Teach 3 Resource Set: Engage Students at All Learning Levels



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Teach 3 Resource Set: Engage Students at All Learning Levels



Exploring Computer Science – High School

Unit: Human Computer Interaction

Lesson: Day 19 – Artificial Intelligence

Summary of Lesson

The question “What is intelligence?” is addressed through discussion of the differences between humans and computers. Various models of machine learning are investigated along with the concept of natural language understanding.



Standard

No standard for first day of course, teacher and peers introduction.

Computer Science Standards: http://csta.acm.org/Curriculum/sub/CurrFiles/CSTA_K-12_CSS.pdf - Level 2 Grades 6-9

Computing Practice and programming:

Navigate between webpages using hyperlinks and conduct simple searches using search engines.

DCPS CTE Standards: Employability Standards

Common Core Standards: grade 8: RI.1, RI.4, RI.10, W.4,

W.7, W.10, SL.1a, SL.1b, SL.1c,

SL.1d, SL.4, SL.6, L.6

NETS: 3a-d, 4b, 4c, 6b

Skills: Online information searching

Lesson Source: http://csta.acm.org/Curriculum/sub/CurrFiles/ECS_v4.pdf - page 71-73 (Days 17-19)



Objective

The student will be able to:

  • Explain the idea of intelligence especially as it relates to computers.

  • Explain what it means for a machine to “learn”.

  • Discuss whether computers are intelligent or whether they only behave intelligently.



Agenda

  • Journal Entry (15 minutes)

  • Differentiation between humans and computers (95 minutes)

  • A simple model of machine learning (55 minutes)

Assessment

Complete journal entry at beginning of class -

Complete CS Unplugged Activity 20: Conversations with Computers—The Turing Test.

Interact with web-based chatterbots (Part I of The Computer Intelligence Activity).

In groups, play several rounds of a guessing game (Part II of The Computer Intelligence Activity).



Journal Writing: What are the advantages of using Web 2.0 tools to produce academic works and how can it help us in our teaching and learning?

Questions and Answers

Classroom discussion


Essential Question

What is intelligence and what is the difference of human intelligence versus computer intelligence?


Develop Student Understanding of the Importance of the Objective

Knowing the difference between machine learning and human learning is important to be able to identify.


Connecting to Prior Knowledge

Ask students what is INTELLIGENCE?




Warm-up

Time: 10

Have students write the EQ, Objective and Word Wall in their writing journals.
Journal Entry: What is intelligence? Are computers intelligent? Why or why not?
Volunteers share their responses.

Check for Understanding:

Check for prior knowledge



Transition:

Ask students for their definitions of intelligence.



Teacher Input / Introduction of New Material

Time: 10

Differentiating between humans and computers - Artificial intelligence has been researched for decades, and has resulted in many useful products, but still no system that is as intelligent as a human.
This activity explores just how we might recognize whether a system is truly "intelligent". It involves reasoning about what it means to be intelligent, and even what makes us human.
CS Unplugged Activity 20: Conversations with Computers—The Turing Test

This activity can be downloaded from http://csunplugged.com -

http://csunplugged.com - http://csunplugged.com/turing-test


  • From the menu, click on Activities, click on Turing Test, and then download the pdf for Activity 20. Note there are many additional resources listed that you may wish to explore. - http://csunplugged.com/sites/default/files/activity_pdfs_full/unplugged-20-the_turing_test_0.pdf

  • It will be helpful for you to read through the entire activity before beginning it with your students. In addition to the explanation of the activity, it provides good background information that you will want to ensure is part of the discussion you have with students.

  • Based on the directions under “What to Do” (p. 214), assign and explain roles to 4 students.

  • Follow the remaining directions under “What to Do” (p.214-215).




Check for Understanding:

What is artificial intelligence? How is this different from human intelligence?



Transition:

Let’s look deeper into artificial intelliegence.




Guided Practice

Time: 20 minutes

Have students complete Part I of Computer Intelligence Activity.

  • Assign each pair of students (students work with their elbow partner) two of the questions from the Turing Test Activity.

  • Discuss the results.

http://csunplugged.com/sites/default/files/activity_pdfs_full/unplugged-20-the_turing_test_0.pdf
PART 2 - Check out Eliza, a non-intelligent production system created in the 1960's which acts as if it was intelligent using canned responses and string substitutions. Many people at that time thought Eliza was human. Why do you think they thought that way? That Eliza was intelligent?

Another chat bot or production system - Claire CleverBot Joan |

Part 3 - Play The Animal Guessing Game - Think of an animal and see if the computer program "knows" or guesses your animal correctly? Is this intelligence? Why or why not?

Part 4 - See AI (Artificial Intelligence) at work. Play 20 Questions with the computer. Is the computer intelligent? OR TIC TAC TOE and read about this AI game before you play!

Part 5 - Read one article in the news about AI!

Part 6 - Human Robots created by Japanese engineers - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaTfzYDZG8c


Part 7 - Can robots help train professions?
Part 8 - Robot Baby is Programmed to Show Emotions



Check for Understanding:

How would you visualize computer intelligence?



Transition:

Let’s create a simple model of learning.



Independent Practice

Time: 20 minutes

A simple model of machine learning.

o Have students complete Part II of the Computer Intelligence Activity.


  • Assign students to groups of 3 or 4 and assign each group 2 of the games in the activity.

  • Discuss the results.

  • As part of the discussion make the distinction between a computer’s ability to perform some operations quickly and what it means to “know”.

o Speed is not necessarily knowledge.

o Humans are “smart”; computers are “fast” and follow code explicitly.

o Intelligence is context dependent—e.g., being able to thrive in mountains versus downtown in a city. If you are familiar with a city, you can find streets easily, etc. whereas if you are a newcomer, you need to have a map and more precise instructions. This ties to the peanut butter and jelly sandwich example.


Check for Understanding:

Hear students artificial intelligence models of learning.



Transition:

Higher Level Questions - See Questions to Develop Higher-Understanding listed below.

Closure

Time: 5

Journal Writing

After today’s lesson, What's your opinion about Artificial Intelligence?



Check for Understanding:

Read students’ journal entries.

Have students share their thoughts/writing.


Additional Lesson Plan Considerations

Connection to Unit Goals, Course Goals, and Essential Questions

Connect Web 2.0 productivity tools with various projects/tasks/assignments in other classes. When and what type of projects will these Web 2.0 tools help to produce

Key Points and Vocabulary to Emphasize

Intelligence

Artificial intelligence

Machine intelligence

Human intelligence

Productive Systems

Chat bots




Accessible to All Students (Modifications/Differentiation)

All resources will be on wikispaces until DCPS Blackboard site is up and running.

https://wiscountmths.wikispaces.com



Challenging to All Students (Modifications/Differentiation)

All resources will be on wikispaces until DCPS Blackboard site is up and running.

https://wiscountmths.wikispaces.com


Multiple Ways to Move Toward Mastery

Peer Share

Practice


Students create according to their brainstorming, ideas and interests

Students create simple learning models of machine learning




Potential Misunderstandings, Possible Scaffolding, and Probes for Correct Responses

The difference between computer learning and human learning

The use of the word “machine” in machine learning for computer learning.




Questions to Develop Higher-Level Understanding

There are four requirements for a machine to be human-like. Match them with the explanations that follow

Four requirements that differentiate humans from machines.


1- Human emotion.

2 - The ability to create it's own data associations in order to make decisions and differentiate between true and false.

3 - Self-consciousness, which involves identity, a track of time, and a sense of the world around you. We have 5 senses and a sense of time, and a sense of who we think we are or might become.

4 - Creativity and imagination, something that will probably be the last thing to be implemented properly.


( ) Some people do not understand why we even have them; some even try to hide them most of the time. The reality is, it is an evolutionary trait that makes us have a purpose in life. Without it, we would not reproduce, complete our daily tasks, or interact with other humans. An artificially intelligent machine would still only be a simple calculator without it. Ability to Create Data Associations and Decide
( ) It is what's important with AI. Computer programs need to find ways to adapt and collect all data available to connect ideas. Most likely many of these things will be accomplished once natural language and communication is understood by AI developers.
( ) This is probably the hardest things to create. However, I think it is based on things we've already know and seen, then minor variations on those ideas, and since everything is very related anything is possible.
Answer key: Human emotion, the ability to create its own data association, creativity and imagination.
Watch the following video: http://warmupsfollowups.blogspot.com/2012/02/artificial-intelligence-artificial.html
I. Watch the segment and discuss the questions:
1. Describe the scene.
2. Do you think robots will be so perfect in the future that they will become part of the family? Why?
3. Will robots ever have emotions? Will they be able to fall in love, for example?
4. What about people? Will they be able to fall in love with robots?
5. What is the future of robots? How present will they be in our lives?
6. What's your opinion about Artificial Intelligence?

Extension Lesson Plan on Strategic Searching

Movie segments - http://warmupsfollowups.blogspot.com/2012/02/artificial-intelligence-artificial.html


Extension Activity

Links to artificial intelligence games: http://www.reddit.com/r/artificial/comments/1axvps/looking_for_to_links_to_artificial_intelligence/


For more information about AI, Click here.

Resources

Computer Science Unplugged Activity 20: Conversations with Computers—The Turing Test (http://www.csunplugged.com), pp. 213-226
Computer Science Unplugged Activity 20: Conversations with Computers—The Turing Test, p. 225—questions (one copy for each pair of students)
Computer Science Unplugged Activity 20: Conversations with Computers—The Turing Test, p. 226—answers (one copy to post or display)
Computer Intelligence Activity
Youtube Videos - https://wiscountmths.wikispaces.com/Exploring+Computer+Science – Day 19

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaTfzYDZG8cfor movement

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aP6uxt3JJSU – for emotion

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhVu2hxm07E – for conversation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhzbFaNueKU – for learning




District of Columbia Public Schools | 2012-2013 Page of




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