Term paper submitted to the Department of communication and social studies of Cadi Ayyd University
Seminar title: the integration of ELT in English Language Classroom: with special reference to the Moroccan English classrooms
Prepared by: Mr. Abdel-ilah RACHIDI
My sincere thanks go to my supervisor, Dr. Malika. EL OUALI for her academic assistance and insightful comments which helped me redefines the current project.
I would like to express my gratitude to the following professors for their kindness, understanding and help during my educational career that has lasted three years at the faculty Caddi Ayyad in Marrakech: Mr. Nahir, Mrs. Aniq El filali, Mrs. Tifnouti, Mr. Darir, Mr. Gajjout, Mrs. Francis Maccuee , Mr. Abdellah El haloui, Mrs. Ben Aabbou, and others, who have contributed in opening new horizons of knowledge in front of me.
I awe debt of gratitude also to my family, especially my parents who died in the last days for their care, sacrifice and love. Without their help and competence, I do not think this research will see the light.
I would like also to pay a special tribute to Taib Ahmed Mourabit, professor at Twin City University, USA.
Table of contents
I- The theoretical Part: Introductory overview of information and communication technologies
1 - What is ICT……………………………………………
2- General overview of ICT in Moroccan schools ……………………….
3- The main ICT materials used in ELT ………………………
4- The importance of ICT-enhanced ELT ………………………
II - Actors in the ICT integration into Language Education
1- ICT integration and national non- governmental organizations………
The ultimate objective of this research paper is to prove that new technologies are of great importance in education. Therefore, the study of English language based on textual level to achieve pedagogical competence for learners of English as a foreign language is not complete, unless it is related to the integration of Information Communication Technologies in ELT. In fact, language and technology are very consistent and complete each other. In this research paper, I will try to show that technology plays an essential role; that it functions in parallel with the individual linguistic and cultural competencies to achieve a successful communication.
The major role of visual and technological communication in language teaching is to focus the attention on using English language efficiently into classroom as well as in social and cultural situations. Methods have been changed a great deal in terms of the material used in classroom, the designed syllabuses and the evaluation of what has been learnt. Therefore, educators should enhance and incorporate technological awareness as one of the key elements in order to make students acquire the essential cultural and linguistic skills for a successful communication with interlocutors of the target language.
In fact, the emphasis on “the textual method” is not sufficient alone; it can make student more less competent. More additionally, Educators should shed the light on visual-technological method as a major element that should be used in parallel with the textual level.
The prime objective of using technology in ELT is communicating our feelings, our ideas, and our interpretations with the other interlocutors of the target language in a new and better way. This communicative skill can not ultimately succeed without prior considering ICT as a crucial factor in ELT. Thus, visual-technological competence must be incorporated in our school syllabuses.
The focus is to be aware of the most up-to-date pedagogical approaches and also to develop an effective way of how to teach language based on technology in class. This research paper will include different parts of studying ICT .In the first part I will try to give an introductory overview of ICT, in which I am going to give a set of definitions of the term Information Communication Technologies and its importance .In the second part, I will deal with the main governmental and non-governmental actors relating in ICT integration. Finally, in the third part, I will try to analyze the data gathered from case study questionnaire
The First Part
An Introductory Overview of
What is ICT?
Definition of ICT :
ICT sands for Information Communication Technologies. “It is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, to create, to disseminate, to store and to manage information “1.To make meaning of text or images, the reader or learner has to have full awareness towards a range of technological aids that are used to communicate successfully in teaching and learning .Lapp and Fisher use the term " Intermediality" to describe the technologies needed to read in a multimedia world.” They stress the importance of the active reading based on information visualization and the importance of the visual communication to capture attention, reinforce learning and increase audience responses2 .Therefore, ICT includes any devise that can access, present, manipulate and communicate words, sounds and images to enable us to create meaning.
In fact, ICT is a broad and fast changing subject. It has drawn the attention from multiple disciplines, that attempted to solicit a suitable definition, but with little consensus. this is probably due to the fact that those representing the different disciplines and paradigms each wants to interpret ICT in a way that reflects his / her way of thinking .For example, Schiller suggests that” the various visual media (e.g. Computer m video, data show, CD Room s…etc) each has its own characteristic forms and specific skills to learn “3.
Moreover, the term information communication technologies can also be “often used in a broader sense to refer to the ability to understand a technical or cultural domain, as in computer literacy and graphic literacy” 4 .it can be also refer to the ability to read all kinds of science based basically on a set of technological materials .For instance, Data Show, smart broad, teleconference ...etc.
The term ICT has many definitions. it means also the appropriate use of new technologies to interpret , negotiate and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image. As Shelly and Cushman said “ ICT are the multitude of programmers and materials which are mainly designed to recognize and to understand Data information of different subjects( e.g. , language education , economy and daily works) “ 5.
However, to fully understand the definition of ICT it is of great importance to understand the competencies needed to successfully integrate ICT in language teaching .For Bax “ ICT or IT is not merely materials such as the teacher needs to acquire the essential technological skills for a successful communication with students” 6
2- General Overview of ICT in Moroccan schools
Despite the introduction of ICT in Moroccan schools in fact is new reality especially in secondary schools, there are many regular lessons has been implemented on how to use and integrate ICT in education in some of these schools, students benefit from regular lessons on ICT though limited in number.” In some secondary schools, especially in big cities and towns where there are cyber cafes some teachers take the initiative and involve their students in some research7.” Unfortunately, very few trained teachers who graduated from ENS and appointed in several schools but still not covering all Moroccan schools. Furthermore, these teachers have not yet been informed of a clear and well-established course or plan of action integrating ICT in some secondary schools.
On the parallel track, a serious talk about ICT integrating in Moroccan educational system has raised with the introduction of the New Reform of Education and Training.” The reform has started since the academic year 2000-2001 .In the charter of New Reform mainly, the 10 principal component entitled the use of new technologies of information and communication “ 8, gives some broad lines for the use of ICT in the Moroccan English Language Classroom .Moreover, the Implementation of these objectives is going very slowly because of the voluntary work of some teachers , ELT inspectors , administrators and parents' associations and the civil society.
3- The main ICT materials used in ELT
the Ministry of National Education has started to equip secondary schools with computers since 2000.Every Moroccan secondary school is now equipped with at least 2 computers .” Most of these schools are connected to the internet and those which have not yet been connected due to some technical problems.
Some secondary schools are well-equipped (more than 15 computers) and have a specialized multimedia room “ 9
Meanwhile, many Moroccan schools have started to prepare programmes to integrate these materials in teaching and learning .These materials can be illustrated as follows:
Description of ICT materials used in Moroccan Language Classroom
4- The importance of ICT –enhanced ELT
Generally speaking, today's age is highly associated with visual-television, websites and new technologies-technologies that have completely changed the attitude of people towards the literate person .The literacy of the 21 century will increasingly rely not only on text and words, but also on digital images and sound.
Similarly, the ultimate objective of using new technologies is to prove that ICT is of paramount importance in daily work, in general and in language education in particular .Therefore, the study of English language based on shalk-talk pedagogy to achieve a linguistic and cultural competencies for learners of English is not complete, unless it is related to the integration of new technologies in English Language Teaching .More specifically, ICT can enhance the quality of education by
Increasing learner motivation through videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound and colorful, moving images.
Facilitating the acquisition of the basic skills and knowledge.
Enhancing teacher knowledge, competencies and awareness towards computer and internet applications.
Providing a new way of teaching and learning, rather than simply allowing teachers and students to do what they are done before in better way ( e.g. different types of materials such data show, smart board provide space to the teachers to be more creative in language teaching ...Etc).
The Second Part
The ICT Integration’s Actors
1-ICT integration and national non- governmental organizations
1.1. Mate Program:
The Moroccan Association of Teachers of English has recently organized a different forum to shed the light on the importance of ICT in the modern world, in general, and in education, in particular. Mate has also been aware of the urgent need for specialized training very closely related the need of ELT teachers and to the objective of education. This is why ,Mate has launched a series of Two-day colloquia which focused on training teachers on Information and Communication Technology providing basic skills in the area and relating this technology to teaching , to learning and to teacher development .In this respect, the organization of colloquia falls within the new strategy Mate has adopted recently as an alternative to the one or half days activities .As Abdellatif Zaki said, " the alternative was to conduct a series of two day workshops."
1.2. The project implementation: Aims of two-day ICT colloquia
The colloquia aimed to:
Raise awareness to some pedagogical and technical issues and implication related to ICT in ELT.
Train teacher on some computer and internet applications.
Develop ways of integrating ICT in ELT within Moroccan context.
Introduce ways using ICT in professional development.
1.3. Training program: a key to integration
The program was composed mainly of hands-on workshops and demonstration sessions with some short orientation introductions at the beginning of every new English rubric in the form of a short plenary session. It was not possible to implement the whole program in all regions because of the differences in the participants 'level in ICT. The training program was as follows:
Day1: Basic skills
Plenary: the role of computer and the internet in ELT
Word-processing, creating folders using floppy discs
Using editing, publishing programmes (Ms Word, Ms Publisher)
Clipart, photos, photo editors…
Multimedia /CD ROMs
Plenary: web-based teacher development and communication
Searching the web:
Using search engines
Searching educational sites for teachers and students
Copy right issues
Internet relay chat
Day 2: integrating the computer and the internet in the classroom
Plenary: the one computer classroom
Building up web pages and websites:
Using editing program (Ms Front page)
Demonstration and application
Building up one -resource center.
Plenary: computer and web-based testing
ICT integration and the Moroccan state
2-1 Genie Program: an overview of the program
In the last decades, the Moroccan government, and under the royal of his majesty, king Mohammed has adopted a new strategy to facilitate the integration of new technologies in all fields of life, in general, and in all public schools, in particular within the aim to improve the quality of teaching.” the first part of Genie Program may approach 11 million and aims at providing schools (over 8.600) school and high schools ) with Internet-connected multimedia rooms by 2008.Infrastructure , teacher training and the development of pedagogical content are part of this national program which the king officially launched on September 15, 2005” 10. More specifically, the Genie program is built around three complementary axes:
“ICT equipment: Genie plans to equip all Moroccan schools with computer labs with ADSL internet access. It is estimated that 104,000 computers over three years (2005 -2008).
Teachers and school administrators training: The training axis in the genie project is carried out in close collaboration with several international partners to implement the training components, regional computer Labs have been set up in the 16 regional academies affiliated to the Ministry of Education”11. The components include :
Training in basic use of computers for 230.000 teachers and school administration.
Training in the use of ICT as ac pedagogical tool to more than 18.000 teachers.
Training in maintenance to more than 700 technicians
3_ ICT integration and international non-governmental organization
3.1. The USAID program: an overview of the program
The initiation of ICT access in the Moroccan schools has been supported by large programs like the USAID program, worked mainly in partnership with the Moroccan Ministry of Education to promote information technology as a school-based subject in addition to access, use, and integration of ICT within the language teaching syllabuses.
To begin with, the installation of multimedia laboratories by the ALEFF project of USAID in eight Moroccan middle schools, in 2005 is starting to bear fruitful result. Here are three examples of schools successfully incorporating ICT in classroom instruction, addressing their specific needs.
Bouarfa after hours: The middle school in Bouarfa College ALFATH is operating its multimedia LAB after school hours 6pm and 8pm daily and during the weekend. Teachers are volunteering their time to help students use the Lab for independent research, to complete assignments and to present lectures relating the socio-cultural subject. In fact, extending Lab working hours is one example of ways teachers can integrating ICT in language teaching.
Community financing of computer in Settat: (college Moulay Abdellah), the Parent-Teachers’ Association bought two additional computers in the upcoming months. According to the school director, many teachers have purchased their own computers since ALEF installed the computer Lab. This experience shows that a relatively small project investment in infrastructure accompanied by a strong and participatory human resource development program can motivate teachers and administrators to find private resources to address infrastructure and other education challenges.
Online forum in khouribga: the College El Massira in Khouribga has been a leader in organizing teacher training, classroom lessons and a school blog in its Lab. One example of an innovative use of the lab is a lesson organized by an English language inspector and two young teachers with third year students at the school. During the lesson, students wrote short portraits of themselves in English to which they attached a digital photograph. The whole class shared their portraits via an online forum provided by the US-based NGO IEARN, “My school, Your school.” The teacher remarked that students’ enthusiasm and participation in the lesson were enormous, due to the use of ICT.
3.2. The training program: a key to engage teachers as well as students
Through USAID training programs on how to incorporate Information and Communication Technology in the classroom, 60 teachers at Moulay Ismail middle school learned exciting new ways of engaging their students. With the new ICT tools, teachers have provided their students with hands-on learning activities and technical skills that contributed to improving their performance. Najib El Bahlaoui, Moulay Ismail director “ said that today the integration of ICT in classroom has created team work , in which students do not receive knowledge anymore, but start to build it “
In fact, such project gives students the opportunity to be more competitive in classroom; they can create an extraordinary project. For instance, students can create website to explore the history of terrorism and incongruity to Islam’s values of peace and tolerance.
Furthermore, the USAID has provided 15 other middle schools in Meknes region, as well as 12girls’dormitories, and four ICT training centers with computers or full multimedia Labs. Excited by these, new opportunities for visual learning and knowledge sharing.
The Third Part
The Data Analysis and Interpretation of
Case Study Questionnaire
Cadi Ayyad University
Faculty of literature and human science
Research paper questionnaire
About Integrating new technologies
in ABTIH secondary school
Full Name: _ Age:
Please , be as honest as possible in your answers :
3 / Do you think the integration of ICT in the Moroccan ELT syllabus is feasible at present time ( if so , how ? if not , why ,?)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4 /what are you expecting to learn from ICT syllabus / system?
The findings of the data gathered from questionnaire and interviews reveal that the integration of ICT is very rare in language teaching .The lack of logistic support and training programs affect on learning and teaching English .Indeed, the restrictions of access to education raise problems of communication with new technologies in ELT .According to Fatima, English teacher at ABTIH secondary school, the lack of full awareness towards the role of ICT in education is one of the main drawbacks in integrating these materials in Moroccan Educational Syllabus .And more interestingly, she claimed that
"I have strong desire and attachment to use new technologies in my class so as to make a deep and fast understanding in the mind of my students, but the indifference of my workmate restricted my activities relating to ICT".
So Fatima's statement reveals that some teachers have strong desire to do great effort in realm of teaching, but unfortunately chatters their hopes.
On the one hand, the interview conducted with Mohammed, French teacher at ABTIH secondary school as well reveals that there is no specialized ICT training center for teachers, and this shows that some teachers are not specialized enough; they do not have a good training of using ICT in ELT successfully and professionally. On the other hand, few teachers have attended special programs (e.g. Two-day workshop organized by MNE) on visual and technological communication in language teaching, but it is insufficient .In this respect, the education and communication become questionable .Even Mohammed claimed that "I am teacher for last 13 years and I have training of using ICT in ELT by MATE but it is not enough to use it feasible at present time .He adds the blame is on the government which does not provide professional training and logistic support .In fact , ICT is a mean of communication and provides a vehicle for implement all pedagogical and didactics reforms or plans.
With this respect, the two aforementioned teachers have insisted on the government's support, that is to say, the government should help many Moroccan schools at multiple levels: logistically, financially, professionally, and didactically.
Besides, Zakariya's French teacher stressed that a teacher and students must share a means of communication (chat, online conference room) which is the fundamental principle of all education .He claims "when communication exists between teacher and students, then education can begin"
The skill of teacher within this school is required to provide a high level of language teaching which student needs as a part of education .This fact, makes different attitudes of some interviewed students , some' were happy about using computer and data show in grammar courses while a few were disappointed .For instance, Khadija , student at baccalaureate claimed
"I made no progress, I wasn't expecting miracles but hope that school would be taught to be more independent and develop skills and interests which would be useful in later life .But this institution is like a kindergarten where the aim seems to be to keep student under control. No effort was made to accelerate the integration of ICT materials in ELT as well as the communication of students with these materials"
Seriously, the quotation shows that the support of the government is very rare and limited; it is only for some schools especially in big cities. Mainly, CA SA Blanca Fez, Marrakech, Rabat…etc .As Khadija stressed that there is no support at all as she said (كاينن مساعدات غير بالفم إما التطبيق والو).That is to say, that nothing exists in reality.
Students and ICT integration: an overview
Table 1: Types of support and teacher's estimation.
To start with, the aforementioned tables reveal that the majority of questioned students believe that ICT is of great importance in language teaching, whereas, (80,07%) of interviewed students claim that ICT has totally changed education syllabus in a positive way .As justifications they state the following significant fact: "we become more confident and more participant in classroom" (27.50%)." We become more positive", (16.50%). "It made it easier" (9.17%). I was reinforcement (7.33%)
However, some interviewed students clearly stated that the government plan to integrate ICT is still disorganized because of the absence of scrutiny, control and respect to the government programs .More interestingly, 80% claimed that the multitude of the programs which are mainly designed to integrate ICT in ELT are to an extent not efficient .The aforementioned programs are just mere” Moudawanat”.
3- Problems and limitations
Unquestionably, the particularity of this subject raises different types of problems and limitations relating to my research paper as well as to the integration of ICT in the Moroccan ELT syllabuses .Thus, these problems can be detailed as follows:
Problems relating to integration of ICT in ELT:
The lack of ICT training; especially, for language teachers.
The absence of integration of ICT in the syllabus as a obligatory part of student learning programs
The integration of ICT program should cover all urban zone as well as rural zone
The lack of government’s support to some personal initiative of some teachers.
The absence of enough materials mainly computers, data show and internet.
Some teachers are still not familiar with ICT, or do not accept the idea of moving from textual into visual method.
Problems relating to my research paper:
The problem of translation in dealing with some technical terms .Beside, some problems related to the translation from Arabic to English in dealing with books and documents that were written in Arabic , or French .Actually, there is a lack of accurate references that deal with this issues in Morocco. Concerning the drawbacks which encompassed the writing of this term paper, some interviewed teacher and or, student didn’t accept to be recorded or even if they accept their answers sometimes were not frank or irrelevant.
In this paper, I have tried to shed the light on the integration of ICT in ELT and more specifically on the actors in the ICT integration. As it was mentioned in the first part, ICT is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, to create, to disseminate, to store and to manage information. Based on the idea that ICT is of great importance, some teachers consider ICT to be more of technological tool, than teachable skill
In the second and the third part I have mentioned the main actors in ICT integrating; the Moroccan states, non-governmental organization and international non-governmental organization to try to show to what extent such program can enhanced the level of education in Morocco.
All in all, the emphasis on the governmental support is not efficient alone; it is related to the participatory of the Moroccan state, the civil society and the international organization.
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Stetephen Bax, Putting technology in its place: issues in Modern Foreign Language Teaching , Field , C(ed). Rutledge
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