Angola has a significant training infrastructure with 216 centres, (170 privately owned - 78,7 %), a total training capacity for 15500 trainees at one time, of which about 75% is currently being used. The Coastal provinces of Luanda, Benguela, Bengo and Namibe represent more than three quarters of the total training capacity (77%). For details of the assessment of Angolan training providers, see annex 1.
The National Institute for Employment and Vocational Training (INEFOP) is a public institute under the control of the Ministry of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security (MAPESS). INEFOP is the body governing vocational training and employment in Angola, it offers services within all the 18 provinces and governs directly a network of 24 vocational training centres (VTC), 4 integrated employment and vocational training centres and 46 employment centres.
A.2. The Problems to be addressed
The Angolan vocational training system faces serious constraints limiting its capacity to provide skills to support the productive development of the country. The main problems are:
Concentration, geographical and sectoral. The training capacity is mainly concentrated in Luanda (around 60% of the total training capacity) while the number of training providers is very limited in the interior of the country and inexistent in rural areas; vocational training for the service sector concentrates an important part of the offer (65%), and this trend is even more accentuated in the case of the private sector. Training is offered through formal providers with limited use of alternative delivery mechanisms such as mobile training units, traditional apprenticeships and on-the-job training.
Depletion of assets.For those providing training for the productive sector, there is a lack of qualified human resources (managers and trainers), fixed assets (equipment and tools) and working capital (consumables). This contributes to a situation where there is a predominance of low-quality training, while the high level of investment required to rehabilitate training institutions (whose infrastructure have been depleted by the war and instability) means that investments in vocational training are perceived as expensive. Cost recovery remains a challenge.
Scarce market linkages. The training provided by the public sector is mainly supply driven, with weak linkages to the private sector in terms of planning, monitoring and evaluation. The Employment Offices that could play an important role in establishing close linkages between training providers and enterprises are primarily focused on registration of job seekers and employment offers (more reactive than proactive). The absence of institutionalized, regular, feedback mechanisms limits improvements to training quality, and impact evaluations.
A.3 Past initiatives and lessons learnt
The implementation of previous programs and projects such as the PAFDE -Training for Ex-combatants, implemented by UNDP/ILO (Bicesse, 1991-92), the subsequent UNDP/ILO project to support the reintegration of ex-combatants (Lusaka, 1996-99) and the Medium Term Development Program for Vocational Training (PROFOR, 1994), have provided lessons and orientations regarding the relevancy and impact of training to support private sector development:
The need to involve the entrepreneurial sector in the different steps of training (planning, implementation and follow-up) to ensure relevance and effectiveness;
The importance of developing training initiatives based on sound market studies, making training a key tool for the success of entrepreneurial initiatives;
The call for better information in relation to training needs, offer and effectiveness;
Improvement of training delivery can only succeed if appropriate feedback mechanisms for the trainees are in place;
Training is not the end of the process but a mean to increase the employability of the beneficiaries therefore a close linkage should be established between provision of training and entrepreneurial development;
The need for a permanent evaluation of the impact of training as measured in terms of its relevancy to the development of the entrepreneurial sector and/or the employability of its beneficiaries.
A.4. Development Objective (Relevant Outcome)
The objective of this component is to strengthen the supply of vocational training and re-direct it towards the market. A program will be developed based upon an in-depth national market study, which will focus on investing in diversifying the supply of training, strengthening the providers, and introducing market-oriented mechanisms and testing a variety of delivery and supply mechanisms –NGOs, private sector institutions, community and church associations.
A.5 National Institutional and Legal Framework
Since 1992, an appropriate framework for vocational training has been created, which provided the necessary basis for the development of the sector. Important legal tools concerning vocational training are the following:
Law nº 21-A/92
Defines the basis of the National Vocational Training System that, taking into consideration the importance of the qualification of human resources for the social and economic development of the country, creates a national system based on the recommendations of the International Labour Organisation (ILO).
Decree Law nº 39- A/92
Establishes a Fund for the financing of vocational training based upon a contribution by the enterprises of 2% of the total volume of the salaries paid to their employees, restricted to those with more than 50 employees.
Decree Law nº 39- D/92
Creates the National Institute for Vocational Training (INAFOP) as a tripartite autonomous institution under the dependence of the Ministry of Education, governing the vocational training developed in the country by public and private institutions.
Decree Law nº 40/95
Transfers the INAFOP from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security (MAPESS).
Decree Law nº8/96
Establishes the regulation for the creation of private agencies of placement.
Decree Law nº 16/98
Approves the Rules for the establishment and recognition of Vocational Training Centres.
Decree Law nº34/98
Creates and approves the statute of the National Employment and Vocational Training Institute (INEFOP) and extinguishes the INAFOP created by the Decree Law nº 39- D/92.
The recognized training providers are governed by different type of institutions of which:
The geographical coverage of the training suppliers is the following:
Nº. of suppliers
The main handicap faced by the training system in Angola is not related to the lack of a regulatory framework, but to the relevancy and effectiveness of the training delivered. The intervention of this component aims to improve the quality of the training provided to support the development of the private sector in selected areas. Furthermore, the Ministry of the Public Administration, Employment and Social Security and its Institute (INEFOP) and the employer’s associations will be key partners in the implementation of the present programme but from private sector and civil society organizations will be engaged in the development and implementation of the training programs and activities.
A.6. Intended Beneficiaries
The project has two sets of stakeholders: Direct beneficiaries will be the unskilled citizens benefiting from training services offered by the training providers; public and private suppliers of training. Indirect beneficiaries will be the private sector, the families of the trained citizens and the communities where economic activities will be promoted by private agents.
PART I.B. STRATEGY
B.1 National Commitment to achieving the Outcome
The government has been fully engaged in the process of economic diversification through the development of the private sector: it has launched a national program for the promotion of economic activities, which aims to train vulnerable unemployed, and offer support in establishing small businesses (through the provision of inputs such as tool-kits and working capital). The Angolan authorities consider that a strong cooperation/partnership should be established with the Angola Enterprise Program in order to create synergies and complementarities while preventing overlapping.
The Government of Angola considers that vocational training is crucial to enhance employability of unemployed citizens and support economic revival. Flexible and cost-effective short-cycle training should be made available, especially for the promotion of self-employment and the acquiring of skills needed for reconstruction and economic rehabilitation, with a focus on private sector development. The training should be flexible in order to respond to the local business opportunities and involve a wide range of training providers such as companies, skilled artisans, government training institutions, public and private co-operation facilities, religious groups, other NGOs and bilateral bodies.
B. 2 Strategy for the use of AEP resources
The project is consistent with the UNDP mandate in so far as it helps countries in their efforts to achieve sustainable human development. Further, the component is in line with the 2002 Common Country Assessment6 as it addresses one of the six constraints that hold back development of the economy: the low level of education and lack of skills among the majority of the labor force. It will also contribute to the Government’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy.
The guidelines of the component are the following:
Promoting sustainable institutions and working through existing players (government, NGOs, private sector)
Prioritization of women participation
Promotion of market oriented training
Mobilization of additional resources.
The strategy for the use of program resources will be implemented as follows:
Key sectors which offer most promising development prospects for the private sector will be identified in close cooperation with private sector and employers associations;
A capacity building exercise will be conducted to strengthen the training of those skills considered essential to support the development of the private sector in the selected sectors;
By assuring a full involvement of the private sector and employers’ associations, the component will help to create the required environment for an increased relevancy and effectiveness of the training delivered;
The component will support Government efforts to improve the information relating to the demand and supply of training;
Systematic Performance Evaluation mechanisms will be established to increase the number of training impact-evaluations and by doing so, improve the quality and relevancy of future training delivery;
Close coordination with the other program components – business centers, micro credit and business incubators – will amplify the impact of the impact of the training provided in terms of contribution to the development of the private sector;
With the UNDP aim of ensuring sustainability of the activities, the planning, monitoring and evaluation of activities are designed with a participatory approach and consensus orientation, based on indicators that are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and tractable;
Furthermore, in a bid to reinforce synergies and avoid duplications, UNDP resources will also contribute to the creation of complementarities with other Government programs, such as the Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-combatants.
According to the Angolan economic context, potential fields of vocational training could be:
Skills related to rural non-farm activities upstream and downstream of agricultural production (production/repair of agricultural tools, rural trade, foodstuff processing/preserving, manufacturing of soap, kitchen utensils, ceramics, wickerwork and leather goods...).
All skills related to small-scale construction (carpenters, bricklayers, locksmiths, and electricians, blacksmiths, welders, plumbers, painters, tillers, and brick makers, whitewash makers...);
Skills related to the transportation of people and goods (mechanics, auto-electricians, panel beaters, tyre repair, motorbike repair, and battery repair, etc.);
Skills related to mechanical and electrical maintenance (refrigeration technicians, radio repair, household appliance repairs...);
Skills related to restaurants, retailers and handicrafts (tailors, shoemakers, photographers, hairdressers…);