L23609, doi:10.1029/2006GL027028, 2006.

79. Jacobson,A.R., Mikaloff Fletcher,S.E., Gruber,N. et al. 2007. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results. GBC 21, GB1020, doi:10.1029/2006GB002703, 2007.

80. Law,R.M., Matear,R.J. and Francey,R.J. 2008. Comment on “Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change”. Science 319:570a.

81. Le Quéré, C., Rödenbeck,C., Buitenhuis,E.T. et al. 2007. Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change. Science 316:1735-1738.

82. Le Quere,C., Rödenbeck,C., Buitenhuis,E.T. et al. 2008. Response to comments on “Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change”. Science 319:570c.

83. Marinov, I., A. Gnanadesikan,A., Toggweiler,J.R. and Sarmiento, J.L.. 2006. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide. Nature 441:964-967.

84. Mikaloff Fletcher,S.E., Gruber,N., Jacobsen,A.R. et al. 2006. Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport and storage by the oceans. GBC 20, GB2002 doi:10.1029/2005GB002530, 2006.

85. Quay,P., Sonnerup,R., Stutsman,J. et al. 2007. Anthropogenic CO2 accumulation rates in the North Atlantic Ocean from changes in the 13C/12C of dissolved organic carbon. GBC 21, GB1009, doi: 10.102761, 2007.

86. Schuster,U. and Watson,A.J. 2007. A variable and decreasing sink for atmospheric CO2 in the North Atlantic. JGR 112,C11006, doi:10.1029/2006JC003941, 2007.

87. Swingedouw,D., Bopp,L., Matras,A. and Braconnot,P. 2007. Effect of land-ice melting and associated changes in the AMOC result in little overall impact on oceanic CO2 uptake. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L23706, doi:10.1020/2007GL031990, 2007.

88. Terenzi,F., Hall,T.M., Khatiwala,S. et al. 2007. Uptake of natural and anthropogenic carbon by the Labrador Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L06608, doi:10.1020/2006GL028543, 2007.

89. Zickfeld,K., Fyfe,J.C., Saenko,O.A. et al. 2007. Response of the global carbon cycle to human-induced change in Southern Hemisphere winds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L12712, doi:10.1029/2006GL028797, 2007.

90. Zickfield, K, Fyfe,J.C., Eby ,M. and Weaver,A.J. 2008. Comment on “Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change”. Science 319:570b.

91. Arrigo,K.R. 2007. Marine manipulations. Nature 450:491-492.

92. Buesseler,K.O., Lamborg,C.H., Boyd,P.W. et al. 2007. Revisiting carbon flux through the ocean’s twilight zone. Science 316:567570.

93. Duce,R.A., LaRoche,J., Altieri,K. et al. 2008. Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean. Science 320:893-896.

94. Parekh,P., Dutkiewicz,S., Follows,M.J. and Ito,T. 2006. Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L03610, doi:10.1029/2005GL025098, 2006.

    1. Other Greenhouse Gases

2.2.1 Methane

95. Grachev,A,M., Brook,E.J. and Severinghaus,J.P. 2007. Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b-5a transition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L20703, doi:10.1029/2007GL029799, 2007.

96. Houweling,S., van der Werf,G.R., Klein Goldwijk,K. et al. 2008. Early anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the variation of CH4 and 13CH4 over the past millennium. GBC 22,GB1002, doi:10.1029/2007GL002961, 2008.

97. Huber,C., Leuenberger,M., Spahni,R. et al. 2008. Isotope calibrated Greenland temperature record over Marine Isotope Stage 3 and its relation to CH4. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 243:504-519.

98. Loulerge,L., Schilt,A., Spahni,R. et al. 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453:383-386.

99. O’Hara,K.D. 2008. A model for late Quaternary methane ice core signal: Wetlands versus a shallow marine source. Geophys. Res. Lett.,35, L02712, doi:10.1029/2007GL032317, 2007.

100. Wolff,E. and Spahni,R. 2007. Methane and nitrous oxide in the ice core record. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A 365:1775-1792.

101. Khalil,M.A.K., Butenhoff,C.L. and Rasmussen,R.A. 2007. Atmospheric methane: trends and cycles of sources and sinks. Env. Sci. Tech. 41:2131-2137.

102. Rigby, M., Prinn,R.G., Fraser,P.J. et al. 2008. Renewed growth in atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L22805, doi:10.1029/2008GL036037, 2008.

103. Simpson,I.J., Rowland,F.S., Meinardi,S. and Blake,D.R. 2006. Influence of biomass burning during recent fluctuations in the slow growth of global tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L22808, doi:10.1029/2006GL027330, 2006.

104. Fischer,H., Behrens,M., Bock,M. et al. 2007. Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination. Nature 452:864-867.

105. Mastepanov,M., Sigsgaard,C., Dlugokencky,E.J. et al. 2008. Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing. Nature 456:628-631.

106. Walter,K.M., Zimov,S.A., Chanton,J.P. et al. 2006. Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature 443:71-75.

107. Walter,K.M., Edwards,M.E., Grosse,G. et al. 2007. Thermokarst lakes as a source of atmospheric CH4 during the last deglaciation. Science 318:633-636.

108. Walter,K.M., Smith,L.C. and Chapin, F.S. III. 2007. Methane bubbling from northern lakes: present and future contributions to the global methane budget. Phil. Trans.Royal Soc. A. 365:1657-1676.

109. Zhuang,Q., Melillo,J.M., McGuire,A.D. et al. 2007. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region’s greenhouse gas budget. Ecological Applications 17:203-212.

110. Dueck,T.A., de Visser,R., Poorter,H. et al. 2007. No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: a 13C-labelling approach. New Phytologist 175:29-35.

111. Keppler,F., Hamilton,J.T.G., Braß,M. and Rockmann,T. 2006. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439:187-190.

112. Lowe,D.C. 2006. A green source of surprise. Nature 439:148-149.

113. Schiermeier,Q. 2007. Methane mystery continues. Nature 442:730-731.

114. Schiermeier,Q. 2006. Methane finding baffles scientists. Nature 439:128.

115. Archer,D, and Brovkin,V. 2008. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2. CC 90: 283-297.

116. Archer,D., Buffett,B. and Brovkin,V. 2008. Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle. PNAS online, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800885105.

117. Etiope,G., Lassey,K.R., Klusman,R.W. and Boschi,E. 2008. Reappraisal of the fossil methane budget and related emissions from geologic sources. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L09307, doi:10.1029/2008GL033623, 2008.

118. Lamarque,J.-F. 2008. Estimating the potential for methane clathrate instability in the 1%-CO2 IPCC AR-4 simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L19806, doi:10.1029/2008GL035291, 2008.

119. Reagan,M.T. and Moridis,G.J. 2007. Oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociation under climate change scenarios. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L22709, doi:10.1029/2007GL031671.

120. Reagan,M.T. and Moridis,G.J. 2008. Dynamic response of oceanic hydrate deposits to ocean temperature change. JGR 113, C12023, doi:10.1029/2008JC004938, 2008.

121. Sowers,T. 2006. Late Quaternary atmospheric CH4 isotope record suggests marine clathrates are stable. Science 311:838-842.

122. Curry,C.L. 2007. Modeling the soil consumption of atmospheric methane at the global scale. GBC 21, GB4012, doi:10.1029/2006GB002818, 2007.

123. Dutaur,L. and Verchot,L.V. 2007. A global inventory of the soil CH4 sink. GBC 21, GB4013, doi:10.1029/2006GB002734, 2007.

      1. Nitrous Oxide

124. Werner,C., Butterbach-Bahl,K., Haas,E. et al. 2007. A global inventory of N2O emissions from tropical rainforest soils using a detailed biogechemical model. GBC 21, GB3010, doi:10.1029/2006GB002909, 2007.

      1. Tropospheric ozone

125. Cooper,O.R., Stohl,A., Trainer,M. et al. 2006. Large upper troposphere ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network JGR 111, D24S05, doi:10.1029/2006JD007306, 2006.

126. Horowitz,L.W., 2006. Past present and future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and aerosols: Methodology, ozone evaluation and sensitivity to aerosol wet removal. JGR 111, D22211, doi:10.1029/2005JD006937, 2006.

127. Read,P. 2008. Biosphere carbon stock management: addressing the threat of abrupt climate change in the next few decades: an editorial essay. CC 87:305-320.

      1. Halogens

128. Prathur,M.J. and Hsu,J. 2008. NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L12810, doi:10.1029/2008GL034542, 2008.

129 . Weiss,R.F., Mühle,J., Salameh,P.K. and Harth,C.M. 2008. Nitrogen triflouride in the global atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20821, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035913, 2008.

    1. Aerosols

130. Lambert,F., Delmonte,B., Petit,J.R. et al. 2008. Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature 452:616-620.

131. Winckler,G., Anderson,R.F., Fleisher,M.Q. et al. 2008 Covariant glacial-interglacial dust fluxes in the equatorial Pacific and Antarctica. Science 320:93-96.

132. Bond,T.C., Bhardwaj,E., Dong,R. et al. 2007. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000. GBC 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840, 2007.

133. Mischenko,M.L., Geogdzhayev,I.V., Rossow,W.B. et al. 2007. Long-term satellite record reveals likely recent aerosol trend. Science 315:1543.

134. Schwarz,J.P., Gao,R.S., Spackman,J.R. et al. 2008. Measurement of the mixing state, mass and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13810, doi:10.1029/2008GL033968.

3.0 Radiative Forcing

135. Kim,D. and Ramanathan,V. 2008. Solar radiation budget and radiative forcing due to aerosols and clouds. JGR 113, D02203, doi:10.1029/2007JD008434, 2008.

3.1 Greenhouse Gases

136. Hofmann,D.J., Butler,J.H., Dlugokencky,E.J. et al. 2006. The role of carbon dioxide in climate forcing from 1979 to 2004: Introduction of the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index. Tellus 58B:614-619.

137. Joos, F. and R. Spahni. 2008. Rates of change in natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing over the past 20,000 years. PNAS 105:1425-1430.

138. Myhre,G., Nilsen,J.S., Gulstad,L. et al. 2007. Radiative forcing due to stratospheric water vapour from CH4 oxidation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L01807, doi:10.1029/2006GL027472, 2007

139. Ito,A., SSudo,K., Akimoto,H. et al. 2007. Global modeling analysis of tropospheric ozone and its radiative forcing from biomass burning emissions in the twentieth century. JGR 112, D24307, doi:10.1029/2007JD008745, 2007

140. Worden,H.M., Bowman,K.W., Worden,J.R. et al. 2008. Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from tropospheric ozone. Nature Geoscience 1:305-308.

141. Derwent,R.G., Stevenson,D.S., Doherty,R.M. et al. 2008. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: Spatial and seasonal variations. CC 88:385-401.

142. Köhler,M.O., Rädel,G., Dessens,O. et al. 2008. Impact of perturbations to nitrogen oxygen emissions from global aviation. JGR 113, D11305, doi:10.1029/2007JD009140, 2008.

143. West,J.J., Fiore,A.M., Naik,V. et al. 2007. Ozone air quality and radiative forcing consequences of change in ozone precursor emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L06806, doi: 10.1029/2006GL029173, 2007.

144. Butchart,N., Scaife,A.A., Bourqui,M. et al. .2006. Simulations of anthropogenic change in the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Climatic Dynamics 27:272-741

145. Perlwitz, J., Pawson,S., Fogt,R. et al. 2008. Impact of stratospheric ozone hole recovery on Antarctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08714, doi:10,1029/2008GL033317.

146. Portmann,R.W. and solomon,S. 2007. Indirect radiative forcing of the ozone layer during the 21st century. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02813, doi:10.1029/2006GL028252, 2007.

3.2 Anthropogenic Aerosols

147. Bellouin,N., Jones,A., Haywood,J. and Christopher,S.A. 2008. Updated estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite observations and comparison against the Hadley Centre climate model. JGR 113, D10205, doi:10.1029/2007JD009385, 2008.

148. Haywood,J. and Schulz,M. 2007. Causes of the reduction in uncertainty in the anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate between IPCC (2002) and IPCC (2007). Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20701, doi:10.1029/2007GL030749, 2007.

149. Liu,X., Penner,J.E., Das,B. et al. 2007. Uncertainties in global aerosol simulations: Assessment using three meteorological sets. JGR 112, D11212, doi:10.1029/2006JD008216, 2007.

150. Quaas,J., Boucher,O., Bellouin,N., and Kinne,S. 2008. Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing. JGR 113, D05204, doi:10.1029/2007JD008962, 2008.

151. Bréon,F.-M. 2006. How doe aerosols affect cloudiness and climate? Science 313:623-624.

152. Kaufman,Y.J. and Koren,I. 2006. Smoke and pollution aerosol effect on cloud cover. Science 313:655-658.

153. Lubin,D. and Vogelmann,A.M. 2006. A climatologically significant aerosol longwave indirect effect in the Arctic. Nature 439:453-456.

154. Menon,S., Del Genio,A.D., Kaufman,Y. et al. 2008. Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite retrievals and the GIS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect. JGR 113, D14S22, doi:10.1029/2007JD009442, 2008

155. Rosenfeld,D. 2006. Aerosols, clouds and climate. Science 312:1324.

156. Takemura,T., Kaufman,Y.J., Remer,L.A. and Nakajima,T. 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34,L04802, doi:10.1029/2006GL028349, 2007.

157. Schreier,M., Mannstein,H., Eyring,V. and Bovensmann,H. 2007. Global ship track distribution and radiative forcing from 1 year of AATSR data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17814, doi:10.1029/2007GL030644, 2007.

158. Alpert,P. and Kishcha,P. 2008. Quantification of the effect of urbanization on solar dimming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L08801, doi:10.1029/2007GL033012, 2008.

159. Kvalevåg,M.M. and Myhre,G. 2007. Human impact on direct and diffuse solar radiation during the industrial era. J. Climate 20:4874-4883.

160. Menon,S., Unger,N., Koch,D. et al. 2008. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030. Environmental Research Letters 3 (2008) 024004.

161. Morgan,M.G., Adams,P.J. and Keith,D.W. 2006. Elicitation of expert judgments of aerosol forcing. CC 75:195-214.

162. Noris,J.R. and Wild,M. 2007. Trends in aerosol radiative effects over Europe inferred from observed cloud cover, solar ‘dimming’ and solar ‘brightening’. JGR 112, D08214, doi:10.1029/2006JD007794.

163. Romanou,A., Liepert,B., Schmidt,G.A. et al. 2007. 20th century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L05713, doi:10.1029/2006GL028356, 2007.

164. Ruckstuhl,C., Philipona,R., Behrens,K. et al. 2008. Aerosol and cloud effects on solar brightening and the recent warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L12708, doi:10.1029/2008GL034228, 2008.

165. Wild,M., Ohmura,A. and Makowski,K. 2007. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L04702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028031, 2007.

166. Cai,W., Bi,D., Church,J. et al. 2006. Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemispheric ocean circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L21707, doi:10.1029/2006GL027513, 2006.

167. Rädel,G. and Shine,K.P. 2008. Radiative forcing by persistent contrails and its dependence on cruise altitudes. JGR 113, D07105, doi:10.1029/2007JD009117, 2008.

168. Stuber,N., Forster,P., Rädel,G. and Shine,K. 2006. The importance of the diurnal and annual cycle of air traffic for contrail radiative forcing. Nature 441:864-867.

169. Ramanathan,V. and Carmichael,G. 2008. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 1:221-227.

170. Ramanathan,V., Ramana,M.V., Roberts,G. et al. 2007. Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption. Nature 448:575-578.

171. Roeckner,E., Stier,P., Feichter,J. et al. 2006. Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change. Climate Dynamics 27:553-571.

172. Satheesh,S.K., Moorthy,K.K., Babu,S.S. et al. 2008. Climate implications of large warming by elevated aerosol over India. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L19809, doi:10.1029/2008GL034944, 2008.

173. Wang,C. 2007. Impact of direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosols on tropical convective precipitation. Geophys. Res. Let. 34, L05709, doi:10.1029/2006GL028416, 2007.

174. Alley,R.B. 2007. “C”ing Arctic climate with black ice. Science 317: 1333-1334.

175. Flanner,M.G., Zender,C.S., Randerson,J.T. and Rasch,P.J. 2007. Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow. JGR 112, D11202, doi:10.1029/2006JD008003, 2007.

176. McConnell,J.R., Edwards,R., Kok,G.L. et al. 2007. 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing. Science 317:1381-1384.

3.3 Land Use Change

177. Barnes,C.A. and Roy,D.P. 2008. Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use albedo change. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L09706, doi:10.1029/2008GL0335467, 2008.

178. Betts,A.K., Desjardins,R.L., Worth,D. 2007. Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy budget in BOREAS. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 156-169.

179. Betts,R.A., Falloon,P.D., Klein Goldewijk,K. and Ramankutty,N. 2007. Biogeophysical effects oif land use on climate: Model simulations of radiaitve focing and large-scale temperature change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142:216-233.

180 . Brovkin,V., Claussen,M., Driesschaert,E. et al. 2006. Biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes simlated by six Earth system models of intermediate complexity. Climate Dynamics 26:587-600.

181. Davin,E.L., de Noblet-Ducourdré,N. and Friedlingstein,P. 2007. Impact of land cover change on surface climate: Relevance of the radiative forcing concept. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L13702, doi:10.1029/2007GL029678, 2007.

182. Desjardins,R.L.,Sivakumar,M.V.K. and de Kimpe,C. 2007. The contribution of agriculture to the state of climate: Workshop summary and recommendations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 142: 314-324.

183. Findell,K.L., Shevliakova,E., Milly,P.C.D. and Stouffer,R.J. 2007. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. J. Climate 20:3621-3634.

184. Gameda,S., Qian,B., Campbell,C.A. and Desjardins,R.L. 2007. Climatic trends associated with summerfallow in the Canadian Prairies. Agricultural and Forst Meteorology 142:170-185.

185. Marlon,J.R., Bartlein,P.J., Carcaillet,C. et al. 2008. Climate and human influences on global biomass burning over the past two millennia. Nature Geoscience 1, 697 – 702.

186. Voldoire,A. 2006. Quantifying the impact of future land-use changes against increases in GHG concentrations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,L04701, doi:10.1029/2005GL024354, 2006.

3.4 Natural Forcings

187. Camp,C.D. and Tung,K.K. 2007. Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L14703, doi:10.1029/2007GL030207, 2007.

188. Clark,S. 2006. Saved by the sun. New Scientist, 16 Sept:32-36.

189. Foukal,P , Fröhlich,C., Spruit,H. and Wigley, T. M. L. 2006. Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth’s climate. Nature 443:161-166.

190. Preminger,D.G. and Walton,S.R. 2006. Historical solar variability derived from sunspot areas using a FIR model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,L23108, doi:10.1029/2006GL027823, 2006.

191. Scafetta,N. and West,B.J. 2006. Phenomenological solar signature in 400 years of reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature record. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17718, doi:10.1029/2006GL027142, 2006.

192. Scafetta,N. and West,B.J. 2006. Phenomenological solar contribution to the 1900-2000 global surface warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L05708, doi:10.1029/2005GL025539, 2006.

193. Scafetta,N. and West,B.J. 2007. Phenomenological reconstructions of the solar signature in the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature records since 1600. JGR 112, D24S03, doi:10.1029/2007JD008437, 2007.

194. Usoskin,I.G., Solanki,S.K. and Korte,M. 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L08103, doi:10.1029/2006GL025921, 2006.

195. Harrison,R.G. and Stephenson,D.B. 2006. Empirical evidence for a nonlinear effect of galactic cosmic rays on clouds. Proc. Royal Society A 462:1221-1233.

196. Kerr,R.A. 2007. Is a thinning haze unveiling the real global warming? Science 315:1480.

197. Mahowald,N.M., Yoshioka,M., Collins,W.D. et al. 2006. Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current and doubled-carbon dioxide climates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,L20705, doi:10.1029/2006GL026126, 2006.

198. Mazzarella,A. 2007. The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: The Earth’s rotation and atmosphere circulation connection. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 88:193-199.

199. Mischenko,M.I., Geogdzhayev,I.V., Rossow,W.B. et al. 2007. Long-term satellite record reveals likely recent aerosol trend. Science 315:1543.

200. Moulin,C. and Chiaopello,I. 2006. Impact of human-induced desertification on the intensifiuation of Sahel dust emission and export over the last decades. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L18808, doi:10.1029/2006GL025923, 2006.

201. Sloan,. and Wolfendale,A.W. 2008. Testing the proposed causal link between cosmic rays and cloud cover. Environmental Research Letters 3 (2008) 024001.

202. Stothers,R.B. 2007. Three centuries of observation of stratospheric transparency. CC 83:515-521.

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