The publisher responded minimally to this review. Of the 82 entries, the publisher offered two changes and two comments; the remainder went unremarked. Numerous editorial changes were made by the publisher to Chronology, Notable People, Art, Documents, Tutorial and Projects, ostensibly at the request of other groups/individuals (see these entries at the end of this report as they reflect modified content from the original content reviewed.)
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Fact & Source
Table of Contents
7. Include objective presentations of contemporary social science issues with a global perspective that are balanced, pertinent, accurate, and current.
We select information that is pertinent to the subject matter and always attempt to present a balanced and accurate narrative. Because our courses are delivered over the Internet, they may be updated regularly to include currently available data and breaking events. Although WorldView Software: American History II: Post-Civil War America to the Present 4 of 103
History is focused on U.S. History, we often include material that places our nation’s history within a broader, global perspective.
Updated by whom?
Global sources identified?
First paragraph, last sentence
“Even when immigrants wanted to preserve their customs, they were often forced to adapt their diets, wardrobes, and entertainment choices to what was available in the American market.
Because the editor chose to use the term “often” this passage is not incorrect, although it seems to contradict the passage in the Narrative Overview of this same chapter: “Immigrants frequently transplanted their languages, food, religious practices, social institutions, and leisure activities. This completely transformed America's cities.”
Urbanization following the great wave of immigration from 1922 onward had a great influence on diet, attire and entertainment. See “The Urbanization of America,” Frederick County Public Schools
On the other hand: “Most of the immigrants settled in the cities where they could find work in the factories. There was hardly a city of any size in America that did not have a section designated as Little Italy. Italians would look to settle in these areas, for it was here that they felt most comfortable. They could speak their own language and be understood, and they could eat food familiar to them. This resulted in the formation of very definite ethnic communities. The ideals, language, and customs of the Italians were preserved because of these neighborhoods. Little Italies could be found in major cities like Hartford, New Haven, Waterbury, New Britain, Torrington etc., where they were sealed off from the wider American society. This isolation served to nurture and maintain the Italian ways of life (food, language, close-knit family organization and religious practices) Students should be allowed to visit Little Italy in New York city which offers the best and most varied selection of Italian cuisine on the East coast.”
The Italian Immigrant Experience in America (1870-1920) by Joan Rapczynski, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, 2014
Since most Americans were Protestants and many of the new immigrants were not, some Americans expressed religious intolerance. They believed that Catholics, Jews, and Buddhists were heretical or heathens. Still others, especially business owners and members of the middle class, were politically conservative and believed that immigrants were radical in their political beliefs (either socialist or communist). Thus these people felt that immigrants posed a threat to both democracy and capitalism.
The use of “heretical or heathens” is questionable. The immigrants who came first were Irish and they were Catholics. Then came Italians, also Catholics and Jews from Eastern Europe. No Protestant would judge Catholics and Jews as heretics or heathens.” Buddhists came in the late 1870s.
Publisher’s response: Text has been revised to clarify. Please see excel spreadsheet for exact language. [TTT Editor’s note: no spreadsheet was identified among the numerous uploads to the TEA website containing this revised text. And entry was identified on one spreadsheet but it is truncated and incomplete. It reads: “Section: "Nativism", 3rd paragraph/2nd sentence Original sentence”]
“Other Urban Problems”
“Crime was widespread in cities because there were high rates of unemployment and intense poverty. While murder rates declined in industrialized nations such as Germany and England, the homicide rate in the U.S. increased dramatically from 25 murders per million in 1881 to 107 per million in 1898. Other crimes, from pick-pocketing to bank robbery, also increased alarmingly.”
This is anti-foreigners propaganda.
Ozawa v. United States
Q 4 of 4
What were the political consequences for the Japanese community as a result of "Ozawa v. United States"? How does the inability to become a citizen limit one's political power?
I would take the opportunity to commend the publisher for the inclusion and presentation of the material. The questions are suitable to develop a student’s ability to reason and there is adequate information to enable the process
Rather than disassociate himself completely from Rev. Wright, Senator Obama used the opportunity to explore the theme of race relations in the United States, in the context of the campaign, in his family, and in the wider arena of American politics and culture. His theme was one of progress toward the constitutional goal of "a more perfect union."
While this statement is in itself not untrue, the selection of Sen. Obama’s speech is slanted toward presenting the US as racist by nature. A better choice for this exercise might have been Dr. Martin Luther King’s 1962 “I Have A Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial. Senator Obama’s speech, a campaign speech mainly given for political reasons, may have been more appropriate in a course contrasting various ideological perspectives related to political and social movements in American public address.
“Obama said Friday, in fact, that he doesn't much care for the proverbial national "discussion on race" or calls to create one.” http://www.businessinsider.com/obama-trayvon-martin-speech-race-zimmerman-trial-verdict-racial-profiling-2013-7#ixzz3GwStrI9f
“The dog that didn't bark is Obama's renowned speech on race, the one devoted to starting a national conversation on the subject and to putting the Rev. Jeremiah Wright's notorious comments in their proper context. The words "all men are created equal" do not appear in it. And so it is a very different appeal, with a very different view of America, than one would find in, say, Martin Luther King's great speech at the Lincoln Memorial. Obama mentions the Constitution briefly, noting its "ideal of equal citizenship" and that it "promised its people liberty, and justice, and a union that could be and should be perfected over time." But he does not mention the conclusion that he arrives at in his book, namely, that the Constitution's "people" did not refer to or include blacks, and especially not black slaves. Although he regards both the Declaration and the Constitution as racist documents originally, he does not emphasize the point in his speech because it would confirm Rev. Wright's fundamental charge, that the U.S. is a racist country. And the point of Obama's speech in Philadelphia, at the National Constitution Center, was not merely to repeat his condemnation of Wright's remarks "in unequivocal terms" but to put the whole controversy behind him.”
Charles R. Kesler, senior fellow of The Claremont Institute and editor of the Claremont Review of Books.
In 1966, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, two young black residents of Oakland, California, founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. Their purpose was to patrol the streets of Oakland, fully armed -- as California law permitted -- intervening in instances of what they regarded as police brutality against the black community. The Black Panthers expressed strong views about what they regarded as white oppression of black people, and did not shy from advocating violence when necessary to achieve black liberation.
Violent revolutionary organization of the 1960s and 1970s
Its members engaged in drug dealing, pimping, rape, extortion, assault, and murder.
Aimed to harass the police, to protest against “police brutality” and America’s allegedly racist power structure, and ultimately to ignite a violent race war in the United States
It is estimated that during their radical heyday, the Panthers killed more than a dozen people. As Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver acknowledged in a June 15, 1997 Sixty Minutes interview: “If people had listened to Huey Newton and me in the 1960s, there would have been a holocaust in this country.”
Excerpted and adapted from “Baddest: The Life and Times of Huey P. Newton” (Chapter 5 of Destructive Generation, by Peter Collier and David Horowitz, 1989.)
founded in Oakland in 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, the Black Panthers sent armed patrols into their city's streets to monitor incidents of police brutality against African-Americans. Not flinching from the advocacy of violence where that was necessary to achieve black liberation, the Black Panthers were involved on several occasions in violent confrontations with the police. A number of members were ultimately imprisoned or killed.
Same as above
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
the ideology embraced by some black groups in the late 1960s. In 1966, Stokely Carmichael, the chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), used the phrase "black power" in indicating a departure from the group's previous support of nonviolent tactics in pursuit of black civil rights. In other words, blacks were to establish a separate identity as African-Americans, and a sense of pride in this separate identity. They were encouraged to obtain political and economic power so that they could determine their own destinies. Carmichael also advocated self-defense, which represented a break from the nonviolent tactics of the SNCC, the NAACP, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
a group that advocated black civil rights. The SNCC was originally organized in 1960 by college students. The organization was largely responsible for the nonviolent sit-in movement. In the first major sit-in in Greensboro (North Carolina) in 1960, black students sat down at a lunch counter (where normally blacks would not be served unless they were standing) and insisted on being served. The movement spread and many previously segregated social and business locations were desegregated in this manner. In 1966, Stokely Carmichael became the chairman of the SNCC. He had become increasingly frustrated with the violence that occurred and began advocating "black power." (also see "black power")
“[Stokely Carmichael] was a paranoid, racist, who was rejected by the civil rights movement he claimed to serve. He was widely hated across America — and distrusted by actual civil rights leaders — for his virulently anti-American pronouncements and his calls for revolutionary violence to be used to destroy both the United States and all of Western civilization. His hatred of America was profound. The United States, he said, was “the most disgusting country in the world.” The Trinidadian-born agitator urged that black power be used not only to cripple America, his adopted homeland, but also to bring down the civilized world. …
Carmichael, who popularized the phrase black power, was a demagogue who believed that the ends justify the means. He was a leader who had no qualms about hurting other people on the long, blood-drenched road to utopia. “When you talk of black power,” Carmichael said, “you talk of building a movement that will smash everything Western civilization has created.” More moderate civil rights leaders at the time thought Carmichael was dangerous and possibly deranged. They urged that he be ostracized, treated as a “black Trotskyite.” Roy Wilkins of the NAACP said black power was a form of racism that could lead to “black death.” “It is a reverse Mississippi, a reverse Hitler, a reverse Ku Klux Klan.”
“Lionizing the Enemy” by Matthew Vadum, Frontpage Magazine, June 17, 2014, http://www.frontpagemag.com/2014/matthew-vadum/lionizing-the-enemy/
a document written by Robert Alan Haber, the president of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), and Tom Hayden in 1962 that was intended to state the goals of SDS. It called for moving beyond anti-communism in the conduct of foreign policy and urged more governmental action against racial discrimination and poverty.
The Port Huron Statement adopted the position of "anti-anti-Communism," refusing to support the West in the Cold War. The statement identified and denounced America's many sins: racism, abundance, materialism, industrialization, and militarism. Its prescribed solution to Cold War tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was to entirely dismantle America's “permanent war economy”: “Universal controlled disarmament must replace deterrence and arms control as the [American] national defense goal.”
an organization founded by Jesse Jackson, a former aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Formally known as the National Rainbow Coalition, it served as an umbrella organization for organizing people of all races, religions, and backgrounds to support Jackson's presidential candidacies in 1984 and 1988. Although Jackson did not win the Democratic nomination in either year, he did make unusually impressive showings in several states and is generally considered the first African-American to make a serious run for the U.S. presidency.
“…the Rainbow Coalition, formed in 1985 to counter policies enacted during President [Ronald] Reagan's second term which [Jesse] Jackson deemed discriminatory against African Americans. … A principal tactic by which Rainbow/PUSH drives its agenda is the often frivolous charge of racism, followed by public protests and threats of widespread boycotts. Throughout its history, the organization has employed this technique with considerable success. … In 2001, Jesse Jackson named former (1993-1995) Chicago Democrat Congressman Mel Reynolds to the Rainbow/PUSH payroll as a consultant for prison reform efforts aimed at decreasing the number of young African Americans behind bars. Reynolds was among the 176 criminals excused in Bill Clinton's last-minute pardons as he ended his second term as U.S. President. Clinton's pardon gave Reynolds a commutation of his six-and-a-half-year federal sentence for 15 convictions of wire fraud, bank fraud, and lies to the Federal Election Commission. Reynolds had also served prison time for his 1995 convictions on 12 counts of sexual assault (he had sexual relations with a 16-year-old campaign volunteer), obstruction of justice, and solicitation of child pornography. … Rainbow/PUSH is a member organization of the After Downing Street, United for Peace and Justice, and Win Without War anti-war coalitions.”
an organization founded by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1957, in the wake of the success of the Montgomery bus boycott. Its purpose was to coordinate and organize further civil rights activity throughout the South.
“Founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was instrumental to the success of the 1960s civil rights movement. Activist campaigns engineered by SCLC laid the groundwork for such legislation as the1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. In more recent times, however, the organization has turned away from King’s vision and embraced racial preferences. In the years since King’s death, SCLC has evolved into an organ of the political Left -- joining other radical groups engaged in anti-war activism and leveraging its remaining influence to rally support for leftist Democratic candidates.”
The Ku Klux Klan was reborn. Many people in northern and midwestern states, as well as the South, joined the new KKK. Claiming to be the "protector of pure America," the new KKK was anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-communist, anti-foreign, as well as anti-black.
“Held in contempt by most white Americans, the Klan today is virtually defunct. Close to bankruptcy, this group which once boasted millions of members and wielded significant political power, now has no established alliances with mainstream white leaders or organizations, and has no more than 4,000 members nationwide. No Klansmen can be found among newspaper editors, legislators, district judges, or the directors of major corporations. And contemporary Klan leaders are capable of attracting only a handful of white racists to their meetings.”
Name political parties other than Democratic or Republican Parties (called ‘third parties”) that are presently the most popular in the United States. What effect do they have on the political system?
The reading material does not give any information about these parties.
The Temperance Movement in Lincoln
They were in the middle and upper socioeconomic classes and tended to be strong church members of Protestant denominations like the Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, and Christians.
Christian is not a religion. It is also not a denomination. It is a noun used to designate any believer in Jesus Christ.
Publisher’s response: The grammatical mistake is acknowledged, but this site is an external link and we have no control over how they edit their content.
The glossary does not contain the words “capitalist” or “capitalism”
…despite scandals involving possible sexual improprieties on the president’s part…
Bill Clinton had a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
Publisher’s response: Text has been revised to clarify. Please see excel spreadsheet for exact language. Revised bio for "Bill Clinton" by changing "possible" to "alleged" from the following sentence. [TTT editor’s note: the remainder of the spreadsheet entry is truncated and illegible.]
The facts did not mention his second term.
The facts did not mention him running for president.
Senger’s “Woman and the New Race”
The text fails to mention that, today, Planned Parenthood performs abortions, and that the federal government gives money to Planned Parenthood.
Although partially defined, this important concept should be linked to the glossary where a more detailed definition could be tendered, perhaps with a reference to the 10th amendment.
Federalism may also be added to the glossary for the same reason.
Great Depression & New Deal
The Three “R”s
There is no mention of John L. Lewis in this reading and he is not listed in the Notable People section. Lewis was a very important factor during the recovery period.
The Washington Naval Conference and the Kellogg-Briand Pact
Para 2 Line 6
Measured in terms of displacement, the U.S., Great Britain, and Japan agreed to limit their capital ships to a ratio of 10:10:6 respectively.
The ratio 10:10:6 should be defined
Germany and Italy: The Quest for Control of Europe.
Para 2 Line 2 and Para 4 Line 2
In 1922, the Italian Fascist Party led by Benito Mussolini, a former journalist, took control of the government,
Adolf Hitler, gained significant power in Germany
The name of Benito Mussolini is linked to the Notable People section.
The name of Adolf Hitler is not linked to the Notable People section.
Narrative Section refers to “Right wing and ”Left Wing” several times
These terms should be identified in the glossary.
Cold War Economics
Soviet Influence and the Iron Curtain
It would be helpful to provide a comprehensive map of the various countries involved in the Soviet bloc and covered by the term Iron Curtain.”
Richard Nixon Seeks to Reshape U.S.
Para 1 Line 1
Simultaneously, President Nixon, who had always been considered a leading Cold War advocate staunchly committed to halting the expansion of communism around the world, began to reshape America's broad global strategies.
The term simultaneously (occurring at the same time) does not belong here. Use either subsequently or consequently.
The concept of American exceptionalism has its roots in the American values identified by Alexis de Tocqueville in "Democracy in America." De Tocqueville believed these values were different and unique from those of other nations, and were crucial to America's success as a constitutional republic. The values he identified were: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissez-faire. While there were regional, religious, racial, gender, class, and other differences then as now, the society de Tocqueville observed was very different from today's society. How universal were and are the values on which he comments? American exceptionalism has been used to explain the weak tradition of labor radicalism and the lack of a socialist movement. It has also been used to explain the strength and lifespan of classic liberal ideology in the United States, with its emphasis on passive government especially in the economy.
For this project, read "Democracy in America," then complete the following using your own research: A. Define the values de Tocqueville identified, both in terms of 1830s society and in terms of today's society. 1. Evaluate the claim that these values were found only in America; that is, that these values are different and unique from those of other nations. 2. Evaluate the claim that these values are necessary for a successful constitutional republic. 3. If de Tocqueville were observing the United States today, would he still see these values represented? Why or why not? B. Define America's continuing exceptionalism in today's globalized world. 1. Did the values de Tocqueville identified evolve over time? How? 2. What values, if any, are necessary to promote in America today? Present your findings either orally or visually.
Where is the source for these statements?
Significantly, Alexis de Tocqueville (a French political leader and historian who traversed America in 1831 and then wrote the famous book Democracy in America in 1835) extolled:
The position of the Americans is quite exceptional, and it may be believed that no democratic people will ever be placed in a similar one. 7
That pronouncement resulted in the coining of the phrase “American Exceptionalism” to express the belief that America is extraordinary as a result of the unique and distinctive ideas that were part of the fabric of American government – ideas such as inalienable rights, individualism, limited government, full republicanism, separation of powers, checks and balances, and an educated and virtuous citizenry. Those ideas produced a national unity that encompassed America’s great diversity of race, ethnicity, and religion, thus causing President Calvin Coolidge to exclaim:
To live under the American Constitution is the greatest political privilege that was ever accorded to the human race. 8
Yet Deconstructionists, rather than appreciating American Exceptionalism and being proud of America and its many successes, instead will point out only what they consider to be its flaws in their concentrated efforts to “lay low” America and American values.
Publisher’s response: It is not clear what is being identified as a factual error. Which statements are being questioned?
JOHN F. KENNEDY TOOK OFFICE AS PRESIDENT
The Peace Corps was founded. Peace Corps volunteers were sent to help people in poor nations of the Third World (undeveloped nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia).
The Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba failed. Castro's forces defeated a group of American-trained anti-communist Cubans who tried to drive Castro from power.
Jane Jacobs's "The Death and Life of Great American Cities" was published. The book highlighted the growing problems faced by the nation's major cities, and led to a growing awareness of an "urban crisis" in America. The book has been very influential with economists and urban planners.
Kennedy sent 2,000 military advisors to train South Vietnamese government troops. Kennedy believed this was necessary because the communist Viet Cong were slowly gaining control of the country.
Blacks organized "sit-ins" as a way of protesting against Jim Crow segregation in restaurants.
January 3, 1961 - Disputes over the nationalization of United States businesses in Cuba cause the U.S. Government to sever diplomatic and consular relations with the Cuban government.
February 15, 1961 - The entire United States figure skating team is killed in a plane crash near Brussels, Belgium on their journey to the World Championships. Seventy-three people are killed.
April 17, 1961 - The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba is repulsed by Cuban forces in an attempt by Cuban exiles under the direction of the United States government to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro.
May 5, 1961 - The first U.S. manned sub-orbital space flight is completed with Commander Alan B. Shepard Jr. inside a Mercury capsule launched 116.5 miles above the earth from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Twenty days later, President Kennedy announces his intention to place a man on the moon by the end of the decade.
August 13, 1961 - The construction of the Berlin Wall begins by the Soviet bloc, segregating the German city, previously held in four sectors by Allied forces, including the United States. The wall would last for twenty-eight years.
December 28, 1961 - The National Park Service extends its lands into the U.S. Virgin Islands when President John F. Kennedy proclaims the Buck Island Reef as a National Monument. The reef includes an underwater nature trail and one of the best marine gardens in the Caribbean Sea.