Unit 9 – Societal and Technological Growth



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Unit 9 – Societal and Technological Growth
Note-taking guide

Name____________________________ Class period___________



SS8H11: The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.
a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary,
Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.
Essential Question: How can political policies and decisions create a climate in which individuals and groups can voice opinions to bring about social change?


  • What happened during the Three Governors episode?

The players:

Governor Ellis _____________ - 1946 – His term was drawing to a _________ and he ___________ succeed himself

Eugene _______________ - Arnall’s arch _____________; segregationist; ______________ primary candidate

Former Governor Eurith ______________: Democratic _______________ candidate

James ______________ - headed the ___________________ bomber plant during WWII; Democratic ______________ candidate

___________________ won the primary _____________, but Talmadge won the _______________ vote and became the Democratic _________________

_______________ had no candidate, so Talmadge ran __________________ in the November ______________ election

Talmadge was in ____________ health, and his close ______________ were afraid he would not ___________ long enough to _____________ his term as _____________

Talmadge’s supporters had a __________ plan:


  • A few ____________ selected _____________ would ___________ the name of Eugene Talmadge’s son ______________ on the ____________ as their ____________ choice for governor

  • When the general _______________ was over, Eugene Talmadge had been elected _____________

  • Melvin _______________ had been elected _______________________

  • Before ______________ Talmadge could be _____________ in, he _________ and the confusion began

  • The ______________ chose __________________ as governor based on the size of the ________________________ votes for him.

  • Governor ________________ declared Lieutenant Governor _______________ was the rightful _____________

  • January 15, 1947 – in the early A.M. hours, a group of _____________ Talmadge’s men broke into the governor’s ____________ and changed the _____________ on the doors.

  • Governor Arnall was ____________________ of his own office, so he set up a ______________ office at the Capitol ________________ counter.

  • Three days later, Governor __________ officially ________________.

  • Lieutenant Governor ________________ opened an _____________ in downtown __________ and began ____________ proceedings to become __________________.

  • GA’s government was in a state of _______________________________!

  • ____________________ refused to turn over the official state __________ to either Talmadge or Thompson, so ______________ was in a position to run the ______________.

  • The ________________ new ___________ had a field day reporting ion the ___________ in GA. HOW EMBARRASSING!

  • March, 1947 – the GA ______________________ ruled that ______________ was the rightful ______________________ until a special ______________ could be held in 1948 to fill Governor ________________ Talmadge’s __________________ term.

  • _________________ Talmadge won the _________ election and became GA’s Democratic __________________.

Herman Talmadge

  • What role did Herman Talmadge play in Georgia politics?

Elected _____________ in ________ and _____________

Strict ____________________ who _________________ any attempts to integrate GA’s public __________________

Promised ______________ he would bring back the _____________________, but was ___________ to keep that promise

During his tenure as governor he



  • Restructured the state ___________________ department

  • Created the GA ____________________ Commission

  • Provided ________________ for improvements in _________________________ programs, county _______________ departments, and the state’s _______________ system

  • Provided leadership[ for a ______________ state constitution

  • Expanded ________________ to include grades _____________

  • 1949 – GA General Assembly passed the Minimum Foundation Program for ____________ Act

    • _________________ the school year to ____________ months

    • Raised _____________________ for buildings, _________________, transportation, and __________________ curricula

After _______________ office, Talmadge was _______________ to the U. S. ______________ in 1956, and served there until ____________.

Benjamin Mays

  • What role did Benjamin Mays play in Georgia’s history?

Born in 1895 to former __________________

Completed his undergraduate work at ___________ College and his master’s and doctoral degrees at University of _________________

Became an ordained ______________ minister

A lifelong ________________ - taught at SC State College and ______________ College

Helped students form the Omega Psi Phi fraternity at ___________________
Became _____________ of the Howard University School of _______________ in 1934

1940 – became president of ________________ College

Active in the Atlanta community and became the _________ African American _____________ of the Atlanta ______________________

__________________ many students, including ______________________________________

Dr. King referred to Dr. Mays as his “________________________” and “___________________”

Retired from ___________________ in 1967 and became _______________ of the Atlanta Board of ____________________, where he served for ______ years

In ___________ of Dr. Mays’ outstanding __________________ to education, a _____________ and a ______________ in Atlanta were ______________ in his honor.

Dr. Mays died in ______________; he was _______ years old.



The White Primary

  • What was the purpose of the white primary and how was it eventually ended?

The “___________________” was one of the various ways ____________ in GA tried to keep ____________ from voting.

The ______ Amendment to the U. S. Constitution guaranteed ___________ the right to ________; however, the ______________ legislature said this applied only to _____________ elections, not _______________.

________________ gained _____________ of GA’s ____________ government after Reconstruction.

Democratic _______________ ruled that only ___________________ could vote in the ___________.

GA was a _____-party state since _________________ and ______________ candidates received ____________ support from ___________ voters.

Candidates for offices were ______________ during the _______________ and __________________ voters could _____ participate.

By the time the ____________ election occurred, candidates had been _____________ and _________ were ____ part of the ___________________ process

1946 – The U.S. ______________ Court ruled that ___________ primaries in _____ were _______________________.

______________ voters were ___________ to take part in the ______________ election of _____, for the first time since ____________________

Brown v. Board of Education


  • How did the Brown v. Board of Education case change education in Georgia?

The ______________ Act of __________ was struck _______ by the __________ Court of the U.S.

The __________ decision in Plessy v. Ferguson made ______________ the law of the land.

1935 – the ________________ began the fight to ______________ schools

1950 – 7-year-old Linda Brown, a __________ student, tried to _____________ in an ____________ school in Topeka, Kansas

When she was ____________ entry, the ______________ helped her father _______ the Topeka Board of ________________

The case, referred to as ________________________________, reached the ______________ Court

____________ - Supreme court ruled that __________________________ schools were ________________________

Schools were ______________ to ______________”with all deliberate __________”

Although the _______________ court had spoken, many states were ___________ to carry out _______________.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.


  • What was the role of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the modern civil rights movement?

Dr. King was thrust into the ______________ limelight by the Montgomery ________________
Dr. King believed in a ____________ approach for gaining ____________ for _____ Americans:
1. direct, _________________ actions
2. __________ remedies
3.__________________
4. economic ________________
1957 – Dr. _______ and other prominent southern ________ ministers formed the Southern ___________ Leadership Conference (_________)

1959 – Dr. King ____________ back to ____________ and served as ___________ of ________________ Baptist Church


1963 – Dr. King and the _____________ organized ___________ in Birmingham, AL. The city received ___________ attention due to the level of _____________ used against the ______________.
1967 – Dr. King began a ___________ People’s Campaign to address ____________ issues left unsolved by earlier legislation.
August 28, 1963 – Dr. King delivered his famous “I Have a ___________” speech in __________________
April 3, 1968 – Dr. King delivers his famous “I’ve Been to the ______________” speech in ________, TN
_____________ - Dr. King is ________________, and the country ________ a great ___________ leader

Georgia State Flag Controversy

What was the controversy surrounding the GA state flag?
1956 – GA ________ flag was changed to ______________ the ______________ state ____________ emblem
African Americans were _______________ by the reference to _____________
Modern _____________ were _____________ by the reference that GA was _____________ in its ______________ instead of its ________________

Use of _________________ emblem _______________ tourist industry, costing the state ____________ of dollars in lost _______________ and _______________ dollars by portraying a negative “________________________” image of Georgia.


Governor Roy ______________ was called on to _______________ the flag.

January, ______ - GA’s _____ flag was passed into _____


Citizens who saw the _____ flag as a ______________ to the Confederate ______ were ______________ about the change
Others who saw the 1956 flag as ___________, were ____________ that the _____ flag still _____________ a small _____________ emblem
Critics said the _______ flag was ______________ for school children to ____________
Sonny ______________ campaigned for _____________ on a promise to ____________ the flag
Governor _______________ signed our ____________ flag into _________ on _______________

SS8H11 b: Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.

How did the major developments in civil rights during the 1940s and 1950s affect Georgia?

African American _______________ returning from _________________ found ______________ in attitude toward _______________ in the ________________


_______________ laws were still in effect that ________________ entrances to doctor’s and dentist’s offices, movie theater entrances and seating, lunch counters, restaurants, public ________________, libraries, city pools, and ________________ services

1946 – President _______________ set up the President’s Committee on _______________ to study the problems of _________________

1948 – segregation ______________ in the _______________

1949 – racial discrimination _________________ in federally financed ____________ by the Federal _____________ Act



What was the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)?
An organization founded in ________________, in response to the ______________ of the lunch counter _______________
The first ______________ of the organization was Georgian ________________
Tested the _________________ rule related to ________ terminals by sitting in the “____________” waiting room
SNCC members were quickly _______________
This action prompted the creation of the ______________________
What was the role of the Albany Movement in the civil rights movement?
The ______________ Movement was formed in __________ in ______________, GA, in response to the ____________ of members of the __________ and ____________ who sat in the “______________” railway waiting room of the ____________________ station
Six years after the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, Albany ___________ were still _____________ and only a __________ number of ____________ Americans were allowed to _______
“_______________________” arrived in Albany to support the Albany Movement
The “freedom riders” were _____________ at the Central Railway ________________
The next day, SNCC _______________ led a _____________ of African American ________________ students to the same ______________ station
The students were _______________ and ______________ while members of the national press _________
During the months of _____________ in ______________, over 500 _______________ were either in _________ or out on ____________
Dr. Martin Luther ___________, Jr. and Rev. Ralph _________________ traveled to ______________ to ask city ____________ for a _____________ to __________ the dispute
By the end of ______, a _____________ committee had been __________ to _______ concerns of the ___________ American citizens in ________________.

What was the role of the Sibley Commission in the civil rights movement?
An organization formed in _________ to ______ the problem of ______________ Georgia’s ________________ systems
The organization was headed by Atlanta attorney and banker __________________
The commission held __________________ all over the ___________ to learn how the ______________ felt about ___________________.
Georgians said they would rather _________ their schools than __________ them.
The commission __________________ that _______school systems ___________ if they would ___________ or ________.

How did the state of GA respond to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?
Jan. 6, _____ - the University of ____ allowed its first two _______ students to __________
Charlayne ___________ and Hunter ____________ were _______________ to the school by state ___________________.
_________________ Vandiver ______________ to bend to _____________ to ______ the university rather than ______________ it.
Vandiver asked the GA ______________ to ____________ other ______________ laws in _____
The governor’s actions made the _______________ of schools in GA go ____________ and _____________ than in other ______________ states.
____ - the Atlanta ______ school system ______________ its first nine ___________ students
During the next 3 years, the ____________ ordered all _____________ in the state to __________ schools.
After the _____________________ of ____ passed, the federal government ______________ federal ___________ to any system that ____________ end segregation.
____ - the U. S. Department of Justice _______ the GA State Board of ______________, demanding that the ____________ ____________ funds from systems that __________ to ____________.
By ____, all GA schools were _______________.
Who is Charlayne Hunter?
First _____________ American female student to be ____________ to the Henry W. __________ School of ____________ at ______
Became a ______________ known ____________ and public ____________ reporter.
Who is Hamilton Holmes?
First ___________ American ______ to be ________ to ______
Installed in __________________ (honors fraternity)
Graduated with ____________ from UGA
Went on to practice ____________ as an orthopedic ____________ in _____________ until his death in 1955

What was the purpose of the March on Washington?
June 19, 1963 – President ______________ sent the strongest _____________ bill in history to ____________.
The bill called for
1. An _______ to ________________ in public _________________.
2. Assurance of ________ employment and voter ________________ practices.
3. __________________ of federal ________ from ___________ where ___________ was practiced.
4. The authority of the _______________ of the U.S. to _____________ against ________ districts where ______________ had not been _____________.
Congress was takings its ____________ with the bill.
August 28, 1963 – over ________________ people representing all _________, ___________, and ______________ gathered before the _______________ Monument to _______________ for the passage of President Kennedy’s ____.
_________________________ delivered his famous “I Have a ___________” speech at the ______________.

What effect did the passage of the Civil Rights Act have on Georgians?
June, 1963 – President ____________ went on national ___________ and described ____________ as “a moral __________ for the ____________.”
He sent ______________ the strongest ______________ bill in history.
President Kennedy was _______________ before he could see the ____________ bill passed.
President _____________ vowed to _____________ the __________ to get President Kennedy’s bill ______________.
The Civil Rights Act of ______ was ___________ due to support of President ___________ and political ______________ applied by both ____________ and _____________ supporters.
_____________ of public schools was now ____________.
Segregation of public ____________ was now ___________.
Restaurant, ______________, hotels, public recreational areas, _________ and __________ could no longer be _____________.
The federal _____________ had the _________ to withhold __________ from ____________ that _______________ to _____________.
The law also prohibited ________________ in ________________ and labor ____________.

Who was Atlanta’s first black mayor?
Maynard ______________ takes the ___________ of office to become Atlanta’s ________ black ___________
Maynard Jackson was ____________ as Atlanta’s _____________ and ____________ African American ____________ in January, ______.
Jackson earned a BA degree from _______________ College.
________________ with a _____ degree in 1964
Worked as an ______________ in Atlanta until he entered ______________ and was elected _____________.
Called the “________________________” because
Created “______________ planning units” to give ___________ a ________ in city __________
Tackled charges of police _________________.
Made _____________ in the organization and ______________ of the _____________ and __________ departments and city government
Led the _____________ and expansion of __________
Expanded Hartsfield International ____________ into one of the _____________, busiest airports in the _____________
He was a lifelong supporter of the __________: established a Bureau of ___________ Affairs and provided _________ to support ________ programs in the _____________.
Led the efforts to __________ Atlanta’s selection as the ______ city for the ______ Olympic Summer Games.
Maynard Jackson died in _______.
In ____________ of his many ______________, Atlanta’s __________ was ___________ Hartsfield-____________ Atlanta International Airport.

What impact did Lester Maddox have on Georgia during his tenure as governor?
1967 - _________________ and restaurant _________ Lester ___________ of Atlanta became ________.
Maddox had become famous for choosing to _______ his ____________ rather than ___________ it.
1966 gubernatorial _________
No candidate received a ____________ in the Democratic ___________, so there was a ___________.
Maddox was the ____________ winner over former Governor Ellis _______.
In the general ____________, Maddox faced ____________ candidate “Bo” Callaway.
Callaway received more __________ than Maddox, but a ____________ campaign for ___________ prevented ____________ from getting a ___________ of the vote.
The ____________ went to the Democratic _____________ to be ____________. They chose _______________, the _______________ candidate.
Maddox _______________ more ____________ Americans to state ___________ and ______________ than all prior governors ____________.
Named the first __________ member of the Board of ___________ and ____________.
Reformed state _____________
____________ the GA State Patrol
Increased _____________ on teachers’ ___________ and higher _______________
Instituted “__________________” - ________ each month, any ____________ could visit the governor’s ____________ to talk to Governor ____________ about _____________ they wished.
Ran for _____________ governor in 1970, and was ______________ overwhelmingly.

SS8H11 c: Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.

What impact did Andrew Young have on Georgia?
Young was a ______________ in a Thomasville church when he became involved in the _______________ movement.
Joined the __________ and became its executive director.
While there, he helped establish “ ________________” schools to teach _____________ organizing ______________ to potential ____________ leaders
Young was a trusted _____________ to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and was with him when he was ________________.
1972 – Young was _________ to the _____ House of Representatives becoming the _______ African American elected from _________ since Reconstruction.
Re-elected to House ______.
1977 – named by President Jimmy _____________ as U.S. ______________ to the United Nations
1981 – returned to _____________ and ____________ elected as ____________ of Atlanta
Served as _____________ of the committee to bring the 1996 Summer ___________________ to Atlanta.

SS8H12: The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970.
b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president


Describe the impact of Jimmy Carter as state senator, governor, and President of the United States.
James Earl “Jimmy” _____________, Jr. was born in _____________, GA on Oct. 1, 1924.
Graduated from the U. S. _________ Academy and served in the ___________ for ____ years.
1954 – Carter ___________ his naval _____________ and returned home to ___________ to take over his family’s ______________
1962 – Carter was ________________ to the ___ State Senate, where he served ____ terms.
Served on the ____________ Committee
1970 – elected ____________ of Georgia. During his tenure as governor, Carter
_________________ the state’s ____________ branch by _________ the number of government ______________ from 300 to ____
Influenced GA’s _________ system by bringing a ___________ approach to the _________ and changing the _________ of _________ to a __________ process.
Appointed the first ____________ as a state _____________.
Created the Georgia ____________ Trust, which is designed to ___________ our state’s __________ and _____________ resources.
Worked to ____________ funding for public _____________ across the state and _____________ special ____________, vocational education, and ______________ education
Expanded state _____________ services for Georgians

Carter began his ____________ for the U.S. ____________ in _____.


Ran as a __________________ candidate on a platform of ___________ and ____________.
During his term as ______________, Carter
Established a national _____________ policy
Completed major _______________ reforms
______________ the national __________ system
Deregulated the ______________ and ______________ industries
Created the Department of _______________

However, ______________ problems _____________ his term as President.


______________ and ____________ rates were ______________ high; his efforts to __________ them caused a _______________.

For what will Jimmy Carter best be remembered as President?
_____________ Policy
Negotiated the 1978 Camp David _____________ Accords between __________ and _________
Obtained congressional ratification of the _____________________________
Established full ____________ relations with the People’s Republic of ______________
_______________ the U.S. from the _____________________________ in Moscow after ____________ invaded ________________.
Championed worldwide _____________________

What event probably led to President Carter’s defeat in the 1980 election?
November, 1979 - ____________ took ____________ of the U.S. ____________ in Iran and seized _____ Americans, holding them ___________ for fourteen _____________.
Iran did not ______________ the ______________ until 1981 on the __________ that President Carter __________ office.
What impact has former President Jimmy Carter had on the U. S. since he left the presidency?
President ______________ is much admired for his efforts to
Negotiate ______________
Defeat ________________
Ensure _____________________ around the world
Build _________________ housing with Habitat for ________________

What huge event did Atlanta host in 1996?
The games of the XXVI (26) ______________ or the Centennial _________________.

How did the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta positively impact the state’s economy and development?
Brought in over ____________ athletes representing 197 ___________
Sites for events were in Atlanta but also in ___________, Columbus, __________ and Savannah
Millions of ____________ were spent to _____________ world-class competition _____________ such as the $189 million Olympic ____________, the 1,400 acre Georgia __________ Park, the $17 million Wolf Creek _____________ Range complex, a Stone Mountain ____________ facility, and the $10 million Lake Lanier _______________ Center
Georgia ___________ and Georgia __________ University received new ____________ facilities to house the _______________ during the ____________ as well as renovated ___________ sites
The Olympics brought _____________ recognition to Atlanta. _____________ of visitors came to see the _____________ and millions more watched on ______________. Atlanta received tremendous ___________ coverage as one of the ______________ leading __________ centers.
The Olympics brought _____________ programs, educational and ____________ programs, and ______________ opportunities for ____________ of Georgians
The Olympics brought _____________ of dollars into Georgia’s ____________.


What were some negative aspects of the Olympics?
Poor ________________ that led to _____________ and highway _____________, making _______________ difficult
The Centennial Park _______________ on July 29, 2996 that _________ 1 and ___________ 117 more
Street ______________ on every corner ______________ visitors and left them _______________.

How have immigrant communities impacted the growth and economy of Georgia?
Northwest GA __________ mills use ____________ and Latin American ____________ to fill the many _____________ in the ___________.
The _____________ industry in Gainesville, GA, also ______________ immigrants in the _____________ and processing of millions of _______________.
In _________ GA, the ______________ industry relies on immigrants to pick _______________.
Immigrant populations _________ and ____________ all over GA.
Churches and ethnic _______________ have sprung up in many ___________ to serve ______________.
All of GA is impacted by the _________________ of immigrants, and the ____________ of the state ____________ as a result.


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