Theology beacon dictionary of theology

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Associate Editors



kansas city, missouri

. Kenneth Grider & Willard H. Taylor
Copyright 1983 by Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City

ISBN: 0-8341-0811-9

Printed in the United States of America
Permission to quote from the following copyrighted versions of the Bible is acknowledged with appreciation:

The Bible: A New Translation (Moffatt), by James Moffatt. Copyright 1954 by James A. R. Moffatt. By permission of Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.

New American Standard Bible (NASB), copyright © The Lockman Foundation, La Habra, Calif., I960, 1962, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977.

The Modern Language Bible, the New Berkeley Version in Modem En­glish (NBV), copyright © 1945, 1959, 1969 by Zondervan Pub­lishing House.

The New English Bible (NEB), © The Delegates of the Oxford Univer­sity Press and The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1961, 1970.

The Holy Bible, New International Version (NIV), copyright © 1978 by the New York International Bible Society.

The New King James Bible—New Testament (NKJB), copyright © 1979, Thomas Nelson, Inc., Publishers.

The New Testament in Modern English (Phillips), Revised Edition © J. B. Phillips 1958, 1960, 1972. By permission of the Macmillan Pub­lishing Co., Inc.

The Revised Standard Version of the Bible (RSV), copyrighted 1946,

1952, © 1971, 1973. The Living Bible (TLB), © 1971 by Tyndale House Publishers,

Wheaton, hi.

Weymouth's New Testament in Modern English (Weymouth), by Rich­ard Francis Weymouth. By special arrangements with James Clarke and Co., Ltd., and by permission of Harper and Row, Pub­lishers, Inc.

The New Testament in the Language of the People (Williams' NTLP), by Charles B. Williams. Copyright 1937 by Bruce Humphries, Inc.; assigned 1949 to Moody Bible Institute, Chicago.

One sign of an aroused interest in family or personal health is the presence in the home of a layman's medical dictionary or encyclopedia. In most homes such a volume is referred to frequently, with great interest and concern.

It is equally true that a person or house­hold awakened intellectually and spiritually will desire to have handy a means of be­coming informed concerning their faith, both in its major outlines and in its more intricate details. The desire to possess a dic­tionary of theology is therefore as natural and logical as the desire to have a medical guide. But the importance of such a refer­ence work is as much greater than the medi­cal guide as spiritual health is greater than physical health.

The ground covered in the following 954 articles is as comprehensive as would be covered by a standard systematic theology. The difference is that the subject matter is divided up into small units and arranged alphabetically, for easy reference. One can thus pursue one's particular interest of the moment, or seek out the answer to some puzzling question, without having to wade through scores of pages.

By following the cross-references at the end of the article, the student can pursue his special area of interest as far as he desires. In the process his theological horizons will be pushed farther and farther back, and he will discover the excitement of the intellectual chase—a chase of infinitely greater con­sequence and more lasting benefit than could ever accrue from pursuing the fox or the possum. Many an enthusiastic hunter thinks nothing of scrambling through brush all night, spurred on by the baying of his possum hounds. It is to be hoped that many a budding intellectual, or just plain honest Christian with an aroused thirst for knowl­edge, will follow his own inner inquiring "hounds," poring through this dictionary. At least if it is in the house, or on the student's or pastor's desk, as a readily available tool, it may even come second to the Bible itself for frequency of handling.

This volume has been designed for the busy pastor, evangelist, missionary, student, teacher, doctor, and lawyer, as well as for the alert homemaker and farmer or shopkeeper who desires to acquire a better understand­ing of God and His redemption. The use of foreign words has been restrained, and those used are transliterated into English spelling. Some abbreviation has been used, but the key is found in the front of the book. Under the heading "For Further Reading," reference items have usually been reduced to last name of author and a minimal title.

It must be admitted that the desired sim­plicity and clarity will not be found in all the articles equally. But if the reader encounters more verbal fog than he can comfortably handle, he should glance at the cross-references and proceed to a related article. Perhaps by following through in this way the fog will be dispelled. In the process he will gradually find himself becoming more and more at home in these strange "lands," and in time will be a truly knowledgeable Christian. And really, he owes this much to his Lord.

Readers with some degree of expertise in these matters will note that this dictionary represents a very broad definition of theol­ogy. As a consequence, many topics are dis­cussed which might be expected to be found in other kinds of dictionaries. The gamut covers such areas as philosophy, psychology, history, practics, and devotion. A sincere at­tempt has been made to relate every topic to the basic concerns of theology and the Bible.

This dictionary is unabashedly evangeli­cal and just as unabashedly Wesleyan. Some immensely valuable help has been given by scholars who are not themselves identified with the Wesleyan-Arminian school of in­terpretation. We are grateful to them. This is possible because among evangelicals the ba­sic points of agreement are very wide in­deed. However, it is the conviction of the editors and publishers that a scholarly dic­tionary frankly committed to a Wesleyan un­derstanding of salvation has been long overdue.

These 954 articles do not reflect total una­nimity of opinion, either among the con­tributors themselves or between them and

the editors. There are areas of tolerable vari­ation in viewpoint. But every effort has been sought to avoid a muffled or uncertain trum­pet in respect to sin, salvation, holiness, and eternal destiny. Certainly it does not need to be stated that equal care has been taken to preserve utmost fidelity to the historic doc­trines of the faith respecting the Trinity, Christ Jesus our Lord, the authority of the

Bible, the atoning death of Christ, and His bodily resurrection.

May God whet our intellectual and spiri­tual appetites, quicken our understanding, and mercifully bestow His blessing upon the efforts of the 157 contributors of this vol­ume, to the edification of all and the misdi­rection of none.

Associate Editors

J. Kenneth Grider Willard H. Taylor*

"The untimely death of Willard H. Taylor, just as this volume was in the final stages of completion, was a great loss to the project. He assisted as consulting editor only about 31 months, during which time his counsel was of inestimable value. He lived long enough to write some of the major articles, but was to have written more—articles for which he had made partial prepara­tion but in the providence of God had to leave to others. In many important and subtle ways the impress of his great mind, wide learning, mature experience, and in­tensely devoted heart is on this volume. It is stronger because he was on the team.

R. s. t.

List of Contributors

Abraham, William J., M.Div., D.Phil.

Associate Professor of Theology, Seattle Pacific

University Adams, J. Wesley, M.Div., M.A., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of New Testament Studies,

Mid-America Nazarene College Agnew, Milton S., B.D.

Salvation Army Officer (Col.); Retired Aikens, Alden, M.Div., Th.M., Ph.D. cand.

Pastor, Church of the Nazarene Airhart, Arnold E., B.D., D.D.

Professor of Theology, Nazarene Bible College Amaya, Ismael E., Ph.D.

Professor of Religion, Point Loma College Arnett, William M., Ph.D.

Frank Paul Morris Professor of Christian Doctrine,

Asbury Theological Seminary

Baldeo, Isaac, M.R.E., M.Div., D.Min.

Pastor/Counselor Bassett, Paul M., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor of the History of Christianity, Nazarene

Theological Seminary Beals, Ivan A., M.A., D.Min.

Office-Editor, Herald of Holiness Benner, Forest t., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D.

Professor of Religion, Mount Vernon Nazarene

College Berg, Daniel N., B.D., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Theology and Ministry,

Seattle Pacific University Blaney, Harvey J. S., M.Div., S.T.M., Th.D.

Professor Emeritus of Religion, Eastern Nazarene


Bioesch, Donald G., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor of Theology, University of Dubuque

Theological Seminary Bonner, Norman N., Ed.D.

Professor of Missions/Christian Education,

Bartlesville Wesleyan College Boring, Glenn R., M.Div.

Pastor, Evangelical Church of North America Bouck, Louis A., M A.

Radio Bible Teacher, Kentucky Mountain Holiness

Association Box, Maureen H., M.R.E.

Director of Christian Education Branson, Robert D., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Biblical Studies, Warner

Southern College Brower, Kent, M.A., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Religion, Canadian Nazarene

College Brown, Allan P., Ph.D.

Chairman, Division of Bible, Hobe Sound Bible


Brunk, George R., Ill, B.D., Th.D.

Dean and Associate Professor of New Testament,

Eastern Mennonite Seminary Butler, D. Martin, M.A., M.Div., D.Min.

Administrative Assistant to the President, Nazarene

Theological Seminary

Caldwell, Wayne E., B.D., Th.M., Th.D.

Professor of Theology and English New Testament,

Marion College Carter, Charles W., M.A., Th.M., D.D.

Scholar-in-Residence, Marion College Carver, Frank G., Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Theology and Greek,

Chairman of the Department of Philosophy and

Religion, Point Loma College Cauthron, Hal A., M.A., M.Div., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of New Testament, Trevecca

Nazarene College Chambers, Leon, B.D., M.A., Ed.D., D.D.

Visiting Lecturer in Pastoral Ministries, Wesley

Biblical Seminary Childers, Charles L., M.A., M.Div., Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus, Trevecca Nazarene College Clapp, Philip s., M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of New Testament Greek, Retired,

Western Evangelical Seminary Cockerill, Gareth Lee, Th.D.

Assistant Professor, Wesley Biblical Seminary Coker, William B., Ph.D.

Dean of Academic Affairs, Asbury College Cowles, C. s., M.Div., S.T.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature, Northwest

Nazarene College Cox, Leo G., Ph.D.

Professor of Religion, Bartlesville Wesleyan College Cubie, David L., B.D., Ph.D.

Chairman of the Division of Religion and

Philosophy, Mount Vernon Nazarene College

Dayton, Wilber t., M.A., Th.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature and Historical

Theology, Wesley Biblical Seminary Deasley, Alex R. G., M.A., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of New Testament, Nazarene

Theological Seminary DeLong, Russell V., Ph.D.

Author, Evangelist, Educator; Deceased Demaray, Donald E., B.D., Ph.D., Litt.D.

Granger E. and Anna A. Fisher Professor of

Preaching, Asbury Theological Seminary Dieter, Melvin Easterday, Ph.D.

Professor of Church History and Historical

Theology, Asbury Theological Seminary Duewel, Wesley L., M.Ed., Ed.D.

President, OMS International Dunning, H. Ray, M.A., Ph.D.

Chairman, Department of Religion and Philosophy;

Professor of Theology, Trevecca Nazarene College

Dunnington, Don W., D.Min. Associate Professor of Practical Theology, Trevecca Nazarene College

Earle, Ralph, M.A., Th.D. Emeritus Professor of New Testament, Nazarene Theological Seminary

Failing, George E., M.A., Litt.D.

General Editor, The Wesleyan Methodist Fairbanks, LeBron, B.D., M.A., M.Th., D.Min.

Academic Dean, European Nazarene Bible College Findlay, Thomas, B.D.

Lecturer in Biblical Studies, European Nazarene

Bible College Fine, Larry, M.A., M.Div., D.Min.

Professor of Religion, Mid-America Nazarene


Finley, Harvey E., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor of Old Testament, Nazarene Theological

Seminary Ford, Jack, Ph.D.

Former President, British Isles Nazarene College;

Deceased French, G. R., M.Div.

Pastor, Chairman of Ministerial Division, Hobe

Sound Bible College Fuhrman, Eldon R., B.D., M.A., Ph.D.

President, Wesley Biblical Seminary

Galloway, Chester O., B.D., M.R.E., M.Ed., Ph.D.

Dean of Faculty and Professor of Christian

Education, Nazarene Theological Seminary Goldsmith, Myron D., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor of Religion, George Fox College Gray, C. Paul, Ph.D.

Professor of Old Testament and Church History,

Bethany Nazarene College Greathouse, William M., M.A., D.D.

General Superintendent, Church of the Nazarene Grider, J. Kenneth, B.D., M.Div., M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of Theology, Nazarene Theological

Seminary Gunter, W. Stephen, Drs. Theol.

Chairman, Division of Philosophy and Religion,

Bethany Nazarene College

Haines, Lee M., Th.M., D.Min.

General Secretary of Education and the Ministry,

The Wesleyan Church Hall, Bert H., Th.D., D.D.

Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Azusa Pacific

University Hamilton, James E., M.Div., Ph.D.

Professor of Philosophy, Asbury College Haney, M. Estes, M.A., D.D.

Administrative Assistant, Graduate Department of

Education, Point Loma College, Pasadena Campus Hardesty, Nancy A., Ph.D.

Writer and Church Historian, Atlanta

Harper, A. F., M.A., Ph.D., D.D.

Emeritus Professor, Nazarene Theological Seminary Harris, Maxie, III, M.Div.

Instructor in Theology and Science, European

Nazarene Bible College Harris, Merne A., Ph.D.

President, Vennard College Hendrick, Kenneth E., M.Div., Th.M., D.Min.

Associate Professor of Biblical Literature, Olivet

Nazarene College Hightower, Neil E., B.D., D.D.

President, Canadian Nazarene College Howard, Richard E., M.Th., D.D.

Evangelist Hynson, Leon O., M.Div., Th.M., Ph.D.

President and Professor of Historical Theology,

Evangelical School of Theology

Jennings, Otho, M.A., M.Div., Ed.D., LL.D.

Emeritus Professor of Sociology, Olivet Nazarene

College Joy, Donald M., Ph.D.

Professor of Human Development and Christian

Education, Asbury Theological Seminary

Kauffman, Alvin Harold, Ph.D.

Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the

Division of Philosophy and Religion, Eastern

Nazarene College Keefer, Luke L., Jr., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Bible and Religion, Messiah


Killen, R. Allan, B.D., Th.M., D.Th.

Emeritus Professor of Contemporary Theology,

Reformed Theological Seminary Kinlaw, Dennis F, Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Theology, Asbury Theological

Seminary Knight, John A., B.D., M.A., Ph.D.

President, Bethany Nazarene College Knox, Lloyd H., D.D.

Retired General Publisher, Free Methodist Church

of N.A. Koteskey, Ronald L., Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology, Asbury College Kuhn, Harold B., S.T.M., Ph.D., D.D.

Professor of Philosophy of Religion, Asbury

Theological Seminary

Ladd, George Eldon, Th.B., B.D., Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus of New Testament Theology

and Exegesis, Fuller Theological Seminary Lawhead, Alvin s., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Old Testament, Nazarene

Theological Seminary Layman, Fred D., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D.

Butler-Valade Professor of Biblical Theology,

Asbury Theological Seminary
Lindsey, Leroy E., B.D., Th.M.

Academic Dean and Professor of Pastoral Studies,

Vennard College; Retired Livingston, George Herbert, Ph.D.

Professor of Old Testament and Chairman of the

Division of Biblical Studies, Asbury Theological

Seminary Lovell, O. D., B.D., M.A., M.Ed.

Professor, Circleville Bible College Lown, John s., M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Point Loma

College Luik, John C, D.Phil.

Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Canadian

Nazarene College and University of Manitoba Lyons, George, M.Div., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Biblical Literature, Olivet

Nazarene College

McCant, Jerry W., M.Div., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Religion, Point Loma College McCown, Wayne G., B.D., M.A., Th.M., Th.D.

Dean and Professor of Biblical Studies, Western

Evangelical Seminary McCumber, W. E., M.A., D.D.

Editor, Herald of Holiness McGonigle, Herbert, B.D., M A.

Lecturer in Old Testament and Church History,

British Isles Nazarene College Mattke, Robert A., B.D, M.A.

Professor of Bible and Theology, Houghton College Mavis, W. Curry, M.A., M.Th., Ph.D., D.D.

Professor Emeritus, Asbury Theological Seminary Mayfield, Joseph H., M.A., D.D.

Faculty Emeritus, Northwest Nazarene College Merritt, John G., M.Div., M.A.T.S., A.M.

Instructor, The Salvation Army School for Officers'


Metz, Donald s, B.D., M.A., D.R.E., Ph.D.

Executive Vice-President and Academic Dean,

Mid-America Nazarene College Mitchell, T. Crichton, D.D.

Professor of Church History, Preaching, and Wesley

Studies, Nazarene Bible College Mulholland, M. Robert, Jr., Th.D.

Assistant Professor of New Testament

Interpretation, Asbury Theological Seminary

Nielson, John B., B.D, M.A.

Editorial Director of Adult Ministries, Church of

the Nazarene Noble, T. A., B.D., M.A.

Dean, British Isles Nazarene College

Ockenga, Harold J., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.

President Emeritus, Gordon-Conwell Theological

Seminary Oke, Norman R., B.D, D.D.

Professor, Nazarene Bible College; Retired

Orjala, Paul R, B.D., M.A., Ph.D. Professor of Missions, Nazarene Theological Seminary

Parker, J. Fred, B.D., Th.M., Litt.D.

Book Editor, Nazarene Publishing House; Retired Parrott, Leslie, M.A, Ph.D.

President, Olivet Nazarene College Peisker, Armor D., M.A.

Executive Editor of Curriculum, Wesleyan Church;


Perkins, Floyd J., B.D, M.A, Ph.D.

Professor, Nazarene Bible College Peterman, Donald R., M.A, D.Min.

Pastor, Church of the Nazarene Porter, James L., M.Se, M.Div, Ph.D.

Professor of Christian Education, Wesley Biblical

Seminary Price, Ross E., Ph D, D.D.

Former Dean of Graduate Studies in Religion and

Professor, Pasadena College; Retired Prince, Herbert L, M.Div, M.A, Ph.D. cand.

Associate Professor of Philosophy and Theology,

Point Loma College Purkiser, W. T., M.A, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus of Biblical Theology, Point Loma

College; Former Editor of Herald of Holiness

Rpe, Hugh, M.A.

Principal, British Isles Nazarene College Raser, Harold E., M.A, M.Div.

Assistant Professor of the History of Christianity,

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