Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Weyts, Nicasius

(fl early 15th century). Theorist. He was a Carmelite friar, perhaps of the Netherlands, who probably lived in Italy. His brief treatise, Regule (ed. in CoussemakerS, iii, 262–4), is appended to the manuscript I-FZc 117 (pp.58–9), known as the Bonadies Codex. It also appears in a Bologna manuscript, I-Bc A 32. Describing the note forms of early 15th-century mensural music, including semiminims and void semiminims called crome, Weyts outlined the principles of mensuration as expounded by Johannes de Muris. He mentioned, but did not explain, the breve with a downward tail on the left. Near the end are the normal mensuration signs showing the relation between minim and semibreve (prolation) and semibreve and breve (time), followed by numerals indicating the number of breves to the long (mood) and longs to the maxima (maximodus). Two final paragraphs on the tone and semitone seem foreign to the treatise.


MGG1 (‘Bonadies’; C. van den Borren)

C. van den Borren: ‘Le codex de Johannes Bonadies, musicien du XVe siècle’, Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art, x (1940), 251–61, esp. 256

D. Plamenac: ‘A Note on the Rearrangement of Faenza Codex 117’, JAMS, xvii (1964), 78–81


Whaley, Royce & Co.

Canadian publisher, instrument maker and dealer. It was founded in Toronto in 1888 by Eri Whaley and G.C. Royce, with a branch in Winnipeg 1889–1922. Its earliest publications were deposited at the copyright office in 1890 and by 1920 the firm’s output (c1500 pieces) surpassed that of all other Canadian music publishers. Unlike most of its competitors, Whaley, Royce & Co. owned a printing plant and functioned also as a job printer. Evidence of the firm’s enterprise is contained in its Descriptive and Select Catalogue of Sheet Music and Music Books published and for sale by Whaley, Royce & Co.(1895). Besides the usual popular and light classical repertory, the company published serious works including a piano arrangement of Sibelius’s Finlandia (1894) and Rhakmaninov’s Prelude op.3 no.2 (1923), as well as the music of many Canadian composers, notably R.S. Ambrose, Gena Branscombe, W.O. Forsyth, C.A.E. Harriss and Clarence Lucas. Calling itself ‘Canada’s Greatest Music House’, the firm also produced songbooks, operatic vocal scores, cantatas and oratorios, educational music and two periodicals. Its publishing activities waned considerably from 1920 and had virtually ceased, apart from reprints, by 1940. From the beginning Whaley, Royce & Co. also sold a wide variety of band instruments, pianos and organs, and manufactured brass and percussion instruments until 1975. (EMC2 (H. Kallman))



English firm of music publishers and instrument makers. Although supposedly established in London about 1750, the earliest identifiable figure in the business was Charles Wheatstone (1768–1823), who came from a Gloucester family, and who was active in London from about 1791. The firm was known as Wheatstone & Co. from about 1815. Charles's brother William (b Gloucester, 17 Aug 1775; d London, 12 July 1854) moved with his family to London in 1806, where he became a flute teacher and manufacturer and music seller on his own account from about 1813, holding patents for improvements to the instrument. He also published a number of books of airs for the flute.

His sons, the future Sir Charles Wheatstone (b Gloucester, 6 Feb 1802; d Paris, 19 Oct 1875) and William Dolman (b Gloucester, 1804; d London, 30 Aug 1862) entered their uncle's business, which they took over following his death, and William senior then amalgamated his own business with theirs about 1826. From his youth onwards the younger Charles's attention was largely directed towards scientific subjects, including optics, sound vibrations and electricity. He was famous for his inventions in telegraphy, but he also invented the English Concertina, the patents for which were taken out between 1829 and 1844 and held by the Wheatstone firm for many years. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was knighted in 1868.

The Wheatstone firm published a prodigious amount of sheet music, mostly of a popular nature but including several interesting collections of glees such as The Naval and Convivial Vocal Harmonist (c1807). It also did an extensive trade as makers of and dealers in musical instruments, especially concertinas.

The firm's fortunes declined during the 20th century, and the concertina business was acquired by Besson & Co. about 1944, that firm being itself taken over by Boosey & Hawkes in 1948. Small-scale production of Wheatstone concertinas was maintained until the mid-1970s, when the name, machinery and stock were sold off to Steve Dickinson, who continued to manufacture instruments under the Wheatstone trade mark.




W.G. Adams: ‘On the Musical Inventions and Discoveries of the Late Sir Charles Wheatstone, F.R.S’, PMA, ii (1875–6), 85–91

R.S. Rockstro: A Treatise on the Construction, the History and the Practice of the Flute (London, 1890, 2/1928/R)

B. Bowers: Sir Charles Wheatstone (London, 1975)

N. Wayne: ‘The Wheatstone English Concertina’, GSJ, xliv (1991), 117–49

A.W. Atlas: The Wheatstone English Concertina in Victorian England (Oxford, 1996)


Wheeler, Paul.

See Polewheel.

Wheeler, Scott

(b Washington DC, 24 Feb 1952). American composer and conductor. He studied at Amherst College, the New England Conservatory and Brandeis University (PhD 1984); his principal teachers included Arthur Berger, Harold Shapero and Malcolm Peyton. He pursued further study at the Tanglewood Music Center, the Dartington School (with Peter Maxwell Davies) and privately with Virgil Thomson. In 1975 he co-founded Dinosaur Annex, a chamber ensemble devoted to the performance of contemporary music; he became the group's sole artistic director in 1982. The ensemble has given the US premières of works by composers such as Davies, Judith Weir, Philip Grange and Anthony Powers. In 1989 Wheeler joined the music department at Emerson College, Boston, where he has also worked as a music director in the theatre department. His honours include a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (1988–9) and a fellowship from the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1994).

Wheeler's compositions remain tonally grounded, although polychordal harmonies and elements of modified serialism often run through his works. His writing is also characterized by strong rhythms and lucid textures. His vocal works are distinguished by clear, natural text settings, refined expressivity and wit. The dramatic cantata, The Construction of Boston (1988) reveals a sure theatrical sensibility.



The Construction of Boston (dramatic cant., K. Koch), solo vv, chorus, chbr orch, 1988, rev. 1989 [arr. 2 pfmrs]; Maryushka and Baba Yaga (incid music, C. Korty), 1994


Orch: Northern Lights, sym., 1987; Four Corners, 1990; The Little Dragon (J. O’Callahan), nar, chbr ens, orch, 1991; Louise, the Rhinoceros who was Born to Dance (J. Levy), nar, orch, 1995

Chbr: Pocket Conc., fl, pic cl, cl, b cl, perc, pf, vn, va, vc, 1984, orchd 1985; Sonata, vn, pf, 1984; Night Owl Variations, fl, cl, vc, perc, 1985; Lyric Variations, vn, mar, 1986; Winter Hills, vc, perc, pf, 1987; Brass Qnt, 1989; Sea Surface Full of Clouds, ob, bn, tpt, trbn, perc, pf, vn, db, 1989, rev. 1990; Shadow Bands, vn, va, vc, 1990; Dragon Mountain, vn, va, vc, pf 1992; Village Music, wind qnt, 1993; Str Qt, 1994; Illyrian Rounds, ob, vn, va, vc, 1996; Trio no.2, vn, vc, pf, 1996

Pf: Grey Gardens, 1977; Chanson singeresse, 1978; Flow Chart, 1993; 3 Birthdays and a Portrait, 1996; Artist Proofs, 1998

Arrs.: works by V. Thomson, L. Anderson


Choral: Peter Quince at the Clavier (W. Stevens), SATB/SSA, pf, 1976; A Babe is Born (anon.), SATB, 1979; Peace (H. Vaughan), SATB, pf/org, 1982; Cathedral Psalm (Ps ix), 1986; Cantate, laudate (Ps cxlviii), SATB, opt. children's chorus, orch, 1990; Whiskers and Rhymes (A. Lobel, J. Prelutsky), 5 songs, tr chorus, perc, pf, str, 1991; The Angle of the Sun (cant., Veni Creator Spiritus, M. Van Doren, P. Goodman), Mez, Bar, chorus, orch, 1994; Prayer of St Teresa (St Teresa of Avila), unison tr vv, pf/org, 1996

Solo: Singing to Sleep (anon., R.M. Rilke, R. Jarrell, W.H. Auden), 1984; Wasting the Night (E. St Vincent Millay), S/Mez, pf, 1990; Serenata (M. Van Doren), T, gui, 1991 [arr. Bar, pf, 1993]


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