BEACON DICTIONARY OF THEOLOGY
RICHARD S TAYLOR, Editor
BEACON HILL PRESS OF KANSAS CITY
kansas city, missouri
. Kenneth Grider & Willard H. Taylor
Copyright 1983 by Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City
Printed in the United States of America
Permission to quote from the following copyrighted versions of the Bible is acknowledged with appreciation:
The Bible: A New Translation (Moffatt), by James Moffatt. Copyright 1954 by James A. R. Moffatt. By permission of Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.
New American Standard Bible (NASB), copyright © The Lockman Foundation, La Habra, Calif., I960, 1962, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977.
The Modern Language Bible, the New Berkeley Version in Modem English (NBV), copyright © 1945, 1959, 1969 by Zondervan Publishing House.
The New English Bible (NEB), © The Delegates of the Oxford University Press and The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1961, 1970.
The Holy Bible, New International Version (NIV), copyright © 1978 by the New York International Bible Society.
The New King James Bible—New Testament (NKJB), copyright © 1979, Thomas Nelson, Inc., Publishers.
The New Testament in Modern English (Phillips), Revised Edition © J. B. Phillips 1958, 1960, 1972. By permission of the Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
The Revised Standard Version of the Bible (RSV), copyrighted 1946,
1952, © 1971, 1973. The Living Bible (TLB), © 1971 by Tyndale House Publishers,
Weymouth's New Testament in Modern English (Weymouth), by Richard Francis Weymouth. By special arrangements with James Clarke and Co., Ltd., and by permission of Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.
The New Testament in the Language of the People (Williams' NTLP), by Charles B. Williams. Copyright 1937 by Bruce Humphries, Inc.; assigned 1949 to Moody Bible Institute, Chicago.
One sign of an aroused interest in family or personal health is the presence in the home of a layman's medical dictionary or encyclopedia. In most homes such a volume is referred to frequently, with great interest and concern.
It is equally true that a person or household awakened intellectually and spiritually will desire to have handy a means of becoming informed concerning their faith, both in its major outlines and in its more intricate details. The desire to possess a dictionary of theology is therefore as natural and logical as the desire to have a medical guide. But the importance of such a reference work is as much greater than the medical guide as spiritual health is greater than physical health.
The ground covered in the following 954 articles is as comprehensive as would be covered by a standard systematic theology. The difference is that the subject matter is divided up into small units and arranged alphabetically, for easy reference. One can thus pursue one's particular interest of the moment, or seek out the answer to some puzzling question, without having to wade through scores of pages.
By following the cross-references at the end of the article, the student can pursue his special area of interest as far as he desires. In the process his theological horizons will be pushed farther and farther back, and he will discover the excitement of the intellectual chase—a chase of infinitely greater consequence and more lasting benefit than could ever accrue from pursuing the fox or the possum. Many an enthusiastic hunter thinks nothing of scrambling through brush all night, spurred on by the baying of his possum hounds. It is to be hoped that many a budding intellectual, or just plain honest Christian with an aroused thirst for knowledge, will follow his own inner inquiring "hounds," poring through this dictionary. At least if it is in the house, or on the student's or pastor's desk, as a readily available tool, it may even come second to the Bible itself for frequency of handling.
This volume has been designed for the busy pastor, evangelist, missionary, student, teacher, doctor, and lawyer, as well as for the alert homemaker and farmer or shopkeeper who desires to acquire a better understanding of God and His redemption. The use of foreign words has been restrained, and those used are transliterated into English spelling. Some abbreviation has been used, but the key is found in the front of the book. Under the heading "For Further Reading," reference items have usually been reduced to last name of author and a minimal title.
It must be admitted that the desired simplicity and clarity will not be found in all the articles equally. But if the reader encounters more verbal fog than he can comfortably handle, he should glance at the cross-references and proceed to a related article. Perhaps by following through in this way the fog will be dispelled. In the process he will gradually find himself becoming more and more at home in these strange "lands," and in time will be a truly knowledgeable Christian. And really, he owes this much to his Lord.
Readers with some degree of expertise in these matters will note that this dictionary represents a very broad definition of theology. As a consequence, many topics are discussed which might be expected to be found in other kinds of dictionaries. The gamut covers such areas as philosophy, psychology, history, practics, and devotion. A sincere attempt has been made to relate every topic to the basic concerns of theology and the Bible.
This dictionary is unabashedly evangelical and just as unabashedly Wesleyan. Some immensely valuable help has been given by scholars who are not themselves identified with the Wesleyan-Arminian school of interpretation. We are grateful to them. This is possible because among evangelicals the basic points of agreement are very wide indeed. However, it is the conviction of the editors and publishers that a scholarly dictionary frankly committed to a Wesleyan understanding of salvation has been long overdue.
These 954 articles do not reflect total unanimity of opinion, either among the contributors themselves or between them and
the editors. There are areas of tolerable variation in viewpoint. But every effort has been sought to avoid a muffled or uncertain trumpet in respect to sin, salvation, holiness, and eternal destiny. Certainly it does not need to be stated that equal care has been taken to preserve utmost fidelity to the historic doctrines of the faith respecting the Trinity, Christ Jesus our Lord, the authority of the
Bible, the atoning death of Christ, and His bodily resurrection.
May God whet our intellectual and spiritual appetites, quicken our understanding, and mercifully bestow His blessing upon the efforts of the 157 contributors of this volume, to the edification of all and the misdirection of none.
RICHARD S. TAYLOR, Editor
J. Kenneth Grider Willard H. Taylor*
"The untimely death of Willard H. Taylor, just as this volume was in the final stages of completion, was a great loss to the project. He assisted as consulting editor only about 31 months, during which time his counsel was of inestimable value. He lived long enough to write some of the major articles, but was to have written more—articles for which he had made partial preparation but in the providence of God had to leave to others. In many important and subtle ways the impress of his great mind, wide learning, mature experience, and intensely devoted heart is on this volume. It is stronger because he was on the team.
R. s. t.
List of Contributors
Abraham, William J., M.Div., D.Phil.
Associate Professor of Theology, Seattle Pacific
University Adams, J. Wesley, M.Div., M.A., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of New Testament Studies,
Mid-America Nazarene College Agnew, Milton S., B.D.
Salvation Army Officer (Col.); Retired Aikens, Alden, M.Div., Th.M., Ph.D. cand.
Pastor, Church of the Nazarene Airhart, Arnold E., B.D., D.D.
Professor of Theology, Nazarene Bible College Amaya, Ismael E., Ph.D.
Professor of Religion, Point Loma College Arnett, William M., Ph.D.
Frank Paul Morris Professor of Christian Doctrine,
Asbury Theological Seminary
Baldeo, Isaac, M.R.E., M.Div., D.Min.
Pastor/Counselor Bassett, Paul M., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor of the History of Christianity, Nazarene
Theological Seminary Beals, Ivan A., M.A., D.Min.
Office-Editor, Herald of Holiness Benner, Forest t., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D.
Professor of Religion, Mount Vernon Nazarene
College Berg, Daniel N., B.D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Theology and Ministry,
Seattle Pacific University Blaney, Harvey J. S., M.Div., S.T.M., Th.D.
Professor Emeritus of Religion, Eastern Nazarene
Bioesch, Donald G., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Theology, University of Dubuque
Theological Seminary Bonner, Norman N., Ed.D.
Professor of Missions/Christian Education,
Bartlesville Wesleyan College Boring, Glenn R., M.Div.
Pastor, Evangelical Church of North America Bouck, Louis A., M A.
Radio Bible Teacher, Kentucky Mountain Holiness
Association Box, Maureen H., M.R.E.
Director of Christian Education Branson, Robert D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biblical Studies, Warner
Southern College Brower, Kent, M.A., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Religion, Canadian Nazarene
College Brown, Allan P., Ph.D.
Chairman, Division of Bible, Hobe Sound Bible
Brunk, George R., Ill, B.D., Th.D.
Dean and Associate Professor of New Testament,
Eastern Mennonite Seminary Butler, D. Martin, M.A., M.Div., D.Min.
Administrative Assistant to the President, Nazarene
Caldwell, Wayne E., B.D., Th.M., Th.D.
Professor of Theology and English New Testament,
Marion College Carter, Charles W., M.A., Th.M., D.D.
Scholar-in-Residence, Marion College Carver, Frank G., Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Theology and Greek,
Chairman of the Department of Philosophy and
Religion, Point Loma College Cauthron, Hal A., M.A., M.Div., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of New Testament, Trevecca
Nazarene College Chambers, Leon, B.D., M.A., Ed.D., D.D.
Visiting Lecturer in Pastoral Ministries, Wesley
Biblical Seminary Childers, Charles L., M.A., M.Div., Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus, Trevecca Nazarene College Clapp, Philip s., M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of New Testament Greek, Retired,
Western Evangelical Seminary Cockerill, Gareth Lee, Th.D.
Assistant Professor, Wesley Biblical Seminary Coker, William B., Ph.D.
Dean of Academic Affairs, Asbury College Cowles, C. s., M.Div., S.T.D.
Professor of Biblical Literature, Northwest
Nazarene College Cox, Leo G., Ph.D.
Professor of Religion, Bartlesville Wesleyan College Cubie, David L., B.D., Ph.D.
Chairman of the Division of Religion and
Philosophy, Mount Vernon Nazarene College
Dayton, Wilber t., M.A., Th.D.
Professor of Biblical Literature and Historical
Theology, Wesley Biblical Seminary Deasley, Alex R. G., M.A., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of New Testament, Nazarene
Theological Seminary DeLong, Russell V., Ph.D.
Author, Evangelist, Educator; Deceased Demaray, Donald E., B.D., Ph.D., Litt.D.
Granger E. and Anna A. Fisher Professor of
Preaching, Asbury Theological Seminary Dieter, Melvin Easterday, Ph.D.
Professor of Church History and Historical
Theology, Asbury Theological Seminary Duewel, Wesley L., M.Ed., Ed.D.
President, OMS International Dunning, H. Ray, M.A., Ph.D.
Chairman, Department of Religion and Philosophy;
Professor of Theology, Trevecca Nazarene College
Dunnington, Don W., D.Min. Associate Professor of Practical Theology, Trevecca Nazarene College
Earle, Ralph, M.A., Th.D. Emeritus Professor of New Testament, Nazarene Theological Seminary
Failing, George E., M.A., Litt.D.
General Editor, The Wesleyan Methodist Fairbanks, LeBron, B.D., M.A., M.Th., D.Min.
Academic Dean, European Nazarene Bible College Findlay, Thomas, B.D.
Lecturer in Biblical Studies, European Nazarene
Bible College Fine, Larry, M.A., M.Div., D.Min.
Professor of Religion, Mid-America Nazarene
Finley, Harvey E., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Old Testament, Nazarene Theological
Seminary Ford, Jack, Ph.D.
Former President, British Isles Nazarene College;
Deceased French, G. R., M.Div.
Pastor, Chairman of Ministerial Division, Hobe
Sound Bible College Fuhrman, Eldon R., B.D., M.A., Ph.D.
President, Wesley Biblical Seminary
Galloway, Chester O., B.D., M.R.E., M.Ed., Ph.D.
Dean of Faculty and Professor of Christian
Education, Nazarene Theological Seminary Goldsmith, Myron D., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Religion, George Fox College Gray, C. Paul, Ph.D.
Professor of Old Testament and Church History,
Bethany Nazarene College Greathouse, William M., M.A., D.D.
General Superintendent, Church of the Nazarene Grider, J. Kenneth, B.D., M.Div., M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of Theology, Nazarene Theological
Seminary Gunter, W. Stephen, Drs. Theol.
Chairman, Division of Philosophy and Religion,
Bethany Nazarene College
Haines, Lee M., Th.M., D.Min.
General Secretary of Education and the Ministry,
The Wesleyan Church Hall, Bert H., Th.D., D.D.
Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Azusa Pacific
University Hamilton, James E., M.Div., Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy, Asbury College Haney, M. Estes, M.A., D.D.
Administrative Assistant, Graduate Department of
Education, Point Loma College, Pasadena Campus Hardesty, Nancy A., Ph.D.
Writer and Church Historian, Atlanta
Harper, A. F., M.A., Ph.D., D.D.
Emeritus Professor, Nazarene Theological Seminary Harris, Maxie, III, M.Div.
Instructor in Theology and Science, European
Nazarene Bible College Harris, Merne A., Ph.D.
President, Vennard College Hendrick, Kenneth E., M.Div., Th.M., D.Min.
Associate Professor of Biblical Literature, Olivet
Nazarene College Hightower, Neil E., B.D., D.D.
President, Canadian Nazarene College Howard, Richard E., M.Th., D.D.
Evangelist Hynson, Leon O., M.Div., Th.M., Ph.D.
President and Professor of Historical Theology,
Evangelical School of Theology
Jennings, Otho, M.A., M.Div., Ed.D., LL.D.
Emeritus Professor of Sociology, Olivet Nazarene
College Joy, Donald M., Ph.D.
Professor of Human Development and Christian
Education, Asbury Theological Seminary
Kauffman, Alvin Harold, Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the
Division of Philosophy and Religion, Eastern
Nazarene College Keefer, Luke L., Jr., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Bible and Religion, Messiah
Killen, R. Allan, B.D., Th.M., D.Th.
Emeritus Professor of Contemporary Theology,
Reformed Theological Seminary Kinlaw, Dennis F, Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Theology, Asbury Theological
Seminary Knight, John A., B.D., M.A., Ph.D.
President, Bethany Nazarene College Knox, Lloyd H., D.D.
Retired General Publisher, Free Methodist Church
of N.A. Koteskey, Ronald L., Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology, Asbury College Kuhn, Harold B., S.T.M., Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Philosophy of Religion, Asbury
Ladd, George Eldon, Th.B., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of New Testament Theology
and Exegesis, Fuller Theological Seminary Lawhead, Alvin s., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Old Testament, Nazarene
Theological Seminary Layman, Fred D., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D.
Butler-Valade Professor of Biblical Theology,
Asbury Theological Seminary
Lindsey, Leroy E., B.D., Th.M.
Academic Dean and Professor of Pastoral Studies,
Vennard College; Retired Livingston, George Herbert, Ph.D.
Professor of Old Testament and Chairman of the
Division of Biblical Studies, Asbury Theological
Seminary Lovell, O. D., B.D., M.A., M.Ed.
Professor, Circleville Bible College Lown, John s., M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Point Loma
College Luik, John C, D.Phil.
Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Canadian
Nazarene College and University of Manitoba Lyons, George, M.Div., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Biblical Literature, Olivet
McCant, Jerry W., M.Div., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Religion, Point Loma College McCown, Wayne G., B.D., M.A., Th.M., Th.D.
Dean and Professor of Biblical Studies, Western
Evangelical Seminary McCumber, W. E., M.A., D.D.
Editor, Herald of Holiness McGonigle, Herbert, B.D., M A.
Lecturer in Old Testament and Church History,
British Isles Nazarene College Mattke, Robert A., B.D, M.A.
Professor of Bible and Theology, Houghton College Mavis, W. Curry, M.A., M.Th., Ph.D., D.D.
Professor Emeritus, Asbury Theological Seminary Mayfield, Joseph H., M.A., D.D.
Faculty Emeritus, Northwest Nazarene College Merritt, John G., M.Div., M.A.T.S., A.M.
Instructor, The Salvation Army School for Officers'
Metz, Donald s, B.D., M.A., D.R.E., Ph.D.
Executive Vice-President and Academic Dean,
Mid-America Nazarene College Mitchell, T. Crichton, D.D.
Professor of Church History, Preaching, and Wesley
Studies, Nazarene Bible College Mulholland, M. Robert, Jr., Th.D.
Assistant Professor of New Testament
Interpretation, Asbury Theological Seminary
Nielson, John B., B.D, M.A.
Editorial Director of Adult Ministries, Church of
the Nazarene Noble, T. A., B.D., M.A.
Dean, British Isles Nazarene College
Ockenga, Harold J., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.
President Emeritus, Gordon-Conwell Theological
Seminary Oke, Norman R., B.D, D.D.
Professor, Nazarene Bible College; Retired
Orjala, Paul R, B.D., M.A., Ph.D. Professor of Missions, Nazarene Theological Seminary
Parker, J. Fred, B.D., Th.M., Litt.D.
Book Editor, Nazarene Publishing House; Retired Parrott, Leslie, M.A, Ph.D.
President, Olivet Nazarene College Peisker, Armor D., M.A.
Executive Editor of Curriculum, Wesleyan Church;
Perkins, Floyd J., B.D, M.A, Ph.D.
Professor, Nazarene Bible College Peterman, Donald R., M.A, D.Min.
Pastor, Church of the Nazarene Porter, James L., M.Se, M.Div, Ph.D.
Professor of Christian Education, Wesley Biblical
Seminary Price, Ross E., Ph D, D.D.
Former Dean of Graduate Studies in Religion and
Professor, Pasadena College; Retired Prince, Herbert L, M.Div, M.A, Ph.D. cand.
Associate Professor of Philosophy and Theology,
Point Loma College Purkiser, W. T., M.A, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of Biblical Theology, Point Loma
College; Former Editor of Herald of Holiness
Rpe, Hugh, M.A.
Principal, British Isles Nazarene College Raser, Harold E., M.A, M.Div.
Assistant Professor of the History of Christianity,
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