Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Werlin, Johannes (i)

(b Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria, 1588; d Seeon, Bavaria, 29 May 1666). German music anthologist, composer and poet. He studied at the monasteries of Diessen and Andechs in Bavaria. In 1609 he became a novice at the Benedictine monastery at Seeon. In 1625 he was appointed prior there and in 1634 choirmaster. The 17th century was a period of particularly rich musical activity in Bavarian monasteries, and Werlin was one of many monks appointed to compose and compile music for use in individual cloisters. To this end, along with antiphonaries and catalogues, he produced his main work, the six-volume Rhithmorum varietas: typi, exempla & modulationes rhythmorum opera & studia (MS, D-Mbs, 1646). It contains 2946 melodies, from simple folktunes to more sophisticated 16th- and 17th-century art songs (Gesellschaftslieder), all with thoroughbass accompaniment and systematically ordered for instruction in prosody and melodic writing. It is the most comprehensive collection of melodies of the Baroque era and important for its poems too.


C. Williams: ‘German Stanzas from Johannes Werlin’s “Rhythmorum Varietas”’, Modern Language Notes, xxxiii (1918), 146–50

M. Böhm: ‘J. Werlin, der Seeoner’, Bayerisches Jb für Volkskunde, iii (1952), 107–14

W. Salmen: ‘Das altdeutsche Lied in Johannes Werlins Sammlung von 1646’, Bayerisches Jb für Volkskunde, iv (1953), 133–5

R. Münster and H. Schmid: Musik in Bayern, i: Bayerische Musikgeschichte (Tutzing, 1972)

D. Hofmann: Die Rhithmorum varietas des Johannes Werlin aus Kloster Seeon (diss., U. of Augsburg, 1992)


Werlin [Werlinus], Johannes (ii)

(b Oettingen, nr Nördlingen; d ?Lindau, Lake Constance, c1680). German composer. He himself stated that he came from Oettingen. In 1636 he went to Lindau, where he taught at the grammar school for 40 years. He was highly active there in the field of church music: Riesch reported that Werlin gave almost 1200 pieces of music to the school and the church in 1665. His surviving output is typical of the period of transition from the age of the motet to the age of the sacred concerto. The pieces in Melismata sacra belong more to the realm of the sacred madrigal, whereas those in Psalmodiae novae can be regarded as sacred concertos. There are 22 of the latter, based on well-known Lutheran hymns, and in ten of them the cantus firmus appears in an old-fashioned manner in long note values in the tenor. But it can also be left out, for the pieces can be performed with smaller or larger forces depending on the circumstances. The music obviously originated in Werlin’s school activities, since he stated that it was ‘to be sung on weekdays’. Irenodiae consists of litanies which owe their existence to the ‘still very dangerous times’ of the Thirty Years War: they are scored for all possible combinations of two to four voices, including equal voices. The source of the texts, which are all German, is unknown, as is that of the Latin Melismata sacra; the latter seem to derive from the widespread mystical devotional literature of the early 17th century.


Melismata sacra … musicis modulis, 2–5vv, bc (org) (Nuremberg, 1644)

Irenodiae oder Friedensgesäng, das ist, Newe geistliche Concert … auff jetzo gebräuchliche italienische Invention, 2–4vv, bc (Ulm, 1644)

Psalmodiae novae oder geistliche Gesänge und Psalmen Davids, 1.Teil, 3vv, 2 vn, bc (org) (Ulm, 1648)

2 motets, 4vv, Threnodiae Heiderianae, in oratio parentalis … Danieli Heidero (Ulm, 1648)


M.B. Riesch: Lindauische Prediger- und Schulhistorie (MS, D-LI, 1739)

S. Kümmerle: Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, iv (Gütersloh, 1888–1895/R)

F. Eckert: Geschichte der Lateinschule Lindau (Lindau, 1928)


Werner, Christoph

(b Gottleuba, Saxony, 1617–18; d Danzig [now Gdańsk], bur. 9 Nov 1650). German composer. In some sources he is called Christian Werner but this, as Rauschning pointed out, is the result of confusion with Christian Meyer, Kantor at the Marienkirche, Danzig, during the period 1650–78. Nothing is known about his early musical education. He was substitute Kantor in 1646 and then Kantor from 1646 to 1650 at St Catherine's, Danzig. When the elder Kaspar Förster became ill he deputized for him as Kapellmeister of the Marienkirche, Danzig, and later applied for the position himself. In 1650, however, he was summoned to become vice-Kapellmeister of the Saxon electoral court in Dresden but died at the age of 32 before assuming the post. He was succeeded in Danzig by Crato Bütner. In the well-known dispute between Marco Scacchi and Paul Siefert he is represented by a letter contained in the former's Judicium cribri musici (c1649; lost, but manuscript transcript in I-Bc E50, ed. in Katz) in which he sided with Scacchi, who had addressed a long letter on the subject to him in about 1648 (D-Hs, ed. in Katz, 83). In the preface to his Musicalische Arien (1649) Werner further underlined his opposition to Siefert.

Werner's significance as a composer lies in the role he played in developing the German sacred ensemble song; during his brief career in Danzig his position was similar to that of Heinrich Albert in solo song composition in Königsberg. Parallel to the efforts of Johannes Maukisch and Thomas Strutz at Holy Trinity, Danzig, he worked with Michael Albinus at St Catherine's to produce folk-like sacred songs, which above all served the needs of school and home (it was through the activity of Pastor Albinus, along with that of Georg Weber (ii), that the cultivation of sacred songs was brought into close association with Danzig poetic circles such as the one around Martin Opitz). Werner's Praemessa musicalia (1646) consists of 15 small sacred concertos based on biblical and lyrical texts in both Latin and German. His most important work, Musicalische Arien, which was emulated in Strutz’s Hertzens-Andacht (1656), has texts by Pastor Albinus, reflecting the aim ‘that young people might be more practised and improved’. It contains 17 four-part sacred songs with simple, singable melodies; in the preface Werner stated that they might also be sung as solo songs. Such pieces played a part in the early development of the solo cantata.

Christoph's brother Friedrich Werner (b Gottleuba, 3 October 1621; d Dresden, 4 April 1667) was trained by Heinrich Schütz in Dresden, and spent the years 1633–5 in Denmark with him. He was employed in the Kapelle of the Electoral Prince Johann Georg of Saxony as a boy instrumentalist in 1637, and as a cornett player and alto singer in 1639. He was with Schütz in Denmark again between 1642 and 1647, and during the period 1647–8 he studied in Vienna with the imperial cornett player Giovanni Samsoni. When the prince succeeded as Elector Johann George II, Friedrich was appointed to the electoral Kapelle and became a principal instrumentalist in 1663. He obviously acted as go-between, both in obtaining Schütz's opinion in the dispute between Scacchi and Siefert, and in getting his brother Christoph appointed electoral vice-Kapellmeister. In the 1650s he provided the musical education of the younger Christoph Werner, who was a civic musician in Danzig in the years 1671–1701.


Praemessa musicalia in quibus motetae singulae, l, 2vv, 2, 3 str, bc (Königsberg, 1646), inc.

Glück-Wünschung … Michael Behm, 4vv, bc (Danzig, 1648), PL-GD

Christliche Klag-Ode über Ableiben Vladislai IV. Königs in Polen auffgesetzt von M.A. und musicalisch praesentiret von C.W. (Danzig, 1648); lost, text GD (according to Eitner)

Christlicher Freuden-Gesang über die Crönung J. Casimiri auffgesetzet von M[ichael] A[lbinus] und den 17. Jan 1649 musicalisch presentiret von C.W. (Danzig, 1649); lost, text GD (according to Eitner)

Musicalische Arien oder Melodeyen über etliche heutige Lieb- und Lob-Lieder Herrn M. Albinus, 4vv, bc (Königsberg, 1649)

1 work in 16514


Es erhub sich ein Streit, 12vv, wind insts, bc, D-Lr; An den Wassern zu Babel, 8vv, lost, formerly PL-GD

17 songs in D-Bsb cited in EitnerQ are by J.H. Schein or anon.



FürstenauG, i

MGG1 (M. Geck)

G. Döring: Zur Geschichte der Musik in Preussen (Elbing, 1852)

E. Katz: Die musikalischen Stilbegriffe des 17. Jahrhunderts (Augsburg, 1926)

H. Rauschning: Geschichte der Musik und Musikpflege in Danzig (Danzig, 1931)

C. Dahlhaus: ‘Cribrum musicum. Der Streit zwischen Scacchi und Siefert’, Norddeutsche und nordeuropäische Musik: Kiel 1963, 108–12

A. Kobuch: ‘Neue Sagittariana im Staatsarchiv Dresden’, Heinrich Schütz im Spannungsfeld seines und unseres Jahrhunderts: Dresden 1985, II, 119–62

W. Werbeck: ‘Heinrich Schütz und der Streit zwischen Marco Scacchi und Paul Siefert’, Schütz-Jb 1995, 63–79

M.E. Frandsen: ‘Allies in the Cause of Italian Music: Schütz, Prince Johann Georg II and Musical Politics in Dresden’, JRMA, cxxv (2000), 1–40


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