11 th Lit Semester 1 Final Study Guide!!!



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11th Lit Semester 1 Final Study Guide!!!


Writing AKS 20, 21, 23, & 24 (Topic Focus: Context Clues, Text Structure, Persuasive Writing, Informal/Formal Language, Audience, Writing Organization, Active/Passive Voice, & Parallel Structure)
Read the following passage and answer questions 1-2.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address

Abraham Lincoln

1 Fellow countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued, seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.


2 On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it—all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.
3 One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the Southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was, somehow, the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it.

4 Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered—that of neither has been answered fully.

5 The Almighty has his own purposes. “Woe unto the world because of offenses! for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh.” If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through his appointed time, he now wills to remove, and that he gives to both North and South this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to him? Fondly do we hope—fervently do we pray—that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn by the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said, “The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.”


"To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it."
6 With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations.

"To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it."



1. What is the meaning of the word insurgents as it is used in the third paragraph? ALRC3/ALRC4 (Context Clues)

a. allies

b. patriots

c. rebels




"Fondly do we hope--fervently do we pray--that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away."
d. runners

"Fondly do we hope--fervently do we pray--that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away."



2. What does the term scourge mean as it is used in the next to last paragraph? ALRC3/ALRC4 (Context Clues)

a. ally


b. blessing

c. curse


d. surprise

Use the paragraphs below to answer the question that follows.

from The Portrait of a Lady


MRS. LUDLOW was the eldest of the three sisters, and was usually thought the most sensible; the classification being in general that Lilian was the practical one, Edith the beauty, and Isabel the “Intellectual” one. Mrs. Keyes, the second sister, was the wife of an officer in the United States Engineers, and as our history is not further concerned with her, it will be enough to say that she was indeed very pretty, and that she formed the ornament of those various military stations, chiefly in the unfashionable West, to which, to her deep chagrin, her husband was successively relegated.

  Lilian had married a New York lawyer, a young man with a loud voice and an enthusiasm for his profession; the match was not brilliant, any more than Edith’s had been, but Lilian had occasionally been spoken of as a young woman who might be thankful to marry at all—she was so much plainer than her sisters…. She was short and plump, and, as people said, had improved since her marriage; the two things in life of which she was most distinctly conscious were her husband’s force in argument and her sister Isabel’s originality.

Using the image above answer the following question. ALRC3.a Lesson 17 (Context Clues)

Read this sentence from Line 2.

“The author of bestseller tome, Gone with the Wind, was born November 8, 1900, to a family not that far removed from the one she wrote about.”

4. The word tome means



  1. music

  2. movie

  3. book

  4. poem

c:\users\e199501963\documents\my pictures\p2v\2014-09-15_0003.jpg


by Henry James

MRS. LUDLOW was the eldest of the three sisters, and was usually thought the most sensible; the classification being in general that Lilian was the practical one, Edith the beauty, and Isabel the “Intellectual” one. Mrs. Keyes, the second sister, was the wife of an officer in the United States Engineers, and as our history is not further concerned with her, it will be enough to say that she was indeed very pretty, and that she formed the ornament of those various military stations, chiefly in the unfashionable West, to which, to her deep chagrin, her husband was successively relegated.



   1

  Lilian had married a New York lawyer, a young man with a loud voice and an enthusiasm for his profession; the match was not brilliant, any more than Edith’s had been, but Lilian had occasionally been spoken of as a young woman who might be thankful to marry at all—she was so much plainer than her sisters…. She was short and plump, and, as people said, had improved since her marriage; the two things in life of which she was most distinctly conscious were her husband’s force in argument and her sister Isabel’s originality.

3. Which structure do the paragraphs use to convey information? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)

  1. similarity and difference

  2. cause and effect

  3. chronological order

  4. answering a question

c:\users\e199501963\documents\my pictures\p2v\2014-09-15_0002.jpg

Using the image above answer the following question. ALRC3.a Lesson 17 (Context Clues)

Read this sentence from Line 2.

“The author of bestseller tome, Gone with the Wind, was born November 8, 1900, to a family not that far removed from the one she wrote about.”

4. The word tome means


  1. music

  2. book

  3. movie

  4. poem

c:\users\e199501963\documents\my pictures\p2v\2014-09-15_0003.jpg



Using the image above please answer the following question. ALRC3.a Lesson 17 (Context Clues)

Read this sentence from line 5.

“Relive the antebellum South of the pre-Civil War.”

5. The word antebellum means


  1. after the war

  2. before the war

  3. against violence

  4. beautiful or refined

6. Which of these sentences would not be included in an informal invitation to a friend? W4.c-d Lesson 26

(Formal/Informal Language)



  1. Hey, I sure do hope you can get away and join us for the big bash.

  2. What’s the word, hummingbird? Are you free next Saturday night?

  3. Be there or be square, Dude, you need to cut loose and have fun.

  4. Mr. Horace Kelly Greenway requests the pleasure of your attendance.

Use the following passage to answer questions 7-8.

An excerpt from: An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

Ambrose Bierce

Chapter I

1 A man stood upon a railroad bridge in northern Alabama, looking down into the swift water twenty feet below. The man's hands were behind his back, the wrists bound with a cord. A rope closely encircled his neck. It was attached to a stout cross-timber above his head and the slack fell to the level of his knees. Some loose boards laid upon the ties supporting the rails of the railway supplied a footing for him and his executioners -- two private soldiers of the Federal army, directed by a sergeant who in civil life may have been a deputy sheriff. At a short remove upon the same temporary platform was an officer in the uniform of his rank, armed. He was a captain. A sentinel at each end of the bridge stood with his rifle in the position known as "support," that is to say, vertical in front of the left shoulder, the hammer resting on the forearm thrown straight across the chest -- a formal and unnatural position, enforcing an erect carriage of the body. It did not appear to be the duty of these two men to know what was occurring at the center of the bridge; they merely blockaded the two ends of the foot planking that traversed it.




"The captain stood with folded arms, silent, observing the work of his subordinates, but making no sign. Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him. In the code of military etiquette silence and fixity are forms of deference."
2 Beyond one of the sentinels nobody was in sight; the railroad ran straight away into a forest for a hundred yards, then, curving, was lost to view. Doubtless there was an outpost farther along. The other bank of the stream was open ground -- a gentle slope topped with a stockade of vertical tree trunks, loopholed for rifles, with a single embrasure through which protruded the muzzle of a brass cannon commanding the bridge. Midway up the slope between the bridge and fort were the spectators -- a single company of infantry in line, at "parade rest," the butts of their rifles on the ground, the barrels inclining slightly backward against the right shoulder, the hands crossed upon the stock. A lieutenant stood at the right of the line, the point of his sword upon the ground, his left hand resting upon his right. Excepting the group of four at the center of the bridge, not a man moved. The company faced the bridge, staring stonily, motionless. The sentinels, facing the banks of the stream, might have been statues to adorn the bridge. The captain stood with folded arms, silent, observing the work of his subordinates, but making no sign. Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him. In the code of military etiquette silence and fixity are forms of deference.

"The captain stood with folded arms, silent, observing the work of his subordinates, but making no sign. Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him. In the code of military etiquette silence and fixity are forms of deference."



7. What is the meaning of the word dignitary as it is used in this sentence? ALRC3/ALRC4 Lesson 17 (Context Clues)

  1. someone of high rank and influence

  2. a friend or acquaintance

  3. a beast of no importance

  4. a person who is ill


"The captain stood with folded arms, silent, observing the work of his subordinates, but making no sign. Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him. In the code of military etiquette silence and fixity are forms of deference."
"The captain stood with folded arms, silent, observing the work of his subordinates, but making no sign. Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him. In the code of military etiquette silence and fixity are forms of deference."

8. What is the meaning of the word manifestations as it is used in the previous sentence?

  1. greetings

  2. refusal

  3. signs

  4. vagueness

Use the following passage to answer 9-10.

Conserving Energy and Preserving the Environment

Bureau of Transportation Statistics: US D.O.T.

THE ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION

I. Introduction

1 As the United States strives to achieve greater energy efficiency and independence and to improve the environment, the role of transportation has become paramount. America consumes more energy and produces more pollution in mobility and travel than in any other activity. It follows that any serious effort to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and make significant additional progress on the environment must address the way Americans travel. This study examines the role of public transportation in conserving energy and reducing pollution. The data show that traveling by public transportation, per person and per mile, uses significantly less energy and produces substantially less pollution than comparable travel by private vehicles. We find that increasing the role of public transportation can provide the most effective strategy available for reducing energy consumption and improving the environment without imposing new taxes and government regulations on the economy or consumers.

2 Our communities, the economy and much of our lives are organized around our ability to travel easily and efficiently from home to work or school, to shop or play, to receive medical care or just for the sheer pleasure of traveling. (1) This freedom has certain costs that accompany its many benefits. (2) Vehicles, public and private, have to be purchased and operated; (3) roads must be built and maintained; laws must be enforced so many people can travel at the same time; and (4) hundreds of thousands of accidents inevitably occur.

3 The most fundamental costs of mobility, however, involve the energy required to move people and goods over any distance, and the pollution released as this energy is burned. As shown in Table 1, in 2000 Americans consumed more energy moving from place to place than industry used to produce all of its goods. All forms of transportation also consumed almost four times the energy of all residential uses and more than six times the energy of all commercial uses. Moreover, petroleum products provide virtually all of the fuel used for transportation, while other sectors use more diverse, efficient, and environmentally friendly sources of energy.

4 Energy and environmental costs are built into all forms of mobility by mechanical means, but personal and political choices can reduce the fuel and pollution "overhead" associated with a given level of mobility. The primary approach for lowering these costs involves developing and using technologies that reduce either the fuel required to move people and goods, or the amount of pollution associated with burning that fuel. The most prominent regulatory strategies developed to advance this approach are the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) and auto-emission standards for private automobiles. The non-regulatory strategy with the greatest potential for achieving the same results is greater use of public transportation, because on a per-person, per-mile basis, public transportation is much more energy efficient and much less polluting than private automobiles. A Note about Categories and Years

5 In comparing public and private transportation, we include vehicle travel within metropolitan areas; we do not include trips between metropolitan areas. The category of public transportation used here covers all buses, commuter rail and light and heavy rail within a metropolitan area. The category of private vehicles used here includes passenger cars and "other 2 axle 4-tire vehicles," which covers SUV s and light trucks.

6 In each case, we use the most recent and comprehensive data available. The energy section draws on 1998 data on travel by private and public transportation, because 1998 is the latest year for which data on energy consumption by private vehicles is available (1999 data on energy use by public transportation systems is available). The analysis of public transportation and the environment draws on 1999 data, because that is the most recent data available on pollution emissions by public and private vehicles.

7 (5) The most recent data show that the current use of public transportation is a major source of energy savings. Moving a person over a given distance by public transportation consumes, on average, about half the energy of moving a person the same distance by private automobile, sports-utility vehicle (SUV), or light truck.

8 Over the 42.5 billion passenger miles traveled on public transportation in 1998, the energy benefits add up to nearly 107 trillion British thermal units (BTUs). As we will show, these energy benefits are comparable to the energy consumed by various manufacturing industries. These energy savings are also equal to 99 percent of the energy used by the beverage and tobacco industries, and more than four times all the energy used to manufacture apparel. Finally, these energy benefits are equivalent to about one-fourth of the energy used to heat American homes in 1997 (the most recent data).

9 Greater use of public transportation can offer a powerful conservation strategy that could substantially reduce our dependence on imported oil. There is no other technology or approach other than increased use of public transportation that, for every trip it is used, has the energy impact of nearly doubling the fuel efficiency of automobiles.

9. Which topic would be the BEST main idea for a new paragraph that would be inserted between the current paragraphs 2 and 3? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)


  1. the cost of those roads

  2. the accessibility of certain roads

  3. the speed limit on interstate roads

  4. the safety measures provided for those roads

10. Which BEST describes the organizational method used in this passage? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)

  1. spatial order

  2. simple listing

  3. comparison/contrast

  4. chronological order


Dear Ms. Pembroke:

The marching band is planning its annual trip to Florida for a parade and contests. This trip is something that the band members anticipate each year. To prepare for the journey, the members of the band have raised funds to cover their expenses.

The band director, Ms. Lantzy, will be coming on the trip; however, we still need more volunteers. Because you have worked with the band in the past, I believe you would make a wonderful chaperone.

Please consider joining the Smithfield Middle School marching band on our trip to Florida. I believe you would be a wonderful candidate for the position, and I look forward to speaking with you about the trip.

Sincerely,

Madison Ray


Use the following letter to answer question 11.

Dear Ms. Pembroke:

The marching band is planning its annual trip to Florida for a parade and contests. This trip is something that the band members anticipate each year. To prepare for the journey, the members of the band have raised funds to cover their expenses.

The band director, Ms. Lantzy, will be coming on the trip; however, we still need more volunteers. Because you have worked with the band in the past, I believe you would make a wonderful chaperone.

Please consider joining the Smithfield Middle School marching band on our trip to Florida. I believe you would be a wonderful candidate for the position, and I look forward to speaking with you about the trip.

Sincerely,

Madison Ray

11. Which of these statements BEST fits into paragraph 2? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)


  1. While we are in Florida, the band will be participating in competitions with bands from around the country.

  2. The band has gone to Florida once a year for five years, and we want to go again this year.

  3. The members of the band sponsored a car wash and a bake sale to raise money for the trip.

  4. Ms. Lantzy suggested that I contact you because of your past volunteerism with the band.


Jane Addams was born in Cedarville, Illinois, in 1860. As the daughter of well-off mill owner, Jane always had her needs cared for. While she traveled through England in her late twenties, she and her friend, Ellen G. Starr, traveled to a house where poor people could sleep, eat, and learn. Inspired by this, Jane and Ellen started a similar establishment, called Hull House, in Chicago, Illinois. People living in the city could get a meal, learn, and rest at Hull House. The founders soon became famous for their work, and their efforts helped many poor people in Chicago. For her work, Jane was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Use the following paragraph to answer question 12.



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