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6.5 Extremes

6.5.1 Temperature and Precipitation

865. Barnett,D.N., Brown,S.J., Murphy,J.M. et al. 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in changes in extreme event frequency in response to doubled CO2 using a large ensemble of GCM simulations. Climate Dynamics 26: 489-511.

866. Clark,R.T., Brown,S.J. and Murphy,J.M. 2006. Modelling Northern Hemisphere summer heat extreme changes and their uncertainties using a physics ensemble of climate sensitivity experiments. J. Climate 19:4418-4435.

867. Kolstad,E.W. and Bracegirdle,T.J. 2007. Marine cold-air outbreaks in the future: An assessment of IPCC AR4 model results for the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Dynamics 30:871-885.

868. Sterl,A., Severijns,., Dijkstra,H. Et al. 2008. When can we expect extremely high surface temperatures? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L14703, doi:10.1029/2008GL034071, 2008.

869. Tebaldi,C., Hayhoe,K.,Arblaster,J. and Meehl,G.A. 2006. Going to the extremes. CC 79:185-211.

870. Vavrus,S., Walsh,J., Chapman,W.L. and Portis,D. 2006. the behaviour of extreme cold air outbreaks under greenhouse warming. Int. J. Climatology 26.1133-1147.

871. Cheng,C.S., Auld,H., Li,G. et al. 2007. Possible impacts of climate change on freezing rain in south-central Canada using downscaled future climate scenarios. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. 7: 71-87.

6.5.2 Tropical and extra tropical cyclones

872. Anthes,R.A., Corell,R.W., Holland,G. et al. 2006. Hurricances and global warming – potential linkages and consequences. BAMS 87:623-628.

873. Bengstsson,L., Hodges,K.I. and Roechner,E. 2006. Storm tracks and climate change. J. Climate 19:3518-3543.

874. Emanuel,K., Sundararajan,R. and Williams,J. 2008. Hurricanes and global warming: Results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. BAMS 89: 347-367.

875. Nolan,D.S. and Rappin,E.D. 2008. Increased sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to wind shear in higher SST environments. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L14805, doi:10.1029/2008GL0341347, 2008.

876. Semmler,T., Varghese,S., McGrath,R. et al. 2008. Regional model simulation of North Atlantic cyclones: Present climate and idealized response to increased sea surface temperature. JGR 113, D02107, doi:10.1029/2006JD008213, 2008.

877. Vecchi,G.A. and Soden,B.J. 2007. Effect of remote sea surface temperature change on tropical cyclone potential intensity. Nature 450:1066-1070.

878. Jiang,J. and Perrie,W. 2007. The impacts of climate change on autumn North Atlantic midlatitude cyclones. J. Climate, 20, 1174-1186.

879. Jiang,J. and Perrie,W. 2008. Climate change effects on North Atlantic cyclones. JGR 113, D09102, doi:10.1029/2007JD008749, 2008.

880. Lambert,S., Fyfe,J.C. 2006. Changes in winter cyclone frequencies and strengths simulated in enhanced greenhouse warming experiments: Results from the models participating in the IPCC diagnostic exercise. Climate Dynamic 26:713-728. .

881. Pinto,J.G., Ulbrich,U., Leckebusch,G.C. et al. 2007. Changes in storm track and cyclone activity in three SRTES ensemble experiments with the ECHAM5/MPI-OMI GCM. Climate Dynamics 29:195-210.

882. Teng,H., Washington,W.M. and Meehl,G.A. 2007. Interannual variations and future change of wintertime extratropical cyclone activity over North America in CCSM3. Climate Dynamics 30:673-686.

6.6 Societal impacts

6.6.1 Health

883. McMichael,A.J., Nyong,A. and Corvalan,C. 2008. Global environmental change and health: Impacts, inequalities and the health sector. Brit. Med. J. 336:191-194.

884. Patz,J.A., Campbell-Lendrum,D., Holloway,T. and Foley,J.A. 2006. Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438:310-317.

885. Bell,M., Goldberg,R., Hogrefe,C., et al. 2007. Climate change, ambient ozone, and health in 50 US cities. CC 82: 61-76.

886. Cheng,C.S., Campbell,M., Li,Q. et al. 2007. A synoptic climatologuical approach to assess climatic impact of air quality in south-central Canada. Part II: Future estimates. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 182:117-130.

887. Doyon,B., Belanger,D. and Gosselin,P. 2008. The potential impact of climate change on annual and seasonal mortality for three cities in Quebec, Canada. Int. J. Health Geographics 7:23.

888. Jacobson,M.Z. 2008. On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L03809, doi:10.1029/2007GL031101, 2008.

889. Liao,H., Chen,W.-T. and Seinfeld,J.H. 2006. Role of climate change in global predictions of future tropospheric ozone and aerosols. JGR 111, D12304, doi:10.1029/2005JD006852, 2006.

890. Murasaki,K. and Hess,P. 2006. How does climate change contribute to surface ozone change over the United States? JGR 111, D05301, doi:10.1029/2005JD005873, 2006.

891. Sanderson,M.G., Collins,W.J., Hemming,D.L. and Betts,R.A. 2007. Stomatal conductance changes due to increasing carbon dioxide levels: Projected impacts on surface ozone levels. Tellus 59B:404-411.

892. Fleury.M., Charron,D.F., Holt,J.D. et al. 2006. A time series analysis of the relationship of ambient temperature and common bacterial enteric infections in two Canadian provinces. Int. J. Biometeorology 50:385-391.

893. Kilpatrick,A.M., Meola,M.A., Moudy,R.M. and Kramer,L.D. 2008. Temperature, viral genetics, and the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes, PLoS Pathogens 4(6): e1000092. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000092.

894. Ogden,N.H., Maarouf,A., Barker,I.K. et al. 2006. Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. Int J Parasitology 36:63-70.

895. Medina-Ramón,M. and Schwartz,J. 2007. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: A study of acclimatization and effect modification in 50 US cities. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 64:827-833.

6.6.2 Social-Economic

896. Barnett,J. and Adger,W.N. 2007. Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26:639-655.

897. Hendrix,C.S. and Glaser,S.M. 2007. Trends and triggers: Climate, climate change and civil conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa. Political Geography 26:695-715.

898. Nordås,R. and Gleditsch,N.P. 2007. Climate change and conflict. Political Geography 26:627-638.

899. Raleigh,C. and Urdal,H. 2007. Climate change, environmental degradation and armed conflict. Political Geography 26:674-694.

900. Zhang,D.D., Brecke,P., Lee,H.F. et al. 2007. Gliobal climate change, war and population decline in recent human history. PNAS 104:19214-19219.

901. Bigano,A., Bosello,F., Roson,R. and Tol,R.S.J. 2008. Economy-wide impacts of climate change: A joint analysis of sea level rise and tourism. Mitigative and Adaptive Strategies for Global Change 13:765-791.

902. Ford,J.D., Smit,B., Wandel,J. and MacDonald,J. 2006. Vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut: What we can learn from the past and the present. Polar Record 42:127-138.

903. Schindler,D.W. and Donahue,W.F. 2006. An impending water crisis in Canada’s western prairie provinces. PNAS 103:7210-7216.

904. Schindler,D.W. and Smol,J.P. 2006. Cumulative effects of climate warming and other human activities on freshwaters of Arctic and Subarctic North America. Ambio 35:160-168.

905. White,D.M., Gerlach,S.C., Loring,P. et al. 2007. Food and water security in a changing arctic climate. Environmental Research Letters 2 (2007) 045018.

906. Scott,D. and Jones,B. 2006. The impact of climate change on golf participation in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA): A case study. J. Leisure Research 38:363-380.

907. Scott,D., McBoyle,G. and Minogue,A. 2007. Climate change and Quebec’s ski industry. Global Environmental Change 17:181-190.

908. Scott,D., Jones, B. and Konopek, J. 2006. Implications of climate and environmental change for nature-based tourism in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: A case study of Waterton Lakes National Park. Tourism Management 28:570-579.

909. Sung,R.Y.-J., Burn,D.H. and Soulis,E.D. 2006. A case study of climate change impacts on navigation on the Mackenzie River. Can. Water Resources J. 31:57-68.


7.1 Science-policy debate about the risks of danger

910. Betz,G. 2007. Probabilities in climate policy advice: A critical comment. CC 85:1-9.

911. Boykoff,M.T. 2008. Lost in translation? United States television news coverage of anthropogenic climate change, 1995-2004. CC 86:1-11.

912. Hansen,J.E. 2007. Scientific reticence and sea level rise. Environmental Research Letters 2 (2007) 024002.

913. Hassol, S.J. 2008. Improving how scientists communicate about climate change. EOS 89, March 28:106-107.

914. Karlen,W. 2008. Recent changes in the climate: Natural or forced by human activity? Ambio Special Report 14:483-487.

915. Kellstedt,P.M., Zahran,S. and Vedlitz,A. 2008. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States. Risk Analysis 28:113-126.

916. Ha-Duong,M., Swart,R. and Bernstein,L. 2007. Uncertainty management in the IPCC: Agreeing to disagree. Global Environmental Change 17:8-11.

917. Marx,S.M., Weber,E.U., Orlove,B.S. et al. 2007. Communications and mental processes: Experiential and analytic processing of uncertain climate information. Global Environmental Change 17:47-58.

918. Meinke,H., Nelson,R., Kokic,P. et al. 2006. Actionable climate knowledge: from analysis to synthesis. Climate Research 33:101-110.

919. Milinski,M., Sommerfeld,R.D., Krambeck,H.-J. et al. 2008. The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change. PNAS 105:2291-2294.

920. Moss,R. 2007. Improving information for managing an uncertain future climate. Global Environmental Change 17:4-7.

921. Ogden,A.E. and Innes,J.L. 2007. Perspectives of forest practioners on climate change adaptation in the Yukon and Northwest Territories of Canada. The Forestry Chronicle 83:557-569.

922. Patt,A. 2007. Assessing model-based and conflict-based uncertainty. Global Environmental Change 17:37-46.

923. Pielke,R. Jr. 2007. Mistreatment of the economic impacts of extreme events in the Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change. Global Environmental Change 17:302-310.

924. Reid,S., Smit,B., Caldwell,W. and Belliveau,S. 2007. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate risks in Ontario agriculture. Mitigative and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12:609-637.

925. Montenegro,A., Brovkin,V., Eby,M. et al. 2007. Long term fate of anthropogenic carbon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19707, doi:10.1029/2007GL030905, 2007.

926. Guillerminet,M.-L. and Tol,R.S.J. 2008. Decision making under catastrophic risk and learning: The case of the possible collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. CC 91:193-209.

927. Hansen,J., Sato,M., Ruedy,R. et al. 2007. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 2287-2312.

928. Harvey,L.D.D. 2006. Uncertainties in global warming science and near term emission policies. Climate Policy 6:573-584.

929. Harvey,L.D.D. 2007. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function. Environmental Research Letters 2, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/2/1/014001.

930. Meinshausen,M., Hare,B., Wigley,T.M.L. et al. 2006. Multi-gas emissions pathways to meet climate targets. CC 75:151-194.

931. Meissner,K.J., Eby,M., Weaver,A.J. and Saenko,O.A. 2008. CO2 threshold for millennial-scale oscillations in the climate system: Implications for global warming scenarios. Climate Dynamics 30:161-174.

932. Van Vuuren,D.P., Meinshausen,M., Plattner,G.K. et al. 2008. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios, PNAS 105: 15258-15262.

933. Den Elzen,M. and Meinshaussen,M. 2006. Meeting the EU 2°C climate target: Global and regional emission implications. Climate Polcy 6:545-564.

934. Den Elzen,M., Meinshaussen,M. and van Vuuren,D. 2007. Multi-gas emission envelopes to meet greenhouse gas concentration targets: Costs versus certainty of limiting temperature increase. Global Environmental Change 17:260-280.

935. Den Elzen,M.G.J. and van Vuuren,D.P. 2007. Peaking profiles for achieving long-term temperature targets with more likelihood at lower costs. PNAS 104:17931-17936.

936. Doniger,D.D., Herzog,A.V. and Lashof,D.A. 2006. An ambitious, centrist approach to global warming legislation. Science 314: 764-765.

937. Matthews,H.D. 2006. Emission targets for CO2 stabilization as modified by carbon cycle feedbacks. Tellus 58B:591-602.

938. Matthews,H.D. and Caldiera,K. 2008. Stabilizing climate requires near-zero emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04705, doi:10.1029/2007GL032388, 2008.

939. Matthews,H.D. and Keith,D.W. 2007. Carbon-cycle feedbacks increase the likelihood of a warmer future. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028685, 2007.

940. Mignone,B.K., Socolow,R.H., Sarmiento,J.L. and Oppenheimer,M. 2007. Atmospheric stabilization and the timing of carbon mitigation. CC 88: 251-265.

941. Schaeffer,M., Kram,T., Meinshausen,M. et al. 2008. Non-linear cost increase to reduce climate-change risk. PNAS 105:20621-20626.

942. Betts,R. 2007. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitiation. Tellus 59B:602-615.

943. Botzen,W.J.W., Gowdy,J.M. and Van den Bergh,J.C.J.M. 2008. Cumulative CO2 emissions: Shifting international responsibilities for climate debt. Climate Policy 8:569-576.

944. Gregg,J.S., Andres,R.J. and Marland,G. 2008. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08806, doi:10.1029/2007GL0328877, 2008.

945. Nusbaumer,J and Matsumoto, K. 2008. Climate and carbon cycle changes under the overshoot scenario. Global and Planetary Change. 62:164-172.

946. Rive,N., Torvanger,A., Berntsen,T. and Kallbekken,S. 2007. To what extent can a long-term temperature target guide near-term climate change commitments? CC 82:373-391.

947. Agrawala,S. and Van Aalst,M. 2008. Adapting development cooperation to adapt to climate change. Climate Policy 8:183-193.

948. Dowlatabadi,H. 2007. On integration of policies for climate and global change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12:651-663.

949. Kok,M., Metz,B., Verhagen,J. and Van Rooijen,S. 2008. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits. Climate Policy 8:103-118.

950. Metz,B. and Kok,M. 2008. Integrating development and climate policies. Climate Policy 8:99-102.

951. Shindell,D., Lamarque,J.-F., Unger,N. et al. 2008. Climate forcing and air quality change due to regional emissions by economic sector. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8:7101-7113.

952. Wilson,C. and McDaniels,T. 2007. Structured decision-making to link climate change and sustainable development. Climate Policy 7:353-370.

953. Stegman,A. 2006. How should emissions projections be evaluated? CC 75:1-7.

954. Van Vuuren,D.P. and O’Neill,B.C. 2006. The consistency of IPCC’s SRES scenarios to recent literature and recent projections. CC 75:9-46.

955. Van Vuuren,D.P. and Riahi,K. 2008. Do recent emission trends imply higher emissions forever? CC 91:237-248.

7.2 Mitigating the risks

7.2.1 Reducing greenhouse gas emission

956. Berntsen,T., Fuglestvedt,J., Myhre,G. et al. 2006. Abatement of greenhouse gases: Does location matter? CC 74:377-411.

957. Huesemann,M.H. 2006. Can advances in science and technology prevent global warming? Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11:539-577.

958. Lixon,B., Thomassin,P.J. and Hamaide,B. 2008. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto Protocol: An input-output approach with application to Canada.Ecological Economics 68:249-258.

959. Dyer, J.A., Vergé, X.P.C., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2008. Long term trends in the GHG emissions from the Canadian dairy industry. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 88: 629-639.

960. Kulshreshtha,S. and Sobool,D. 2006. Comparative greenhouse gas emission intensities from irrigated and dryland agricultural activities in Canada. Canadian Water Resources J. 31:157-172.

961. Vergé,X.P.C., De Kimpe,C. and Desjardins,R.L. 2007. Agricultural production, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142: 255-269.

962. Vergé, X., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L. and Worth, D. 2007. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Canadian Dairy Industry during 2001. Agricultural Systems. 94: 683-693.

963. Vergé, X.P.C., Dyer, J.A., Desjardins, R.L., and Worth, D. 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian Beef Industry. Agricultural Systems. 98: 126-134.

964. Guérin,F., Abril,G., Richard,S. et al. 2006. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from tropical reservoirs: Significance of downstream rivers. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L21407, doi:10.1029/2006GL027929, 2006.

965. Guérin,F., Abril,G., Tremblay,A. and Delmas,R. 2008. Nitrous oxide emissions from tropical hydroelectric reservoirs. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L06404, doi:10.1029/2007GL033057, 2008.

966. Kemenes,A., Forsberg,B.R. and Melack,J.M. 2007. Methane release below a tropical hydroelectric dam. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L12809, doi:10.1029/2007GL029479, 2007.

967. Kindermann,G., Obersteiner,M., Sohngen,B. et al. 2008. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation. PNAS 105:10302-10307.

968. Koren,I., Remer,L.A. and Longo,K. 2007. Reversal of trend of biomass burning in the Amazon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L20404, doi:10.1029/2007GL031530, 2007.

969. Adler,P.R., Del Grosso,S.J. and PartonW.J. 2007. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems. Ecological Applications 17:675-691.

970. Cowie,A.L., Smith,P. and Johnson,D. 2006. Does soil carbon loss in biomass production systems negate the greenhouse benefit of bioenergy? Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11:979-1002.

971. Crutzen,P.J., Mosier,A.R., Smith,K.A. and Winiwarter,W. 2007. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 7:11191-11205.

972. Danielsen,F., H. Beukema,H., Burgess,N.D. et al. 2008. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate. Conservation Biology 23:348-358.

973. Fargione,J., Hill,J., Tilman,D. et al. 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319:1235-1238.

974. Gibbs,H.K., Johnston,M., Foley,J.A. et al. 2008. Carbon pay-back times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: The effects of changing yields and technology. Environmental Research Letters 3 034001, doi.10.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034001.

975. Marland,G. and Obersteiner,M. 2008. Large-scale biomass for energy, with considerations and cautions: An editorial comment. CC 87:335-342.

976. Read,K.A., Mahajan,A.S., Carpenter,L.J. et al. 2008. Extensive halogen-mediated ozone destruction over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Nature 453:1232-1235.

977. Rhodes,J.S. and Keith,D.W. 2008. Biomass with capture: Negative emissions within social and environmental constraints: an editorial comment. CC 87:321-328.

978. Scharlemann,J.P.W. and Laurance,W.F. 2008. How green are biofuels? Science 319:43-44.

979. Searchinger,T., Heimlich,R., Houghton,R.A. et al. 2008. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land use change. Science 319:1238-1240.

980. Farrell,A.E., Plevin,R.J., Turner,B.T. et al. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311:506-508.

981. Cuéllar,A.D. and Webber,M.E. 2008. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas. Environmental Research Letters 3 (2008) 034002.

982. Huntley,M.E. and Redalje,D.G. 2007. CO2 mitigation and renewable oil from photosynthetic microbes: A new appraisal. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12:573-608.

7.2.1 Emission offsets through carbon sequestration

983. McCarl,B.A. and Sands,R.D. 2007. Competitiveness of terrestrial greenhouse gas offsets: Are they a bridge to the future? CC 80:109-126.

984. Thomson, A.M., Izaurralde,R.C., Smith, S.J. and Clarke,L.E. 2008. Integrated estimates of global terrestrial carbon sequestration. Global Environmental Change 18:193-203.

985. Fontaine,S., Barot,S., Barré,P. et al. 2007. Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277-281.

986. Hamilton,S.K., Kurzman,A.L., Arango,C. et al. 2007. GBC 21, GB2021, doi:10.1029/2006GB002738, 2007.

987. Hutchinson,J.J., Campbell,C.A. and Desjardins,R.L. 2007. Some perspectives on carbon sequestration in agriculture. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142:288-302.

988. Lobell,D.B., Bala,G., Bonfils,C. and Duffy,P.B. 2006. Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L13709, doi:10.1029/2006GL026770.

989. Lobell,D.B., Bala,G. and Duffy,P.B. 2006. Biogeophysical impacts of cropland management changes on climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06708, doi:10.1029/2005GL025492, 2006.

990. Rochette,P., Angers,D.A., Chantigny,M.H. and Bertrand,N. 2008. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to no-till in a loam and a heavy clay soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72:1363-1369.

991. Grant,R.F., Barr,A.G., Black,T.A. et al. 2007. Net ecosystem productivity of boreal jack pine stands regenerating from clearcutting under current and future climates. GCB 13:1423-1440.

992. Morris,W.F., Pfister,C.A., Tuljapurkar,S. et al. 2008. Longevity can buffer plant and animal populations against changing climate variability. Ecology 89:19-25.

993. Böttcher,H., Kurz,W.A. and Freibauer,A. 2008. Accounting of forest carbon sinks and sources under a future climate protocol – factoring out past disturbance and management effects on age-class structure. Environmental Science & Policy 11:669-686.

994. Fellows,A.W. and Goulden,M.L. 2008. Has fire suppression increased the amount of carbon stored in western U.S. forests? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L12404, doi:10.1029/2008GL033965, 2008.

995. Girod,C.M., Hurtt,G.C., Frolking,S. et al. 2007. The tension between fire risk and carbon storage: evaluating U.S. carbon and fire management strategies through ecosystem models. Earth Interactions 11:1-33.

996. Jackson,R.B., Randerson,J.T., Canadell,J.G. et al. 2008. Protecting climate with forests. Environmental Research Letters 3, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/044006.

997. Schaeffer,M., Eickhout,B., Hoogwijk,M. et al. 2006. CO2 and albedo climate impacts of extratropical carbon and biomass plantations. GBC 20, GB2020, doi:10.1029/2005GB002581, 2006.

998. Kurz,W.A. and Apps,M.J. 2006. Developing Canada’s national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system to meet the reporting requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11:33-43.

999. Kurz,W.A., Stinson,G., Rampley,G.J et al. 2008. Risk of natural disturbances makes contribution of Canada’s forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain. PNAS 105:1551-1555.

1000. Harvey,L.D.D. 2008. Mitigating the atmospheric CO2 increase and ocean acidification by adding limestone powder to upwelling regions. JGR 113, C04028, doi:10.1029/2007JC004373, 2008.

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