Rules of translating the names of public bodies into English and Ukrainian.
Rules of translating geographical names.
I. Rules and methods of Romanization of Ukrainian proper nouns in English. Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic/ orthographic structure, i.e. are transcribed transliterated in English: Віра – Vira; Петро – Petro; Іван – Ivan.
Far from all Ukrainian proper names can be conveyed by way of literal translating, however. This is because some of our vowels and consonants have no equivalent sounds/ phonemes in English and must be substituted for approximately similar sounds. Among these Ukrainian sounds and sound combinations are first of all those ones, which are rendered with the help of the letters or letter combinations и, й, ий, ій, я, ю, є, ї or partly through the letters ж, щ, х, ч, ч and palatalized consonants.
The adoption by the Verkhovna Rada of the Romanization System enables the conveying of our personal names, family names (onomastics) and also all Ukrainian geographical names (toponymy) in accordance with some rules.
This system practically does not contain diactrics, i.e., different signs over or under the letters, like in German, Turkish, Chech or French. The only sign of the kind being the sign ’ for palatalization (Львів – L’viv) which is not difficult to add after a letter.
The adopted Romanization system is internally consistent and based on sound linguistic principles. It is to be strictly observed by the students of foreign languages and the people responsible for its absolute implementation in this country and abroad. This is how it is presented;
UkrainianEnglishUkrainianEnglish 1. А, а A, a18. Н, н N, n
2. Б, б B, b19. О, о O, o
3. В, в V, v / W, w20. П,п P, p
4. Г, г H, h21. Р, р R, r
5. Ґ, ґ G, g22. С, с S, s
6. Д, д D, d23. Т, т T, t
7. Е, е E, e24. У, у U, u
8. Є, є Ye, ye25. Ф, ф F, f
9. Ж, ж Zh, zh26. Х, х Kh, kh 10. З, з Z, z27. Ц, ц Ts, ts 11. И, и Y, y28. Ч, ч Ch, ch/ Tch, tch 12. І, і I, i29. Ш, ш Sh, sh
13. Ї, ї Yi, yi/ Ii, ii30. Щ, щ Shch, shch 14. Й, й Y, y31. Ю, ю Yu, yu 15. К, к K, k32. Я. Я Ya, ya 16. Л, л L, l33. Ь 17. М, м M, m
A practical realization of this system can be illustrated on many Ukrainian names with the substitution of Ukrainian letters (and sounds) for the completely, approximately or similarly corresponding English letters or letter combinations;
/и/ as y: Кирило – Kyrylo; Суми – Sumy;
/ї/ as ii, i or yi: (depending on the position and environment):
When preceded by a vowel, it is conveyed by the letter i:Заїка – Zaika; Зінаїда – Zinaida: but: Турбаї – Turbayi/ Turbaii;
When it initiates the proper name, the sound expressed by the Ukrainian letter ї has to be conveyed through the yi letter combination: Ївга – Yivha; Їжакевич – Yizhakevych;
When preceded by the /і/ sound it is conveyed in English as ii or iy: Андрій – Andrii/ Andriy; Гафійка – Hafiika/ Hafiyka; Матвійчук – Matviichuk/ Matviychuk;
When it is preceded by /и/ it is to be conveyed as yi: Сірий – Siryi.
/я/ as ya or ia: Яким – Yakym; Ярема – Yarema; but: Забіяка – Zabiyaka/ Zabiaka;
The sound expressed through the Ukrainian letter я in the final position of a word ortraditional proper name can sometimes be conveyed in English by the ia rarely ya letter combinations. It is mostly observed in traditional proper names like Марія, Софія, Юлія, Югославія – Maria; Sofia; Yulia; Yugoslavia; but: Кенія – Kenya.