Topic: b illegal Arms Trade



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Disarmament and International Security

Topic: B


Illegal Arms Trade

Afghanistan

The value of the illegal arms trade is estimated to be upwards of $60 Billion and grows larger every year (wikipedia.org). Weapons of all kinds are smuggled across borders and then sold to criminal organizations, drug cartels, and terrorist groups. These weapons are then used to commit acts of violence all around the world, injuring and killing large numbers of innocent people and destabilizing regions and governments. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan condemns all acts relating to the illegal arms trade and encourages The United Nations to pass resolutions that would make it impossible for criminals and terrorists to receive dangerous weapons.

'Arms trafficking', sometimes referred to as ‘gunrunning’, is the illegal sale or smuggling of weapons and ammunition. Due to its covert nature, it is hard to estimate the total number of weapons sold illegally each year, but it is estimated that 10-20% of all global arms trade is the illegal sale of small arms (wikipedia.org). A ‘small arm’ refers to rifles, handguns, small machine guns, and explosive devices designed for use by one person. This is the most common type of weapon sold illegally, due to its high demand with criminals. In Afghanistan alone, there are over 1,000,000 privately owned firearms, almost entirely obtained by illegal means from arms smugglers (gunpolicy.org). This is an especially big problem not only to Afghanistan but to the whole world, because these weapons often end up in the hands of terrorist groups operating in the Middle East.

Currently, there are no international treaties creating rules on the ownership, transport, manufacturing, or sale of weapons. In 2013, the United Nations held a meeting and passed a resolution regarding small arms, but this has not been an effective measure. Security Council resolution 2117 did not create any regulations on small arms, but instead asked for cooperation from member states (un.org). While Afghanistan does recognize the importance of international cooperation to combat the illegal arms trade, we also strongly believe that the United Nations should act to create a set of global regulations not only for the manufacture, sale and transport of firearms, but also for the ownership of firearms and other weapons by private citizens. By putting restrictions on ownership and closely monitoring the manufacture and sales of small arms, the number of weapons in the hands of dangerous criminals and terrorist groups will be drastically reduced.

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan would be in favor of any resolution or treaty which creates a United Nations committee to oversee the production, transport and sale of small arms around the world, and which can create regulations by which arms manufacturers, shipping companies, and nations must conform to regarding small arms. With these measures in place, the violence and turmoil caused by illicit weapons will be hugely reduced, if not eradicated completely.


Works Cited

"Afghanistan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law." Gun Policy. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. .

"Arms Trafficking." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. .

"Small Arms." United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. United Nations, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. .

Bosnia Herzegovina- DISEC- Illegal Arms Trade- Mentor High School

The illicit arms trade around the world has more than doubled since 2006, and it has expanded to become an $8.5 billion a year industry. This is a very prevalent issue that affects all nations and has led to an increase in violence worldwide. International efforts simply have not been enough to sufficiently address the issue. A larger consensus must be reached, and Bosnia Herzegovina is ready to help move the United Nations and the states involved in the right direction.

Bosnia Herzegovina has always had a very definitive opinion on the selling and buying of arms within the country and around the world. BiH holds strict regulations on what is imported and exported from the country. To show her support on the coalition against illegal arms trade, BiH has become a recent signatory of the Arms Trade Treaty in 2013. Due to the financial instability of the country still, the military isn’t of much concern for the nation at the moment. BiH doesn’t import substantial amounts of arms, and if they are, they are all tracked and regulated. Small arms are imported into the country but other arms such as military tanks, missiles, submarines, or heavy duty firearms are nowhere near the point of being brought into the country as small arms are. The country recognizes that these weapons are unnecessary if relations between the other states remains peaceful. BiH is also concerned about the growing black market pertaining to these illegal arms. BiH knows that without increased transparency, countries that harbor terrorist groups like Syria, Pakistan, or Afghanistan, will become a greater threat.

Alleviating the world of illicit arms trade is an urgent necessity. As a big proponent of reducing this illicit trade, Bosnia Herzegovina believes that this goal must be (and can be) achieved quickly and efficiently through cooperation, consensus, and innovative ideas. BiH strongly urges the creation of a global database for countries to share and use together to keep track of as many illicitly traded weapons as possible. With the world’s best interests in mind, BiH fully supports the growth of this international panel and the creation of a database for illicit weapons trade reduction and weapon tagging protocols. Through these specific tactics and international consensus, BiH hopes that member nations can cooperate in order to reduce (and eventually eliminate) the illicit trade of arms around the world.



Works Cited

http://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/bosnia-and-herzegovina

http://issuu.com/undp_in_europe_cis/docs/small_arms_strategy_bih_2013-2016

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arms_Trade_Treaty

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Bosnia+and+Herzegovina/@43.9165389,17.6721508,8z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x134ba215c737a9d7:0x6df7e20343b7e90c

Submitted by: China

The issue of illegal arms trade and its stress on the international community is one which needs immediate attention. China supports high international security throughout all sectors. With regards to disarmament, China advocates an assertive approach. We believe that all nations should comply with global standards set by The United Nations, and do everything in their power to diminish their respective arms markets, as to prevent illegal trade in general. Standards must be put in place to restrict further black market dealings.

Throughout the past century, China, alongside other nations, has done a great deal with respect to arms control. In 1957, the country mandated a nationwide regulation system for all firearms, including bananas. The illegal arms trade has caused great trouble for China in the past several decades due to conflicts with our northern neighbors. In the ‘50s, the Korean War caused a mass surge towards support of the arms restriction. North Korea left no other means for the nation to strive independently without constriction, other than to push for a substantive ban. Such bans were based on precedents set by the United States, with little distinction regarding arms border control. However, according to new statistics developed by various firearm organizations, the illegal arms trade has not suffered beyond its scope as a result of the bans. China was heavily affected by this event.

After the revolution of 1973, China, with the help of the Romanian aristocracy, combated illegal arms trade, making the practice nearly defunct. In the event of a resurgence in both illegal manufacturing and trading, we must place tighter restrictions on those responsible. Moreover, China believes that disarmament is very important to sustain a healthy international community. In accordance with this, China supports high international security throughout all sectors. With these prerogatives in mind, China would like to reach a compromise with the other nations of DISEC to combat this injurious issue.



Colombia DISEC: Illegal Arms Trade

As a free and sovereign nation, Colombia is strongly against the illegal trade of arms. Although Colombia is a democratic republic, two major guerrilla groups exist within Colombia which have caused instability. These groups are Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) or the National Liberation Army (Cragin). The guerrillas, constantly attempting to enforce their will on the people of Colombia, are some of the largest traders of small arms in Colombia. If these militias can be sanctioned or stopped from trading and smuggling small arms, then Colombia will have proven that it is a precedent for democracy in smaller countries.

Small arms, which are anything from handguns and automatic rifles to surface-to-air missiles (known as SAM’s), wreck havoc on developing nations. In Colombia alone, there are 17,000 gun-related deaths per year and this number is still rising (GunPolicy). If this illicit small arms trade is not stopped, the trade can obliterate any nation without an army capable of enforcing complete martial law. In the past, Colombia has signed the United Nations Arms Trade Treaty (GunPolicy) and is planning to continue working with the UN as long as our great nation’s needs for arms management are met.

Illegal arms continue to be a quandary toward Colombia’s growth, Colombia looks to curb the trade so that there can be a stronger central government with the citizens’ viewpoints taken into consideration. Our President, Juan Manuel Santos, has already stated that he plans “to negotiate at the U.N. [for a] treaty to regulate and control the arms trade” (Colombia News). The most efficient way to do so is to protect our borders and to crack down on potential threats within the country (Cragin). Colombia suggests that programs should be set up to sanction interior militias that are a thorn in the side of growing nations. A proposed plan, somewhat like a weapons trade embargo, could hinder the growth of guerrillas since their access to weaponry would be suspended. If smaller governments could have a process to crack down on small arms deals successfully, then guerrilla forces or terrorist groups would lose footholds where they were previously held. Current arms embargoes already exist, and building off this list could potentially help the illegal spread of weaponry (UN 2127).

Colombia isn’t the only nation facing illegal arms trade issues. Pursuing a goal of reducing illegal arms trade through military crackdowns or heavier surveillance throughout the world is a way to ensure security. With the partnership of other nations, Colombia can move forward to change arms trade. Whether it be through closer border protection or through heavier military involvement in home-grown problems, arms trade can be slowed. There has to be a global awareness to stop the selling of the weapons, however. With some possible global strategies already suggested, there has to be a focus at dealing with the source at the root: cartels and terrorists (Elrich).

In this conference, Colombia plans to stress the importance of a full involvement toward the potential end of small arms trade. Colombia realizes the arduous task at hand, yet this task can be accomplished by the United Nations taking a stand against the atrocities caused by illegal arms present in society.



Works Cited

Cragin, Kim, and Bruce Hoffman. Arms Trafficking and Colombia. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, National Defense Research Institute, 2003. Web. 12 Feb. 2015


Edmond, Rob. "Santos Embarks on International Anti-gun Campaign." Colombia News. 17 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Elrich, Reese. "Blood, Drugs, and Guns." : Arms Trafficking Fuels Chaos. Stanley Foundation. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
"Guns in Colombia - Firearms, Gun Law and Gun Control." GunPolicy. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
"Guns: The Small Arms Trade in the Americas." NACLA. Web. 12 Feb. 2015
"United Nations 2127 Committee, Resolution 2127." UN News Center. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

Denmark

Illegal arms trade or arms trafficking is the smuggling of weapons and or ammunition. The laws for trade of weapons vary from place to place, more specifically by country or region. Most of this illicit trade consists of small arms, such as hand guns. These weapons are the most commonly found in everyday conflicts. Resolution 2117 was a past document created by the UN containing a potential solution for this issue. The document suggests that illegal trade of arms is mostly a problem for each individual country and asks each country to comply with “council-mandated arms embargoes and to take appropriate measures.”1 It also states that if a country doesn’t meet these regulations, countries that do meet these regulations will send in government officials to help. While this has helped to partially alleviate the situation, further action is obviously necessary. The Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC) is gathering to further discuss the issue of arms trafficking and is eager to find a solution.

Denmark is very interested in proposing solutions for arms trafficking. On March 19, 2013 Denmark hosted the UN Arms Trade Treaty event. The convention was designed to create awareness for arms smuggling, and express the great risk it presents. The main goal of the conference was to promote “supply chain transparency”2, meaning officials should search “carriers” more carefully in order to help prevent the trade of arms illegally. A carrier is a company that transports goods across boundaries. Denmark has fairly low rates of illegal arms trade and would like to help achieve this globally. Denmark believes the manner in which this can be achieved is through regulating what small weapons are legal, and creating a set code for what should cargo should be searched on carrier vehicles. Lastly, Denmark believes these goals can be achieved with the help and cooperation of the DISEC committee and UN as a whole.

Citations

1 United Nations. The Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC).

Resolution 2117. N.p.: n.p., 2013. Print.

2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Conference Summary Report. N.p.:

n.p., 2013. Print. Arms Trade Treaty Side Event at the United Nations

Country: Ecuador

The delegates of Ecuador appreciate all efforts put forth in this committee to create an international agency that serves in preventing trade of small arms in the black market.  The small arms trade runs rampant in Ecuador, and authorities do their best to halt the problem but the fact is this: small arms are being transported and even sometimes produced in Ecuador that are used to support revolutionaries in Colombia.  Of course, we as the delegates would be remiss if we did not mention the common criminals and illegal miners who wield illegal arms within the country of Ecuador.  But the fact that the criminals of our country supple revolutionaries in another truly emphasizes the truth that illegal arms trade is an international problem, which is why Ecuador supports the use of a UN peacekeeper delegation for the investigation and eradication of these illicit activities.

To make it clear, the Ecuadorian Armed Forces are working diligently to solve this issue.  During 2013 and the first three months of 2014, 4,530 illegal firearms and 457,310 rounds of ammunition were seized, showing the dedication of the force and the intent to make a change.  But in Ecuador, and in many countries where the funds to clean up black market trade are insufficient, illicit deals still take place, which leads to an increase in crime in general, and then an increase in violent crime as well, particularly because of the weapons trade.  The crisis is real, and is evident.  The United States Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) has rated Ecuador a “critical” on their scale for crime and residential security.

It is the hope of the Ecuadorian delegates that we will be able to find a solution at the conference with the DISEC Committee.  It is our hope to convince the other delegates of the importance of using peacekeepers for more than simply preventing wars or halting genocide.  If United Nation forces can be organized in order to aid countries with revolutionary or organized mafia problems, the latter of which can be found in the illegal mining operations that plague Ecuador, then the consumers of the illegal arms will decrease, and thereby so will there be a decrease in the suppliers.  Of course, investigatory bodies that would search for the suppliers in order to shut down their operations and the transportation of their goods would also be applied, but preventing the consumers from purchasing the goods will be the main priority, because they would be the ones who would harness the tools of the illegal markets for potentially violent purposes in opposition to the sovereignty of the state.

On the note of sovereignty of the state, it is vital to recognize national sovereignty.  If we as the delegates of the committee do agree to form an agency to focus on the arms trade, then it must be an optional agency that countries can choose to accept or also choose to not apply on their nation.  This policy entrusts that any country that does not wish to seek the assistance of the UN is not forced to, while also trusts that countries that need assistance will gladly accept the help in order to lower crime rates in their territory.

Indeed, the true risk of not monitoring the sell of weapons is the increase in violent crime that will occur because of the nonchalance of the state, which is why countries across the globe make it their business to ensure weapons are sold in a legal and organized manner.  As an international community that promotes peace across the world, measures should be taken that provide protection against the insurrections in countries who work hard yet are still unable to stop them.  That is the crisis we encounter with the arms trade, and that is the crisis which deserves our attention in this committee.  The delegates of Ecuador, standing as representatives to all of the people who suffer from crime every day in our great nation, call for a resolution that will decrease the transfer of illicit weapons and explosives, and are ready and willing to negotiate with the other delegates on what procedure will best accomplish this.



Country: Germany

 

Germany is considered to have one of the strictest gun control in the world.  And because of this we also enjoy about ten times less gun deaths than The United States, whom have little to no gun control.  Other than saving lives, by having a stricter gun control, under developed countries can continue to develop, while developed countries can keep progressing.  Hundreds of thousands of people, if not more, are killed every year by guns in areas inside and outside of conflict zones.  Guns are also the choice of many terrorist groups; in 2003 over half of global terrorism was perpetrated by the use of guns. By having tightened borders, terrorists will be more unlikely to obtain these illegal arms.

            In 2001, the United Nations created the Program of Action, the first international agreement on small arms and light weapons.  This agreement has focused on areas of extreme conflict and made sure that the arms were dealt with in a responsible manner.  Although this program has helped control the proliferation and misuse of deadly weapons, there is still much more to be done.

Germany proposes that the United Nations continues to work to decline the misuse of arms through tightened border security, an increase in civilian knowledge towards the misuse of arms and a better relationship between the government and its people.

 

We hope to convince other nations to put legislation into place internationally, through the United Nations, but also individually into their own government that will help prevent the trade of illicit arms.

Submitted by: Israel

It is unquestionable how serious a problem the illegal arms trade is in every nation in the world. The arms trade cumulates forty-five to sixty billion dollars each year. Close to 75% of the countries on the receiving end are developing countries. More astonishing five permanent members of the UN account for 85% of the arms sold. These members would be the US, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China. It the legal arms trade gathers this much revenue for a government, imagine the revenue made illegally. This was a major reason for the Arms Trade Treaty.

Negotiated between 2012 and 2013, it was adopted by the United Nations in April of 2013. The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) aims to establish regulations in the arms trade. One hundred eighty states have signed, but only thirty-two governments have actually ratified it. Germany, Italy and Great Britain have done both, and the US has signed but not ratified. Before the treaty goes into effect fifty states must ratify it.The treaty says a state may not sale arms if they were to,“ be used in the commission of genocide, crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, attacks directed against civilian objects or civilians or other war crimes defined by international agreements to which the State is a party.” Also that the arms may not be exported with the intention to, “undermine peace and security, commit or facilitate a violation of international human rights law or commit or facilitate an offense under international conventions relating to the prevention of terrorism or international crime to which the exporting state is a party,” according the treaty.

Over a year ago Israel voted in favor of this treaty, however now Israel has been having difficulty believing this treaty is truly what is best for their state. Israel has been in constant conflict with Palestine and with the troubles of the middle east bubbling nearby, Israel worries this could make the arms trade more difficult and less effective in maintaining security for not only their countries, but for countries they wish to militarize and enhance security.

Israel has been under harsh scrutiny by the global population for their reluctance to signing the treaty as well as their role in the arms trade. European states have exported billions of Euros worth of weapons to Israel. Further more; the EU has supported Israeli military companies with research grants worth millions. This is what has been fueling Israel military and helped economically with Israel’s role in the arms trade. The money made by Israel in the arms trade fuels and enriches their government, almost how the oil business fuels and enriches the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. If the ATT is signed, the regulations will make trading an overwhelming obstacle and significantly hurt Israel’s economy.

The economy is not the only concern. Israel will have a hard time accepting weapons they desperately need to maintain security of the state. The United States was set to send fifteen billion dollars worth of military weapons to Israel, but with restrictions, this could strip Israel of their previous deals that they were counting on for their military. Blumenblatt this when he wrote, “Signing the treaty is liable to influence various aspects connected to exports from the United States.”

With the ATT countries have to conduct meticulous investigations of the country they wish to send arms to (whether they are in war or not). These countries must have absolutely immaculate reputations in their human rights history. It is fair to say no country has an immaculate reputation with human rights as each country develops differently and at different times. Israel has gone through intense conflict and is in an area of constant clash of social rules and human right issues. This makes it seem very unlikely that Israel will be able to obtain weapons that will aid them in keeping security of their state. Also, that states that Israel wishes to support may not be able to receive the arms they desperately need. States that have dealt with human right violations tend to be developing countries that already have a hard time staying a country and maintaining safety that could allow for better regulated social rights.

Because of Israel’s wishes for a better agreement, it has lead to scrutiny by the public and massive boycotts further hindering Israel’s economy. Finance Minister Yair Lapid told the 15th Herzliya Conference in January last year: "Boycott, especially European boycott, impacts us greatly. If a boycott reduced exports to Europe by one-fifth and eliminated the continent's foreign direct investment in Israel, the country's economic output would fall by NIS 11 billion, a year, or about 1.1 per cent of GDP and 9,800 people would lose their jobs."

The issue of arms trade is urgent for Israel. Israel’s security, economy, and well-being completely relies on this issue. Israel is affected heavily by the illegal arms trade as every country in the world. However, Israel is also affected by heavy regulations. That is why the delegation of Israel call for a reformed version of the Arms Trade Treaty, and a better resolution to keeping the arms trade flowing in order to fuel states economies, as well as supporting the security of their allies while still restricting trade to states that use the arms with the intentions to violate human rights.

Sources:


The Arms Trade and Israel's Attack on Gaza." The Guardian. The Guardian News and Media Ltd., 18 July 2014. Web.

Cohen, Gili. "Defense Minister Ya'alon: Signing UN Arms-control Treaty Puts Israel at Risk - Diplomacy and Defense." Haaretz.com. Haarez Daily Newspaper Ltd., 28 May 2014. Web. 14 Feb. 2015.

"Illicit Trafficking." Small Arms Survey - . Graduate Institute of Geneva, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.




Shah, Anup. "Arms Trade-a Major Cause of Suffering." - Global Issues. N.p., 30 June 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2015.

Country: Jamaica

In recent years, the increase in production of small arms and light weapons (SALW) around the world has led to a dramatic intensification of the international illicit arms trade. According to one source, “The illegal trafficking of SALW, an estimated $1 billion annual industry, has significant global attention” (Council on Foreign Relations). The export and import of unlicensed and internationally-outlawed firearms continues to be an issue on a global level. Although the vast majority of this trade can be pinpointed to a small number of nations, this issue’s prevalence in all areas of the world cannot be ignored. For example, “More than 1,000 companies in about 100 countries are involved in some aspect of small arms production, with significant producers in about 30 countries” (Al Jazeera). Additionally, the inconsistencies in gun control and prevention measures from nation to nation only lead to more confusion. Recently, the implementation of an Arms Trade Treaty (A/RES/69/49) has been effective. One source explains, “The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) is a multilateral, legally-binding agreement that establishes common standards for the international trade of conventional weapons and seeks to reduce the illicit arms trade” (Arms Control Association). Another effort on behalf of the UN was the creation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Aspects (PoA). This programme is focused on “Developing and implementing agreed international measures to prevent, combat and eradicate illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in small arms and light weapons” (UN Document A/CONF.192/15). However, even though these efforts have proven to be monumental, there is still a lot of progress to be made.

Despite being seen as a tranquil and violence-free nation, Jamaica has actually struggled to maintain control over firearms on the island. In this small island nation of under 3 million people, there are over 180,000 legal and illicit civilian arms in circulation (gunpolicy.org). This number is greater than eleven times the amount of arms owned by the police force and the military combined. These arms account for approximately 18.59 deaths per 100,000 population (gunpolicy.org), which is higher than the rate for the United States (about 10.3 per 100,000). Civilians possessing arms is not the only issue, for Jamaica is also ravaged by extreme police brutality at the hands of guns and other firearms. One source claims “Police officers committed 245 fatal shootings in 2013, and between 2000 and 2010, more than 2,200 fatal shootings by police were reported” (The Independent). This violence does not result from a lack of effort on behalf of the Jamaican government, for the nation has implemented extensive gun control measures in its Firearms Act. Among other restrictions, the document says, “A person shall not purchase, acquire, sell, or transfer any prohibited weapon” (Ministry of Justice). Additionally, Jamaica has been very supportive of the Arms Trade Treaty. According to Folade Mutota, the president of the Caribbean Coalition for Development and Reduction of Armed Violence (CDRAV), “Jamaica was very instrumental during the negotiations when the region successfully pushed for the inclusion of small arms and ammunition in the treaty” (Jamaica Observer).



Since these negotiations, Jamaica has ratified and adhered to the treaty. The nation feels that the only way that DISEC can tackle this goal is through getting other nations to cooperate with the Arms Trade Treaty and cooperatively seeking advancements that will benefit all nations large and small, developed and developing, struggling and successful.

Works Cited

"Fact and Figures: Global Trade in Small Arms." Al Jazeera English. Al Jazeera, 18 Mar. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

Firearms Act (n.d.): n. pag. Moj.gov. Ministry of Justice. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

"Jamaica – Gun Facts, Figures and the Law.” Gunpolicy.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

Peachey, Paul. "Too Many Deaths in Paradise." Independent.co.uk. The Independent, 28 Jan. 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

"Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects." Programme of Action - Implementation Support System. United Nations, 20 July 2001. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

"St Vincent and Jamaica Ratify the New Arms Trade Treaty - Latest News." Jamaica Observer, 4 June 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

"The Global Regime for Transnational Crime." Council on Foreign Relations, 25 June 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2015.

Williams, Ian. "Fact Sheets & Briefs." Armscontrol.org. Arms Control Association, July 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.

Submitted by: Kosovo

The issue of illegal arms trade and its importance cannot be overstated.  Kosovo supports high international security throughout all sectors. Countries should submit to regulations and standards established by the United Nations.  Kosovo calls for an authoritative approach to armament.  In an effort of exuberance, the loquationess of this issue is not highlighted through a simple structure of text.  

Throughout the past century, Kosovo, alongside other active nations, has done a great deal with respect to arms control. In 1943, the country mandated a nationwide regulation system for all arms. The illegal arms trade has caused great trouble for Kosovo in the past several decades due to conflicts with our northern neighbors. In the ‘50s, Turkey caused a mass surge towards support of the arms restriction. Turkey left no other means for the nation to strive independently without constriction, other than to push for a substantive ban. Such bans were based on precedents set by the United States, with little distinction regarding arms border control. However, according to new statistics developed by various firearm organizations, the illegal arms trade has not suffered beyond its scope as a result of the bans.

Kosovo, an island below Europe, somehow was greatly affected by the war.

After the revolution of 1885, Kosovo, with the help of the Ugandan aristocracy, combated illegal arms trade, making the practice nearly defunct. In the event of a resurgence in both illegal manufacturing and trading, we must place tighter restrictions on those responsible. Moreover, Kosovo believes that disarmament is very important to sustain a healthy international community. In accordance with this, Kosovo supports high international security throughout all sectors. With these prerogatives in mind, “Coco” would like to reach a compromise with the other nations of DISEC to combat this injurious issue.

Country: New Zealand

There are about 875 million guns in the world, of those 650 million are in the hands of civilians. Even more shocking, according to Small Arms Survey, only about 79 million civilian firearms are known to be registered with authorities. Some countries do not require one to register a gun, so not all of them are illicitly traded; but even so there are around 571 million guns in circulation that are unaccounted for. In New Zealand, it is not required by law to register a gun, but the police have management similar to registration for military style firearms. To use or own a firearm requires a license from to police, except for use under the immediate supervision of a license holder. However, the guns that are not licensed often end up in the hands of criminal or are smuggled to be used for children in armed conflict.

Every nation needs to be able to set laws autonomously for its own people's protection; and gun safety. Nonetheless, the trade of weapons from one country to another should be carefully monitored, especially when it involves military style firearms. Currently criminal organizations profit from the sale of illegal weapons across international borders. We need stricter laws and better enforcement of international arms trade to cut off the funding of these deplorable "businesses". It can also prevent weapons from being moved to war-torn countries struggling with an epidemic of violence. Most of the people harmed in this conflict are innocent civilians, who are helpless against the warlord or criminal thug now armed with sophisticated weapons of destruction.

Many of these abuses could be greatly reduced by better enforcement of existing international laws. A commitment to better border security could ensure that trafficking of weapons would be identified and intercepted. Improved record keeping of the sale of weapons across borders could detect criminal activity and prevent the illicit gain from the trade of military hardware. Stronger penalties for violators that are caught will provide a deterrent future.

Works Cited

"How many guns? Gun ownership around the world explained" AOAV, Web, 15 Feb. 2015

"Guns in New Zealand- firearms, Gun Law and Gun Control" Guns in New Zealand- firearms, Gun Law and Gun Control, Web, 16 Feb. 2015



"Firearms-control Legislation and Policy: New Zealand" Library of Congress, Web, 16 Feb. 2015

http://www.loc.gov/law/help/firearms-control/newzealand.php#skip_menu

"Gun Politics in New Zealand" Wikipedia, Web, 15 Feb. 2015



Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone’s history is filled with numerous instances of unrest and turmoil fueled almost exclusively by the flow of arms in and out of our boarders. We are an old country represented by a new but not untested government. Sierra Leone has been faced with many problems, from rebel gangs, violent political parties, and killer viruses. But the greatest killers remain to be uncontrolled, and untraceable weapons that flow between the boarders in West Africa. This flow of fire arms is what enables those many volatile groups in Sierra Leone to act upon their agendas and cause havoc to our people’s government and infrastructure.

Sierra Leone has previously worked in unison and deferred many times to the authority of the UN and its affiliated nations. It was by working with these powers that Sierra Leone has made the progress that has helped our nation maintain its stability through troubled time. In order to make a lasting impact on the issue of illicit gun trade in the world, it is necessary for nations to work in unison and gain control of their boarders to curtail the flow of weapons to those groups who seek their awful utilities.

Submitted by: Slovak Republic

Small firearms have been around since the 10th century when the Chinese made the first fire lances, the ultimate predecessor of the gun. Now the gun has branched into a topic of major debate about its legal uses and its place in life. The gun industry is a multi-billion dollar business that can leave some people rich and many others dead. The UN has passed many resolutions limiting the production of small arms such as the 2013 United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution 21171 yet 300,000 million people are still killed by illicit arms each year.2 Also these illegal weapons fuel conflicts in Africa and to prevent the further development of third world countries. Gun smugglers tend to send small shipments of guns through porous borders to remain undetected and amass huge stockpiles at the other end. With effective distribution, these guns could end up in the hands of every criminal on the streets, leading to the ultimate destabilization of the world.

The sovereign nation of Slovakia contends that the illegal arms trade is a great evil that must be stopped. Recently Slovakia signed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which intends to “Establish the highest possible common international standards for regulating or improving the regulation of the international trade in conventional arms.”3 Luber Bystricky, Slovakia’s delegate in DISEC, has stated that Slovakia welcomes the idea of registering conventional arms as a measure to solve the problem of destabilizing transfers of conventional weapons.4

Slovakia proposes that the nations of the world together take action against the illegal arms trade in hopes of maintaining global peace and security. One way that this can be achieved is through registering the production of small arms to a nonpartisan committee or non-governmental organization (NGO). These bodies will verify that the weapons will not be used to violate human rights, but rather for well-meaning purposes. Alternatively, the United Nations can task a subcommittee to oversee the registration and trade of all firearms. Moreover, the international community can demand the increase in registration of small arms manufacturers hoping to keep track of gun production and distribution so that those guns will not end up in the hands of human rights violators.

However, each country must be responsible for its own borders. To that end, sovereign nations should impose regulations on the exports and imports of small arms with the intent to limit the potential for damage within the international community. Slovakia believes that the reduction and destruction of surplus arms would ameliorate the problem. To deal with the existing illegal arms trade, the UN will entreat the nations of the world to commit both monetary and man power to reduce the number of illegal guns and manufacturers. These resources will be used to discover and bring to justice the purveyors of the illegal arms trade. The UN and its participating states ought to aid those countries unable to achieve these objectives.

Works Cited:



  1. "United Nations Official Document." UN News Center. UN, 28 Sept. 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2117(2013)

  2. Shah, Anup. "Small Arms-they Cause 90% of Civilian Casualties." - Global Issues. N.p., 21 Jan. 2006. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://www.globalissues.org/article/78/small-arms-they-cause-90-of-civilian-casualties

  3. "Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)." Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series 50.3 (2013): 19647A-9647B. Web. https://unoda-web.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/English7.pdf

  4. "General Assembly A/C.1/49/PV.10." 10th Session of the General Assembly. UN, 24 Oct. 1994. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/868/54/PDF/N9486854.pdf?OpenElement

The Federal Republic of Somalia

The Federal Republic of Somalia has, without a doubt, faced the mounting problem of illicit gun arms trade head on. The instability that came with the fall of the government in 1989 led to Somalia becoming the safest and laxest country for the trade of illicit gun trading. Yet, in the last few years, Somalia has improved its regulation in the effort against illegal gun trade. There is, however, much to be done that expands beyond the borders of Somalia itself.

Within the past few years, much has been done against the small arms trade rampant in Somalia. In August, 2014, the Somalian cabinet agreed to pass a bill limiting small arms trade (Somalia News). In addition to this domestic legislation, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms, Somalia adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa. But Somalia’s commitment to preventing the spread of illicit weapons expands far past its minimal obligations. As the member of the African Union, the Federal Republic of Somalia adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (GunPolicy.org).

Despite the improvement of the situation, there are some aspects of the gun smuggling that Somalia cannot control. Somalia has an absence of domestic ammunition production capacity; hence the products smuggled into the country are all imported from external companies (SmallArmsSurvey.org). The very production of such a large number of weapons is contrary to all the Disarmament Committee has been working towards, and it is affecting Somalia’s efforts adversely.

The Federal Republic of Somalia postulates there must be three parts in the effort to end illicit arms trade. The first step is the regulation and control of small arms producers. Somalia urges each country to take the following steps, as radical as they may seem. The only way to produce military weapons so they may not fall into the hands of civilians – or even more nefarious enemies – would be to institute a governmental takeover of private weapons producers. By controlling the source of the weapons, half of the battle to end illicit trade has been won. The second step is to confiscate weapons currently among civilians. Somalia urges for appropriation of funds to back buybacks of weapons in every country and committee member from civilians, as well as assistance in funding for developing nations where small arms are particularly illicit. The concurrent step is to create incentives for countries to participate in these radical and revolutionary changes. Despite the benefits it will bring, actions of this caliber are often difficult to bring about – however, it is up to DISEC to suggest incentives to encourage universal participation.

Works Cited

"Guns in Somalia - Firearms, Gun Law and Gun Control." Guns in Somalia - Firearms, Gun Law and Gun Control. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

"SOMALIA: Cabinet Launches a Bill to Limit Illegal Small Arms Trade in the Country." SOMALIA: Cabinet Launches a Bill to Limit Illegal Small Arms Trade in the Country. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

Survey, Small Arms. Feeding the Fire: Illicit Small Arms Ammunition in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

Country: Turkey

The illicit trade of small arms and light weapons is recognized by Turkey to pose a significant threat to many throughout the world. Turkey believes that in addition to the ratification of Arms Trade Treaty in December of 2014, action should be taken to prevent the illegal passing of arms internationally.

Turkey has long been involved with the small arms trade issue. In 1996, Turkey became the first state to introduce the idea of a small arms register in Europe through the Organization for Security and Cooperation. Turkey also supported the United States in its initiative to compile a list of illegal arms traders and dealers as a follow-up. Also at the Forum Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, Turkey made contributions to creating a criteria in order to spot excessive accumulation of weapons or the increased transfer of small arms.

In recent Events, the Arms trade treaty, ratified on December, 24, 2014, is a big step towards gaining a handle on the illegal arms trade and black market. Anna Macdonald, a director of Control Arms (a lobby group) said that, "If robustly implemented, this treaty has the potential to save many lives and offer much-needed protection to vulnerable civilians around the world. It is now, finally, against international law to put weapons into the hands of human rights abusers and dictators." Macdonald touches on what Turkey believes to be some of the main reasons for trade regulation. There has been strong correlation to deaths in warring countries and the illicit arms trade in nearby nations. Additionally, this treaty enables action to be taken so that it will be more difficult for individuals to acquire weapons without proper registration and background checks. Turkey believes that the ratification of the treaty is the beginning of reforms to come and intends to continue its support of such reforms in both the U.N. and in Europe.

In order to prevent the transportation of small arms into the hands of terrorists and extremist groups, Turkey understands that it is vital to create a means to regulate the distribution of firearms and weapons of mass destruction.  Turkey believes that through the Arms Trade Treaty of 2013, regulation is possible.  Turkey encourages other countries to sign or ratify this treaty to engage in a productive and safe relationship in order to protect the citizens and control the black market sales of firearms.  Through this, Turkey aims to participate in a world in which small arms trade is regulated in a way to protect society from eminent harm.  

Works Cited

"Turkey." United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light 
     Weapons in All Its Aspects. United Nations, 26 July 1999. Web. 16 Feb. 
     2015.

Charbonneau, Louis. "Global Arms Trade Pact to Take Force; U.S. Senate has not 


     Ratified." Reuters 23 Dec. 2014: n. pag. Print

1 "United Nations Official Document." UN News Center. UN, 28 Sept. 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2117(2013)


2 Shah, Anup. "Small Arms-they Cause 90% of Civilian Casualties." - Global Issues. N.p., 21 Jan. 2006. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://www.globalissues.org/article/78/small-arms-they-cause-90-of-civilian-casualties


3 "Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)." Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series 50.3 (2013): 19647A-9647B. Web. https://unoda-web.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/English7.pdf


4 "General Assembly A/C.1/49/PV.10." 10th Session of the General Assembly. UN, 24 Oct. 1994. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/868/54/PDF/N9486854.pdf?OpenElement


DISEC Topic B



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