Cycle C - Galveston Hurricane of 1900 1st Activity (Introduction):
To guide you through this week’s assignment(s), first look over the readings listed under Resources. You must read through the resources in order to fully and correctly complete the assignment(s). This week’s assignment will focus on:
Galveston hurricane of 1900
Dos & Don’ts about hurricane safety & preparedness
Resources to Read: http://www.history.com/topics/1900-galveston-hurricane http://www.hurricanescience.org/history/storms/1900s/Galveston/ http://www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/galveston-hurricane-1900.html https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-are-hurricanes-k4.html
Now that Hurricane Katrina has once again awakened us to the threat of extra strong hurricanes, your group has been called upon to conduct an Earth system analysis of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane as a case study on how to prepare for this increasingly dangerous threat from Mother Nature.
To help you better prepare, please complete the individual assignments provided in the links below. The first link is a two-page worksheet. Please follow instructions to complete it. The second link helps you track a hurricane. Familiarize yourselves with this process as our class will be tracking a hurricane.
Now, that you have completed the individual assignment(s), please proceed to complete the group assignment - The PBL Model.
PBL Model 1. Read and analyze the scenario and situation.
Scenario: Hurricanes Dean and Felix both made landfall in Central America in 2007. It was the first time since record keeping began in the late 1800s that two Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes made landfall in the same year. Also, on the same day Felix came ashore, Hurricane Henriette made landfall across the southern tip of Baja California. This marked the first time Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes made landfall on the same day, according to National Hurricane Center records that date back to 1949.
Are hurricanes increasing in intensity and frequency?
A look at the past tells us that intense hurricanes have plagued humans for some time. Even Columbus' fourth voyage in 1502 was marred by a colossal hurricane - one that sunk 20 treasure ships and killed 500 sailors in a nearby Spanish fleet. Was Katrina in 2005 the most devastating hurricane to hit North America in recent history? One might consider the Great Galveston Hurricane at the beginning of the 20th century as a contender.
Galveston, Texas, was on the rise in 1900. A major seaport for shipping cotton, it was in a race with Houston for prominence on the Texan coast. Sixteen foreign country consulates and millionaires' mansions graced the city of 37,000 people. Galveston was totally unprepared for what was about to happen. Many thought it nearly impossible for a hurricane to threaten the city. In late August and early
September a tropical storm tracked across the Caribbean Sea and passed between Cuba and Florida. Many believed the storm would turn to the northeast as it passed the Florida Straits north of Cuba. This was a commonly accepted notion of how tropical cyclones were supposed to behave. It was unheard of for them to continue to the west.
But this storm, after strengthening into a hurricane just past Florida, would continue northwest on a path directly toward Galveston. The hurricane pushed a wall of water over 15 feet deep onto the island that, at its highest point, was only 8.7 feet above sea level. The wind whipped through Galveston at what was later estimated to be Category 4 speeds (131-155 mph). A 150 mph gust would have a pressure of 100 pounds per square foot. The lowest barometric pressure recorded during the storm was 28.44 inches. (NOAA later estimated that the pressure near the storm's eye was probably closer to 27.49 inches.)
On Sept. 9, Galveston lay in desolation. More than 6,000 people lost their lives to what remains the deadliest hurricane to ever hit the United States (some estimates range as high as 12,000 deaths). In addition to the thousands dead, the storm left millions of dollars of destruction in its wake. After making landfall at Galveston, the storm tracked north through Texas and then into Oklahoma and Kansas. The remnants of the storm made it northeastward across the Great Lakes and into Canada before passing north of Halifax on Sept. 12 and disappearing into the North Atlantic.
In addition to the loss of life and property, Galveston lost its allure as shipping firms moved their businesses to Houston. Galveston is now protected by a huge levee system to guard against future storms. Also, after the disaster, a six-mile long seawall was erected and has since been extended and the island was raised by pumping sand from the floor of the Gulf of Mexico. All buildings and roads were also constructed with elevated foundations in the city. When the Galveston Hurricane of 1915 hit, the city was much better prepared.
Task: Now that Hurricane Katrina has once again awakened us to the threat of extra strong hurricanes, your group has been called upon to conduct an Earth system analysis of the 1900 Galveston Hurricane as a case study in how to prepare for this increasingly dangerous threat from Mother Nature.
2. List your personal understanding, ideas, or hunches. You will usually have some understanding about the cause of the problem or ideas about how to solve the problem. These need to be listed; they will be supported or refuted as your investigation proceeds. You will also list many alternative conceptions that need to be addressed.
Preparing for a hurricane is a big task. There are items that are important to have ready when a hurricane hits your area. You must also keep in mind that when a hurricane strikes, family might not all be together at the same place. In the event that a hurricane hits your area or if there is an evacuation, you should be aware of and/or prepared for the following:
Hurricane season (Atlantic area) begins in June and lasts through the fall
Families must prepare for hurricane season by:
boarding up windows
have extra food, water & supplies (for everyone & all pets)
be prepared for loss of utilities (have generator)
Have all important papers in one place and ready to carry with you in case you need to travel out of town or go to shelter.
Know what medical facility is close to you in case of an emergency and have local phone numbers of police, ambulance, and even fire department with you at all times.
Have money in reserve for emergencies like these since extra expenses will be made.
Make sure that everyone taking prescribed medications has enough refills to last at least one month.
Make sure all family members have a disaster plan and a designated location where to meet if phone lines and other communication is down this way everyone can meet at a specific location to ensure that everyone is ok and safe.
As far as food goes, pack canned food and a can opener which will be easier to keep from going bad.
Make sure your home insurance is paid to ensure that any damages to the home will be covered.
Evacuate as soon as it’s announced by the news, local government, or radio and don’t wait until it’s too late.
Bring in objects that may be picked up by the wind and cause damage.
This are some of the things that we do know about hurricanes so far. If there are any we might of missed, please print the following worksheet and add any additional personal ideas or hunches you might have about hurricanes. http://homeschooling.about.com/library/weatherpaper.pdf
3. List what is known. If needed, print a copy of the scenario and situation and move away from the computer. Make a list of everything you know. You do not need to conduct any research at this point. Just draw from your prior knowledge and the information that is included in the scenario. Throughout the year most of us seem to think that we’ve done everything we possibly can to prepare in the event that a hurricane makes landfall in our area. When and if a hurricane does make landfall, a lot of us (myself included) realize that maybe we could have done a little more. After all, we are preparing to keep our families safe for one of the most dangerous natural disasters we know. So what can we do to ensure that we are safe. We can use our own personal knowledge of what we know about hurricanes and the storms that come with it. Here are some of the things that we can do:
First of all, we have to not panic and remain calm so things can get done.
We can prepare by building an emergency kit that includes plenty of supplies, food (canned), bottled water, and money in cash as ATMs may not work.
Also prepare by ensuring you take all needed extras such as medications, oxygen tanks, baby formula, etc.
We can designate an evacuation route with all family members and choose a meeting location in case there is no way to communicate with family. If staying home, make sure you know where other family will be staying or where they will be traveling to.
You can reschedule any appointments for a later time (for example: doctor).
If the media is warning of possible landfall, evacuate quickly and don’t wait. Life is more important than a home or personal belongings. You can replace your home or vehicle, but not a life.
Gather as many sandbags and cover all doors to prevent any water from getting into your home.
If unable to evacuate, stay inside and board it up as much as
possible and stay away from doors and windows.
If staying home, turn the refrigerator to the coldest setting to make
sure groceries last you longer.
If staying home, keep a radio handy to listen to weather updates, a generator, and a flashlight.
Know where shelters & Red Cross are located.
If internet is working, track the hurricane as long as possible.
If winds stop don’t go outside as winds may pick up again.
After the hurricane has dissipated, help one another (clean up, share food, etc. in the community).
Print out additional information to have on hand in print to help you prepare. A great website to start is http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes
4. List what is unknown. Prepare a list of questions that you think need to be answered to solve the problem. Several types of questions may be appropriate. Some may address concepts or principles that need to be learned in order to address the situation. Other questions may be in the form of requests for more information. These questions will guide research that may take place on the Internet/WWW, in the library, or with other sources.
HURRICANE SCAVENGER HUNT:
Students will work in groups to complete a mobile scavenger hunt on hurricanes. The students will find clues, collect images, and complete challenges. All of the data collected from the scavenger hunt will be compiled in the teacher's SCVNGR account (scvngr.com). This activity should take place over a period of a week to give students enough time to complete their scavenger hunts. They will have the questions listed below to help them research information. Once done with their research, the teacher opens up the results of the hunt and goes over the hurricane lessons learned from students.
How many hurricanes form during hurricane season?
How many hurricanes actually make landfall?
How many categories of hurricane levels are there?
What is the most/ least damage that the smallest of hurricanes can cause
How is the hurricane going to help our area?
How long will the hurricane be stationed in one area?
How do they give names to hurricanes?
What are the pros and cons of hurricanes?
Why are there certain parts of the world that are great targets for hurricanes?
Can we get more than one hurricane at the same time?
What’s the most damage a hurricane has caused?
Have we been getting more or less hurricanes over the years?
To what degree can we predict hurricanes (to the day, hour, minute,
What’s the most hurricanes we’ve gotten in a single year?
5. List what needs to be done. Plan the investigation. Such actions may include questioning an expert, getting online data, or visiting a library to find answers to the questions developed in Step 4. When working with a team, divide the
I would have students prepare a Padlet Wall where they would each give their input by listing what needs to be done in case of a Hurricane. I would have them work in pairs and each make a powerpoint page with two things that need to be done in case of a Hurricane. Once the powerpoint pages are ready, I would load them up to the Padlet that has been prepared to load all the information. It is a good way for teachers and students to visually see all the information and everyone’s feedback. This link is an example of the Padlet Wall that has been prepared for this assignment. LINK: http://padlet.com/ruthreyesm/941txp2wahl6
6. Develop a problem statement.
In groups of 3-4 students, discuss how well prepared your group is in case a hurricane strikes your area. Prepare a problem statement on how well prepared your team is. A problem statement is a one or two sentence idea that clearly identifies what you are trying to solve, produce, respond to, test, or find out.
7. Gather information.
Research ways in which to prepare for a hurricane. As you gather more information on hurricanes, your problem statement may change. In this section, provide links to websites that you used to gather information on hurricanes.
8. Present findings.
Prepare a report or presentation on how to prepare for hurricanes should they strike your area. Be prepared to support the positions you take. If appropriate, consider a multimedia presentation using images, graphics, or sound.
Note: The steps in this model may have to be completed several times. Steps 3 through 7 may be conducted concurrently as new information becomes available.