The Swedish translation team has asked for guidance in the classification of radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems. In our initial analysis, we determined that RFID and bar coding should be treated similarly: both are used for item identification; bar codes identify classes of items, while RFID tags, which carry more data, typically identify individual items. Along with magnetic stripe encoding, smart cards, optical character recognition, speaker recognition, and biometric identification, bar coding and RFID systems qualify as “automatic identification and data capture” (AIDC) technologies.
Interdisciplinary works on bar coding are currently classed in 006.42 Optical pattern recognition. Only some AIDC technologies can be construed as pattern recognition; development under 006.4 for all AIDC technologies thus seems inappropriate. Instead, AIDC should be developed elsewhere and bar coding relocated there.
We have struggled some with where interdisciplinary works on AIDC would fit best in the system; in the end, we have been guided by these observations from Juli Beall:
I don’t think we want 621+ for the ID number, rather an 00X number that includes both hardware and software. General systems that include both hardware and software are classed in 004; special-purpose systems that include both hardware and software are classed in 006. For example, we have “automatic data collection” in the including note at 006. I think we need to develop something under 006 that could be analogous to ACM C.3 SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS—maybe at 006.2?—and find a home there for AIDC and other special-purpose systems.
A partial outline of relevant portions of the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) Computing Classification System (CCS) follows:
A. General Literature
K. Computing Milieux
From this outline, we see that category C in the ACM CCS aptly fits the characterization of hardware and software working together in a system, which corresponds to 004 in the DDC; however, C.3, with its special-purpose systems, fits better in 006 Special computer methods. In the DDC, application-based systems would be classed with the application, so we borrow only the “special purpose” portion of the subcategory title for the caption of a new subclass in 006 analogous to C.3. Since classes 006.3–006.8 are already in use, 006.2 appears to be the best number. We are relocating automatic data collection, which has been in an including note at 006, to an including note at 006.2, since most systems that use automatic data collection are special-purpose systems.
We are not inclined to treat all of the subjects given under ACM CCS C.3 in the new 006.2. For example, real-time systems will remain in 004.33, based on their association with a specific mode of processing; furthermore, many general-purpose systems use real-time processing. Of the subjects mentioned under C.3, only embedded computer systems and smart cards fit comfortably under the “special-purpose” umbrella in 006. Both have sufficient literary warrant to justify having their own numbers under 006.2. Indeed, there is sufficient literary warrant to expand for bar coding, RFID systems, and smart cards, which we develop under a more general class for all automatic identification and data capture; a scatter see reference for specific applications of AIDC technologies is also called for.
Embedded systems were introduced at 004.1 in 2008. In EPC Exhibit 128-12, we noted:
According to Michael Barr’s Embedded Systems Glossary, . . . an embedded system is “a combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function” and contrasts with a general-purpose computer. Examples [include]: Microwave ovens, cell phones, calculators, digital watches, VCRs, cruise missiles, GPS receivers, heart monitors, laser printers, radar guns, engine controllers, digital cameras, traffic lights, remote controls, bread machines, fax machines, pagers, cash registers, treadmills, gas pumps, credit/debit card readers, thermostats, pacemakers, blood gas monitors, grain analyzers, and a gazillion others.” Embeddedness itself is an issue of systems design / architecture; however, embedded systems potentially include all the components of unembedded computer systems. We propose to locate comprehensive works on embedded computer systems at 004.1 and to include a scatter note to class aspects of embedded systems with the aspect.
This placement was not ideal: embedded computer systems were placed in 004.1 only because there was then no better place for them. The current proposal calls for the relocation of embedded computer systems out of 004.1 into 006.2 Special-purpose systems, which aptly fits Barr’s characterization. Tish Riegle, one of the LC classifiers who works with computer science materials, noted upon seeing this proposal that she highly favored the relocation.
RFID systems are increasingly used to implement real-time locating systems (RTLS). RTLS for Dummies has been classed in 621.384191 Direction and position finding, although a distinction can be drawn between direction and position finding technologies and identification and locating technologies. We would like to maintain the distinction between these two within the 620s and so propose developing a class for Identification and locating at 621.384192, with both real-time locating systems and automatic identification and data capture as class-here concepts. However, outside technologically-oriented areas in the classification, the distinction is not so useful. Thus we therefore propose that the interdisciplinary number for real-time locating systems be in the same class as the interdisciplinary number for global positioning systems, namely 910.285. A class-elsewhere note at 006.245 leads to 910.2856245 for real-time locating systems that use radio frequency identification.
004.1 General works on specific types of computers
Class here specific types of processors, computer systems based on specific types of computers, comprehensive works on embedded computer systems Class specific types of computers, processors, computer systems distinguished by their processing modes in 004.3; class programmable calculators in 510.28541
For a specific aspect of embedded computer systems, see the aspect, e.g., systems analysis and design of embedded computer systems 004.21, software for embedded systems 005.3 See Manual at 004.1; also at 004.1 vs. 004.24; also at 004.1 vs. 004.3 Embedded computer systems relocated to 006.22 006 *Special computer methods
Not otherwise provided for
Including automatic data collection Class here programs, programming, selection and use of hardware in relation to special computer methods
See also 003.3 for computer modeling and simulation; also notation 0113 from Table 1 for computer modeling and simulation in a specific discipline or subject; also 004.6 for computer communications; also 005.74 for file and database management; also 005.8 for data security; also 629.89 for special methods in automatic control engineering See Manual at 004–006 vs. 621.39 006.2 *Special-purpose systems Including automatic data collection 006.22 *Embedded computer systems [formerly 004.1] For a specific aspect of embedded computer systems, see the aspect, e.g., systems analysis and design of embedded computer systems 004.21, software for embedded systems 005.3 006.24 *Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) Including magnetic stripe encoding Class here interdisciplinary works on automatic identification and data capture For optical character recognition, see 006.424; for speaker recognition, see 006.454; for biometric identification, see 570.15195. For specific applications of automatic identification and data capture, see the application, plus notation 0285624 from Table 1, e.g, inventory control in business 658.7870285624 006.242 *Bar coding [formerly 006.42] For use of bar coding in materials management, see 658.7802856242 006.245 *Radio frequency identification Class real-time locating systems that use radio frequency identification in 910.2856245 006.246 *Smart cards 006.42 *Optical pattern recognition
Class here comprehensive works on optical pattern recognition and computer graphics, interdisciplinary works on bar coding Class optical engineering aspects of optical pattern recognition in 621.367
For perceptrons, see 006.32; for computer graphics, see 006.6; for use of bar coding in materials management, see 658.780285642 See also 006.37 for computer vision See Manual at 006.7 vs. 006.42, 621.367, 621.391, 621.399 Interdisciplinary works on bar coding relocated to 006.242 *Use notation 019 from Table 1 as modified at 004.019
621.384 19 Special developments [of radio]
621.384 192Identification and locating Standard subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading Including radio frequency identification (RFID) systems Class here automatic identification and data capture (AIDC); real-time locating systems (RTLS) 910.285 Data processing Computer applications
Class here interdisciplinary works on geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), real-time locating systems (RTLS) Class real-time locating systems that use radio frequency identification in 910.2856245 For an application of geographic information systems (GIS),or global positioning systems (GPS), or real-time locating systems (RTLS) to a subject, see the subject, plus notation 0285 from Table 1, e.g., GIS applications in mathematical geography 526.0285