a. Army Learning Policy and Systems and ADDIE. The Army is intentionally moving away from the older term of "Systems Approach to Training (SAT)" in order to emphasize learning. The Army Learning Policy and Systems design process emphasizes the ADDIE process. ADDIE provides for effectiveness and efficiencies by developing continuous awareness of the relationships among the component parts, rather than a systematic and linear approach. The five phases of ADDIE enable the creation of integrated, mission essential products that support any type of learning and professional growth. ADDIE is the basis of a systematic, spiral, ongoing approach to conceiving, planning, organizing, and documenting all unit and individual learning products. Army Learning Policy and Systems adds management as an overarching and integral component (see fig 1-1).
Figure 1-1. ADDIE process with management component
b. Applying ADDIE to unit training products. Developing operational domain training products requires awareness that these five phases can be repeatedly applied at many levels, on a broad or narrow scope. A training developer must determine at what level to enter the training development process and ensure that the process does not drift from the original intent. Needs analysis, mission analysis, and job analysis are the primary analysis processes used to identify the unit training products to be designed (revised or created), developed, implemented, and evaluated. To successfully create a training product that meets all requirements at the appropriate level, the developer must maintain focus on the end product or training objective.
c. ADDIE considerations specific to operational domain training products.
(1) The analysis phase is used for defining the training needs (goals or objectives) and the ways to measure success. Conducting a thorough analysis is essential for making training/instruction as relevant as possible. Analysis provides information about what skills or knowledge need to be trained or learned, the conditions under which the skills should be performed or the knowledge used, and the standard of performance that must be achieved. The results of analysis form the basis for creating and/or revising unit training products. During analysis, a developer primarily focuses on understanding the expected outcome of the development efforts, while determining what information to draw upon. In determining a new unit training product, the triggering circumstance may come from a variety of sources in the form of a problem to be resolved. Once the circumstance is provided, the developer must draw upon relevant information to create a new training product or revise an existing training product. Once the problem is analyzed, the developer moves into the design phase.
(2) In the design phase, the training developer must identify or create the performance objective(s), which vary according to the type of product to be implemented. Once the training developer confirms the training or learning objectives with the proper authority, the training developer plans what the training/instruction should look like when it is complete, and the context in which the task or learning will successfully occur. The goal is to create a learning situation that helps people move from what they already know, to gaining mastery of the new material. In task-based training development, this includes providing the conditions and standards needed. As an example, in the task Defeat an improvised explosive device (IED) the training developer must address the conditions (such as equipment, materials, weather, darkness, threat involvement, and civilians on the battlefield), which may affect the task’s successful accomplishment. The standards for the IED defeat task may include a time element for attaining successful task accomplishment, and/or the determination that the task has been completely accomplished with no additional danger from the IED. In the design phase, the training developer may determine any additional performance measures, training strategies, and/or other criteria needed to perform a task.
(3) The development phase constitutes determining the details about the intended training, instruction, or learning product. The training developer chooses the structure and methods to form a comprehensive strategy to help the intended audience achieve the learning objectives. The development strategy should include grouping or sequencing materials, instructional methods or tactics, class types and/or delivery options, and assessments to measure success. In task-based training, development includes identifying supporting steps and performance measures that apply. Although unit training products are primarily revised rather than created, development of unit training products is the primary focus of this pamphlet. In the event that a new unit training product is needed, all steps for development of each product are included in this pamphlet.
(4) The implementation phase is the act, performance, or execution of the unit training/education. After the unit training product has been designed, developed, and the validation activities completed, the training is implemented. It is not the purpose of this pamphlet to address implementation. Operating forces implement unit training in accordance with FM 7-0.
(5) Once unit training products are identified, designed, and developed, appropriate management processes are needed to implement and evaluate these products. Chapter 9 presents management guidance for operational domain training products. It also defines the Combined Arms Center's (CAC’s) role for managing training requirements for collective training, which encompasses collective training support in accordance with TR 10-5. Additionally, it notes proponent guidance for individual task management, approval, and distribution of operational domain training products and validation of collective training products.
(6) Evaluation is a continuous process that starts during the analysis phase and continues throughout the life cycle of the training product. The evaluation phase consists of both formative and summative parts. Formative evaluation is present in each phase of ADDIE. OIL, after-action reviews (AARs), and feedback provided from unit observations serve as the primary summative evaluation points used to modify unit training. Evaluation of unit execution at combat training centers (CTCs) should also be used as a means of feedback.