Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wagner, József

(b Stockerau, 1791; d after 1860). Hungarian music publisher, seller of books and printed music, and lithographer. He settled in Hungary in his youth as a cellist at the German theatre in Pest, but in 1837 ill-health obliged him to abandon his musical career, and after two years of uncertainty he opened his shop ‘Musical Merchandise’ in Pest. Besides working as a publisher he participated keenly in the musical life of the city, being closely connected with the Pest-Buda Musical Association; as early as 1837 he submitted to it his draft of a pension scheme for artists, which however was ‘temporarily set aside’. The contemporary press criticized him for his anti-Hungarian attitude but mentioned with approval that ‘at the time of the last Polish uprising he showed sympathy and helped the refugees’. His firm published works by the leading Hungarian composers (e.g. Ferenc Erkel’s Hungarian national anthem and opera Hunyadi László and Béni Egressy’s Szózat). Unfortunately he did not establish the sequence of his publications: some have only a number (notably works of 1840–44), some have only his initials (J.W., I.W., W.I., W.J.P.) and some are unnumbered, marked by letters of the alphabet (B, C, D, Dd, O etc., particularly in 1844–9). Surviving issues with a regular publisher’s plate number (e.g. J.W.41–1846) apparently do not exceed 200, and these appeared only between 1846 and 1858. The chronology of the firm’s activities is equally difficult to determine. For some time another member of the family, Ferenc Wagner, was involved in the management; some publications were issued under his name. After the music printing firm was sold to the publishers Rózsavölgyi és Társa in 1858, József Wagner dealt solely in lithography.


K. Isoz: Zeneműkereskedelem és kiadás a régi Pest-Budán [Music trade and publication in old Pest-Buda] (Budapest, 1941)

I. Mona: Hungarian Music Publication 1774–1867 (Budapest, 1973)

I. Mona: Magyar zeneműkiadók és tevékenységük 1774–1867 [Hungarian music publishers and their activity] (Budapest, 1989)


Wagner, Peter (Josef)

(b Kürenz, nr Trier, 19 Aug 1865; d Fribourg, 17 Oct 1931). German musicologist and medievalist. He studied under Michael Hermesdorff at the Cathedral music school in Trier (1876–86), and at the University of Strasbourg he studied classics and then musicology (under Jacobsthal), taking the doctorate in 1890 with a dissertation on Palestrina as a secular composer. He continued his studies in Berlin with Bellermann and Spitta. In 1893 he was appointed lecturer in music history and church music at the University of Fribourg, where he remained for 38 years, becoming professor (1902) and rector (1920–21). Under the patronage of Pope Leo XIII Wagner founded the Académie Grégorienne at the university in 1901; under its auspices a series of more than 20 monographs on medieval chant was published. In 1904 Wagner was appointed to the Pontifical Commission for the preparation of the Editio Vaticana chant books. During the ensuing controversy surrounding their publication, Wagner staunchly defended the principles of restoration used by the board of editors. He was a member of many scholarly societies, and in 1927 was elected first president of the International Musicological Society.

Wagner’s lifetime work, Einführung in die gregorianischen Melodien, is the first comprehensive survey of medieval chant based on modern musicological research methods. It covers the liturgical origins and development of Mass and Office chants, the palaeography of chant notations and the musical forms of chant melodies. Wagner was a leading figure among the mensuralists. In his earlier studies he was sympathetic to the theories of free rhythmic interpretation of Gregorian chant melodies proposed by Pothier of the Solesmes school, but in an article in the Peters Jahrbuch (for 1910) he reversed his position and advocated a mensural theory of neumes of set rhythmic values. The virga recta and virga jacens, according to Wagner, had long metrical values which, in transcription, equal crotchets; the punctum was of short duration equivalent to a quaver. Wagner applied his theories to all medieval musical notations, not just the comparatively few St Gallen and Messine manuscripts which have rhythmic indications. Towards the end of his life Wagner published a series of important studies on medieval Spanish chant, especially on the music in the Calixtinus Manuscript and the responsorial psalm tones of the Mozarabic Office.


Palestrina als weltlicher Komponist (diss., U. of Strasbourg; repr. in VMw, viii (1892), 423–98, as ‘Das Madrigal und Palestrina’)

Francesco Petrarca Vergini in der Komposition des Cipriano de Rore (Leipzig, 1893)

Einführung in die gregorianischen Melodien: ein Handbuch der Choralwissenschaft, i: Ursprung und Entwicklung der liturgischen Gesangsformen bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters (Fribourg, 1895, 3/1911/R; Eng. trans., 1901); ii: Neumenkunde: Paläographie des liturgischen Gesanges (Fribourg, 1905, 2/1912/R); iii: Gregorianische Formenlehre: eine choralische Stilkunde (Leipzig, 1921/R)

‘Le manuscrit 383 de la bibliothèque de Saint-Gall’, RHCM, ii (1902), 289–304

‘Über den gegenwärtigen Stand der mittelalterlichen Musikforschung’, IMusSCR II: Basle 1906, 161–5

Der Kampf gegen die Editio Vaticana (Graz, 1907); Eng. trans. in Caecilia, lxxxvii (Omaha, NE, 1960), 10–44

‘Zur mittelalterlichen Offiziumkomposition’, KJb, xxi (1908), 13–32

Elemente des gregorianischen Gesanges: zur Einführung in die Vatikanische Choralausgabe (Regensburg, 1909)

O Roma nobilis’, KJb, xxii (1909), 1–16

‘Zur Rhythmik der Neumen’, JbMP 1910, 13–28

Geschichte der Messe, i: bis 1600 (Leipzig, 1913/R)

‘Über die Messen des Jakob Handl’, Musica divina, i (1913), 93

‘Ein bedeutsamer Fund zur Neumengeschichte’, AMw, i (1918–19), 516–34

Einführung in die katholische Kirchenmusik: Vorträge gehalten an der Universität Freiburg in der Schweiz für Theologen und andere Freunde kirchlicher Musik (Düsseldorf, 1919)

‘Zur Musikgeschichte der Universität’, ZMw, iii (1922–3), 1–16

‘Der gregorianische Gesang’, AdlerHM

‘Germanisches und Romanisches im frühmittelalterlichen Kirchengesang’, Deutsche Musikgesellschaft: Kongress I: Leipzig 1925, 21–34

Universität and Musikwissenschaft: Rede (Leipzig, 1925)

‘Aus der Frühzeit des Liniensystems’, AMw, viii (1926), 259–76 [study of an 11th-century antiphonal, now US-BE 746]

‘Über die Anfänge des mehrstimmigen Gesanges’, ZMw, ix (1926–7), 2–7

‘Ästhetik des gregorianischen Gesanges’, Kongress für Kirchenmusik: Berlin 1927, 71–80

‘Über Agnus Dei-Tropen’, Musica divina, xv (1927), 43

‘Der mozarabische Kirchengesang und seine Überlieferung’, Spanische Forschungen der Görresgesellschaft, 1st ser.: Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kulturgeschichte Spaniens, i, ed. H. Finke (Münster, 1928), 102–41

‘Untersuchungen zu den Gesangstexten und zur responsorialen Psalmodie der altspanischen Liturgie’, Spanische Forschungen der Görresgesellschaft, 1st ser.: Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kulturgeschichte Spaniens, ed. H. Finke (Münster, 1930), 67–113


Das Graduale der St. Thomaskirche zu Leipzig (14. Jh.) als Zeuge deutscher Choralüberlieferung, Publikationen älterer Musik, v (Leipzig, 1930); vii (1932) [partial facs. of a gradual and proser]

Die Gesänge der Jakobusliturgie zu Santiago de Compostela aus dem sog. Codex Calixtinus (Fribourg, 1931)


K. Weinmann, ed.: Festschrift Peter Wagner zum 60. Geburtstag (Leipzig, 1926/R) [incl. bibliographical material]

J.S. Handschin: ‘Peter Wagner und die Choralwissenschaft’, SMz, lxxi (1931), 861–4; repr. in Gedenkschrift Jacques Handschin, ed. H. Oesch (Berne and Stuttgart, 1957), 395–7

K. Jeppesen: ‘Peter Wagner in memoriam’, AcM, iii (1931), 145–7

J. Wolf: ‘Zum Tode Peter Wagners’, ZMw, xiv (1931–2), 65–7

P. Schuh: ‘Peter Wagner, ein Trierer von internationalem Ruf’, Trierisches Jb (1962); repr. in Musica sacra, lxxxiii (1963), 114


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