Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56



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Westlake, Nigel


(b Perth, 6 Sept 1958). Australian composer and clarinettist. Son of Donald Westlake, a former principal clarinettist of the Sydney SO, he studied the clarinet with his father. Among his composition teachers were Richard Meale, Richard Mills and Theo Lovendie. Noted for his breath control and for the strength of his tone, Westlake has led his own Magic Puddin’ Band (1980–83) and performed with ensembles including the Australia Ensemble (1987–92), resident at the University of New South Wales, and Attacca (1992), guitarist John Williams’s group. After making a special study of the bass clarinet with Harry Sparnaay in the Netherlands, he often used the instrument in his springy, energetic compositions, quickly making a reputation for himself with his music for theatre, film, concert hall, circus, television and radio. He served as radio composer-in-residence for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (1987) and was awarded the gold medal for best original music at the 1988 New York International Radio Festival. His reputation as a concert composer initially rested on such works as Onomatopoeia for bass clarinet and digital delay (1984), Omphalo Centric Lecture for four marimbas and percussion (1984) and Fabian Theory for marimba and digital delay (1987), compositions that feature minimalist and post-minimalist perpetuations of impulse, and intuitive melodic patterning. Entomology (1988) and Refractions at Summercloud Bay (1989), more extended works for mixed ensembles, display a greater variety of pulse and mood. Antarctica (1991) and Babe (1995) number among his film scores.

Principal publisher: Rimshot

Principal recording companies: Tall Poppies, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Vox Australis, Sony, Varèse Saraband

ROGER COVELL


Westminster.


American classical record company, founded in 1949 as the Westminster Recording Co. by James Grayson, Michael Naida and Henry Gage. Recordings made in New York and Vienna were issued in April 1950. Henry Swoboda conducted many of them, using the Vienna SO's own studio. By the end of the first year the label had established a solid reputation for quality of performance and engineering with Schubert's ‘Trout’ Quintet, Haydn's ‘Military’ Symphony and Bach's Mass in B minor, the last two conducted by Hermann Scherchen, who was identified with the label more than any other artist. Handel's Messiah and Bach's St Matthew Passion under Scherchen were early examples of Baroque performing practice that foreshadowed a later approach to early music. In 1951 Kurt List became the record producer.

The label penetrated the French market by exchange of masters with Selmer (later called Ducretet-Thomson) from 1952 and Véga from 1957. The label entered the British market by joint productions with Nixa from 1953. Some discs were also licensed from Erato, Argo, Melodiya and other firms. Success brought celebrated conductors to the label: Rodzinski, Leinsdorf (the complete Mozart symphonies), Boult, Monteux and Knappertsbusch. Badura-Skoda and Demus, singly and as a piano duo, and the Vienna Konzerthaus and Barylli quartets recorded regularly, and Julian Bream and Daniel Barenboim made their first records for the label. Stereo recording began in 1956, marketed first on open-reel tape and later on LP discs. Music of the Baroque and Classical periods dominated the catalogue, but all periods were broadly represented. The original owners sold their interest in December 1959, but the new owners sold the company to ABC Records a year and a half later. Recording continued in Vienna and elsewhere until 1965. The ABC labels were sold to MCA in 1979 and a new series of recordings as well as reissues appeared on the Westminster Gold label. MCA (USA), MCA Victor (Japan) and Millennium (UK) have reissued some items on CD.

JEROME F. WEBER

Westminster Choir College.


School of music in Princeton, New Jersey. It had its origins in a 60-voice choir at Dayton (Ohio) Westminster Church, formed in 1920 by John Finlay Williamson; in 1926 he began to offer training for music directors of Protestant churches. The school moved to Ithaca, New York, in 1929 and to Princeton in 1932. It merged with Rider University in 1991. Westminster Choir College has influenced American choral art through performances, recordings, broadcasts and publications. It offers a specialized programme, with strong emphasis on choral and sacred music. Enrolment in 1996 was approximately 400.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


L.H. Bristol: Westminster Choir College: a College of Music to Sing About (New York, 1965)

J. Beck: ‘Westminster Choir 1926–1976: Recordings as History’, Choral Journal, xvii/3 (1976), 9–11

C.H. Schisler: A History of Westminster Choir College, 1926–1973 (diss., Indiana U., 1976)

NINA DAVIS-MILLIS/R


Westmorland, 11th Earl of.


See Burghersh.

Westphal, Rudolf (Georg Hermann)


(b Obernkirchen, 3 July 1826; d Stadthagen, 10 July 1892). German writer on ancient Greek music. He studied at Marburg and held posts at Breslau (1857–62) and Moscow (1875–81), but for most of his life worked privately. Though he was trained as a comparative philologist, he devoted himself mainly to the study of Greek music, on which he wrote prolifically, his energetic and fertile mind ranging over the whole field. If he sometimes went beyond the evidence, as in his views about Greek polyphony, he was capable of changing his opinions. He stated and restated his views in a whole series of publications, but the most comprehensive treatment was given (in collaboration with August Rossbach) in Theorie der musischen Künste der Hellenen (1885–9). He also edited and translated the treatises of Aristoxenus and Pseudo-Plutarch (1866). He had a special interest in rhythm and metre, basing his theories on the work of Aristoxenus. Metrical studies have changed direction in the 20th century, and most of his theories in this area have fallen out of fashion.

WRITINGS


Die Fragmente und die Lehrsätze der griechischen Rhythmiker (Leipzig, 1861)

Harmonik und Melopöie der Griechen (Leipzig, 1863)

Allgemeine griechische Metrik (Leipzig, 1865)

System der antiken Rhythmik (Breslau, 1865)

ed. and trans.: Plutarch über die Musik (Breslau, 1866)

Griechische Rhythmik und Harmonik nebst der Geschichte der drei musischen Disziplinen (Leipzig, 1867)

ed. and trans.: Aristoxenos von Tarent: Melik und Rhythmik des classischen Hellenentums (Leipzig, 1883–93/R)

Die Musik des griechischen Alterthumes (Leipzig, 1883)

‘Mehrstimmigkeit oder Einstimmigkeit der griechischen Musik’, Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, iv (1884), 1–6, 33–6, 65–8, 97–103

‘Platos Beziehungen zur Musik’, Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, iv (1884), 513–18, 545–9, 609–11, 641–5, 673–7

with A. Rossbach: Theorie der musischen Künste der Hellenen, i–iii/1–2 (Leipzig, 3/1885–9/R)

‘Die aristoxenische Rhythmuslehre’, VMw, vii (1891), 74–107



Allgemeine Metrik der indogermanischen und semitischen Völker auf Grundlage der vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft (Berlin, 1892)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


H. Gleditsch: ‘Rudolf Westphal’, Biographisches Jb für Altertumskunde, xviii (1895), 40–90 [incl. further list of writings]

R.P. WINNINGTON-INGRAM/THOMAS J. MATHIESEN




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