But with more cars on the roads, along with people and horses, it was very dangerous and there were many accidents.
Because of these accidents, the High Line was built and the trains now travelled safely above the traffic.
Trains used the High Line until 1980, when the train line closed.
Then, for many years, the High Line was empty and its landscape started to change.
Without any trains travelling on the tracks plants started to grow.
Some people wanted the High Line demolished, but a group of city residents fought to protect it.
They dreamed of making the old train line into ‘a park in the sky’.
And finally, this dream came true.
After years of work the first section of the High Line park opened on June 9th 2009.
In 2011 the second section opened, and the park isn’t quite finished.
But already three million visitors come to the park every year.
Part 3 A great success
On a perfect hot and sunny day in July the High Line is busy with visitors and staff.
Gardeners are looking after the plants and flowers, while the guides are helping visitors, telling them more about the park’s history and environment.
In the park there are plenty of places to sit where you can relax, listen to music, or meet with friends and chat.
Many visitors are enjoying the views over the Hudson River, as far as the Statue of Liberty, or watching the busy streets below.
So what do today’s visitors think of the High Line?
Betty: Oh, this is an amazing resource.
It’s this green oasis in an urban setting that is just surprising and beautiful.
Derek: It’s a little bit of the country in the city, you know, that you really don’t get enough of here.
Jeanie: I think it’s beautiful.
It gives … it’s a great place for people to spend their time off, their lunch breaks, their time with family.
So, I think it’s a fabulous place in the city to go.
Lance: Beautiful. It’s an amazing treasure.
We just arrived an hour ago and we’ve just started walking along, but it’s amazing to see the sites of the city and all the foliage, all the green trees and plants, and all the people enjoying the beautiful day.
The High Line is an amazing success.
It’s a pathway of flowers and grass that runs through neighbourhoods where many people haven’t got gardens.
For local residents it’s a place where they can chill out and escape the stress and noise of the crowded city.
And, for visitors, it’s an opportunity to explore New York’s amazing architecture and experience one of the world’s greatest cities in a very different way.
In New York City, the High Line makes a difference to people’s lives.
It makes people happy.
Unit 3 The Titanic
Part 1 A tragic story
In April 1912 newspapers around the world were full of the tragic story of one of the most famous ships in history – the Titanic.
At the time, the Titanic was the largest passenger ship in the world.
She was nearly 270 metres long and over 53 metres high with nine decks.
She was owned by the White Star Line.
The Titanic left the port of Southampton on the south coast of England on the 10th April 1912.
She stopped briefly at Cherbourg in France, and Queenstown, now called Cobh, in Ireland, and then started her journey across the Atlantic towards her final destination, New York.
She was carrying 1343 passengers and 885 crew members.
The trip to New York was her maiden voyage.
Some passengers, in first class, were rich and famous.
But most second and third class passengers weren’t rich.
They were people from across Europe travelling to America to start new lives.
The story of the Titanic is so famous that everyone knows how the voyage ended.
Just before midnight on Sunday 14th April, as she was sailing towards the coast of North America, the ship hit an iceberg and was badly damaged.
Two hours 40 minutes later the ship sank.
Tragically, there weren’t enough lifeboats and only 710 people survived.
In 1985 the wreck of the Titanic was finally found at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, two and a half miles down.
A hundred years after the Titanic sank people are still fascinated by its story.
But, while there are hundreds of books, television programmes, and famous films about the ship’s short voyage, many people still know very little about where the ship came from and the people who built it.
Part 2 Building the Titanic
The birthplace of the Titanic is Belfast.
Belfast is the capital city of Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom and the city was famous for ship-building in the 20th Century.
The Harland and Wolff shipyard, where they built Titanic, still exists today.
You can see the dock where they finished the ship.
They don’t make ships here anymore, but you can still see the yard’s two massive cranes, Samson and Goliath, from all across the city.
Today, the old shipbuilding area of Belfast is called the Titanic Quarter.
There’s a lot of new development in this area.
And there’s a huge new Titanic Signature Building at the old shipyard where you can learn more about the ship.
From the outside this amazing new building looks like the bow of the Titanic.
This building is empty today, but in 1900 there were hundreds of people working here, and around 15,000 people working in the shipyards.
The Titanic was the second of three ships that Harland and Wolff were building for the White Star Line in the early 20th century.
The plans for the Titanic and its sister ship, the Olympic, were almost identical both inside and out, but the Titanic was slightly bigger.
The designers marked the Titanic’s differences in red on the ships’ plans.
You can see these original plans at the Ulster museum of Folk and Transport’s Titanica exhibition in Belfast.
You can also see a lot of the objects from the Olympic.
The Titanic had identical items on board when she sank.
At the exhibition you can also learn much more about the people who built the ship, and the people who were travelling on her when she sank.
And this is just one of many Titanic exhibitions around the world.
Part 3 My great-grandfather’s story
The tragedy of the Titanic was very difficult for the people of Belfast and for many years no-one in Belfast talked about how they built the Titanic.
But this changed over time and today people in the city are proud of their family histories.
There’s a memorial to the men of Belfast who died on the ship outside the City Hall.
And tour guide Susie Millar has her own very special family story.
Susie: I can remember as a small child, my grandmother taking me to see the Titanic memorial, which stands in the grounds of Belfast City Hall, and she pointed up at, at the name, Thomas Millar on the plinth and told me that that was my great-grandfather.
My great-grandfather worked here in Harland & Wolff, in the shipyard which built Titanic and he had helped to construct the engines for Titanic and its sister, Olympic …
And Tommy Millar has a special place in the history of the Titanic.
He’s unique, he’s the only one of the crew who worked on the construction of Titanic for Harland & Wolff and then worked for White Star as one of the crew.
Like many people on the ship, Tommy was leaving Ireland to start a new life in America.
Before my great-grandfather left Belfast, he said his goodbyes to his two sons and he gave each of them two new pennies dated 1912 and he told them not to spend those coins until the family was all together again.
Sadly, Tommy was one of the crew members who died. But his family never forgot him.
… my grandfather kept those two pennies all of his life and he passed them down through the family and we still have them in the family today.
But why is the story of the Titanic still so famous after a hundred years?
Susie Millar thinks that there are two reasons that people will always be interested in the Titanic.
… you’ve got the biggest ship in the world with the richest people in the world and the poorest people in the world, sailing across the Atlantic and on the maiden voyage, it hits this iceberg and it’s a disaster.
And within that bigger story, there are all these little threads of stories, individual stories about families and people, and people who were heroes and people who were cowards and people who were villains, so you’ve got all those elements within it, so I think those two things combined give you a really good story.
There are many reasons for differences in life expectancy, that is, the average age that people live to.
But one of the most important secrets to a long life is food – having enough food, and eating the right food.
We all know it’s not always easy to eat well.
We have busy lives. Nowadays, a lot of people don’t cook traditional food at home.
Fast food is quick and cheap everywhere.
But a bad diet can reduce your life expectancy by many years.
So, do you think you have a healthy diet?
Dan: I think I have a healthy diet, 80 per cent of the time.
I eat whole foods, home-cooked food, meat, vegetables.
I don’t like much junk food or processed food.
Tim: I feel I have a balanced diet. But you could always eat more fruit and vegetables.
Anne-Marie: Not so healthy. I eat a lot of sugar, so, sugar’s not very good for you.
Angus: I do not have a healthy diet at all. I like cheeseburgers, I like bad food.
Do you think some countries have a better diet than other countries?
Beth: Country that has the healthiest diet?
I probably think the Mediterranean countries, places like Italy, and France, and Spain.
They eat a lot of locally produced food.
Angus: I believe that the countries which have the healthiest diet are places such as Spain, Portugal, Italy, this is because of their reliance on things like olive oil and fish.
Edel: I’m not too sure. I’ve been to Japan before and they seem to eat a lot of fish and oily foods.
I think they have a very healthy diet.
Dan: I spent a lot of time in Spain and I think they have a very healthy diet.
They eat a lot of natural food.
They eat a lot of vegetables, they eat a lot of fresh fish, it’s all fresh food.
So I always felt very healthy when I was in Spain.
In the United States the average life expectancy is only 78 years.
A lot of traditional American food isn’t very healthy.
Often there’s a lot of fried food and meat and there aren’t many fresh vegetables or salad.
But luckily in cities like New York there are lots of places to eat and drink where you can find the most delicious food from around the world.
Part 2 Italian food
At over 81 years, the average life expectancy in Italy is one of the highest in the world, and food is one of the most important parts of Italian culture.
And when Italians move to other countries, they take their food with them.
New York is full of Italian restaurants.
Italian food is a great example of the Mediterranean diet – a diet that is one of the healthiest in the world.
The area around the restaurant has changed a lot in 30 years, but PJ Charlton’s still serves fabulous Italian cuisine to residents and visitors to the city from around the world.
So, what is it that makes Italian food so healthy?
The heart of any good Italian cuisine begins with garlic, onions, and olive oil.
And once you begin with that, and you introduce the great San Marsano tomatoes, you begin to create a Marinara sauce.
Your greens, I like to refer to all of those greens as captured sunlight.
It’s basically all of the vegetables that you can think of, err, with a little bit of garlic and oil.
In addition to that, when you talk about pasta, it’s nothing more than flour and eggs.
What could be more simple than that, more healthy and more nutritious?
Some of the pastas that we use here at the restaurant are linguini, spaghetti, and we have rigatoni, penne, and then we have the cannelloni, and we have ravioli, and we have what we call the stuffed pastas.
How do you cook the food?
We sauté many of our vegetables, we broil many of our meats and poultry, we don’t fry, we try to stay away from the frying process, because it’s not that healthy for you.
When my customers come in and they greet me and they’re happy, and they sit and they tell one another this is the best kept secret in New York City, it makes me feel very, very good.
I love doing what I do. I’ve been doing it for 32 years.
I feel that, watching my customers eat my food, get healthy, stay happy, is what I want to do.
The Mediterranean diet isn’t just good for you because of the healthy ingredients.