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Presidents’ Views?

Truman—containment Eisenhower—domino theory /brinkmanship

Kennedy—flexible response Johnson—domino theory Nixon—détente/normalization Ford—détente Carter—negotiation/human rights Reagan—Reagan Doctrine Bush—End of the Cold War

Europe Marshall Plan-economic support for rebuilding of war-torn European countries Berlin Airlift-Western countries support of West Berlin during Soviet blockade Berlin Wall- kept East Germans from West Berlin

SOVIET UNION

Sputnik—1957 TURNING POINT! Ignites Space Race Arms Race-buildup of weapons between U.S. & Soviet Union Breakup of U.S.S.R.1991

China

Mao Zedong — What happened in 1949? China became communist

Korean War Containment Reasons: communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea; U.S. intervened

Outcomes: halted North Korean aggression

Korean War Reasons: Outcomes:



Vietnam—What was the importance of each? Domino Theorysupported U.S. involvement against communist North Vietnam’s takeover of South Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress voted to give Johnson power to militarily stop North Vietnam’s aggression Escalation/combatJohnson increased troop commitment following Gulf of Tonkin; challenges of combat Roy Benavidezreceived Congressional Medal of Honor for valor in rescuing wounded platoon members Tet Offensive massive attack by Vietcong which led to anti-war movement sentiment Anti-War Movementdiscontent about war caused by Tet Offensive, credibility gap, and drawn out conflict Vietnamization— Nixon’s policy to withdraw U.S. troops while attempting to negotiate peace & give S.Vietnamese control. Fall of SaigonNorth Vietnam took over South Vietnam in 1975; country united under communism War Powers Resolution—set limits on President’s powers to commit U.S. troops in a conflict

CUBA


Fidel Castro—Which form of government? Communist supported by Soviet Union

Bay of Pigs Invasion—Why? U.S., supported Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow Castro which failed; seen as a foreign policy failure

Cuban Missile Crisis—What happened? Soviet missiles in Cuba -Kennedy ordered a naval blockade. After several days of tension, Soviet Union removed the weapons. Kennedy removed U.S. missiles from Turkey

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1950’s

Housing Boom

Growth of the—



suburbs

Levittown

1950’s Conformity Post-War prosperity led to economic growth for many Americans and pursuit of the American dream.


Baby Boom

What was the impact?



increased number of babies born following WWII provided economic boom

Transportation

Interstate Highway Act



supported economic expansion

Migration



Moved South and West

Business Growth

Franchises (McDonalds)

Communication (TV)

Science

Polio & Measles vaccine

Advances in surgery

Pop Culture—

Rock & Roll


What caused this prosperity?

Increased consumption/spending

Economic prosperity

More leisure time

Non-Conformist Ideas



GI Bill/Servicemen’s Readjustment Act provided

Low cost mortgages

Money for college

What impact did this have?



  • increased demand for homes and goods; growth of suburbs

  • increased education; job opportunities

Fear of Communism

”E Pluribus Unum” motto meaning—out of many comes one—became official in 1956

“In God We Trust” national motto adopted in 1956

Religious resurgence

Growth of churches



Beat Generation

Jack Kerouac

Rebelled against conformity





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INSTRUCTIONS:

Review the events by providing the importance of each.

George Wallace

Orval Faubus

Lester Maddox

Southern Democrats

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Road to the Civil Rights Movement



Legislation/Landmark Court Cases

Civil War Amendments:



  • 13thabolished slavery



  • 14thgranted citizenship to all persons born in U.S.



  • 15th gave African American men the right to vote

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) established the constitutionality of “separate-but-equal”

Mendez v. Westminster (1947)



court stated Hispanic students could not be segregated in California

Executive Order 9981, (1948)



abolished segregation in the military (Truman)

Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D. (1948)



Texas case that ruled segregation of Hispanic students illegal

Sweatt v. Painter (1950)



Supreme Court decision against UT for establishing a separate law school for African Americans




Legislation (cont.)

Hernandez v. Texas (1954)



stated that Hispanics could not be excluded from juries

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ruled segregation in public schools illegal

Civil Rights Act of 1957 — Eisenhower’s effort to expand voting rights for African Americans

Civil Rights Act of 1964 — prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or ethnicity in the workplace

24th Amendment — (prohibited poll taxes in federal elections)

1965 Voting Rights Act — ended poll taxes and literacy tests to prevent discrimination in voting practices

Affirmative Action (1965) increased minority representation in colleges some businesses

Edgewood ISD v. Kirby (1984) —



court ruled Texas must revise its school funding system




Events

Founding of NAACP (1909)—W.E.B. DuBois —

Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56)—

year- long protest over segregated bus system in Montgomery, Alabama

Little Rock Nine (1957) 9 African American students who were escorted by federal troops to Central High School to enforce integration

Sit-Ins (1960-61) peaceful protests against segregated lunch counters

Freedom Rides (1961)— efforts to end segregation on public transportation by interracial groups riding buses

James Meredith (`1962)— federal troops sent to support integration of University of Mississippi

Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963)-



outlined Dr. King’s views on civil disobedience as means to enact change

March on Washington (1963)



MLK gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech

Selma March (1965) protest march for voting rights that helped gather support for Voting Rights Act of 1965 because of white violence





Status Quo”

Existing System




Civil Rights Movement

INSTRUCTIONS: Review the different approaches and leadership of various reform efforts by completing the organizer

African Americans

Women

Hispanic Americans

American Indian

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Civil Disobedience —



peaceful protest of unjust laws

Influenced by —



  • Gandhi

Gathered widespread support by —

  • speeches

  • writings

  • peaceful protests

Famous Quotes/Speeches

  • I Have a Dream”



  • Letter from a Birmingham jail

Turning Point —

  • Assassinated 1968

Malcolm X

Views —


  • questioned the views of Dr. King and became a symbol of black power movement along with Stokely Carmichael

Influenced by —



  • later broke away from the organization

Assassinated 1965

Black Panthers

Views —


  • believed a revolution was needed to gain equal rights



  • more militant

Community –based political organization—



  • attempted to provide greater local opportunities for African Americans

Leaders—

  • Huey Newton

  • Eldridge Cleaver

Betty Friedan

wrote — The Femine Mystique

National Organization for Women (NOW)


  • formed in 1966 to promote women’s rights

Gloria Steinam —

Ms Magazine

Roe v. Wade (1973)

legalized —



abortion

Equal Pay Act —



Title IX (1972) —

  • banned discrimination against females in educational institutions

Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta

led the United —



Farm Workers

(UFW)


  • Boycotts

Hector P. Garcia started GI Forum for —

Veterans

rights.


LULAC —

  • League of United Latin American Citizens created to fight Hispanic discrimination

La Raza Unida —

  • political party organization in Texas to mobilize Hispanic voters

Chicano Mural Movement —

  • art work to promote Hispanic culture during 1960s




American Indian Movement (AIM) —

  • attempt to call attention to Native American discrimination



  • Alcatraz



  • Wounded Knee

Introduced term Native American

and


brought attention to discrimination and bias

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Winds of Social Change (1960’s)

  • Connect the kite with the correct photo and then add a caption

  • Then complete the information in each kite.

Brought renewed hope

Peace Corps

“Ask not what your

country can do for

you, but what you can do for your



country.”

New Frontier

Space Race —U.S. on Moon

Promoted space program

Improved lives as a result

—Advances in technology

—Communication

—New products

—GPS

Some adopted attitude of rebellion



Challenged materialism and the “establishment”

Youth Culture



Led to —

New lifestyles — communes, hippies

New fashion

Use of illegal drugs

Music

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Domestic Program



War on Poverty

Programs created to give economic opportunity

—Medicare/Medicaid helped the elderly and poor access health care

—Head Start/Child Nutrition Act

Programs were costly/expanded role of government

Miranda v. Arizona

Immigration Act of 1965

DOVES HAWKS

Credibility gap —lack of trust caused by differences seen between reality of war and government statements Pentagon Papers —revealed government officials questioned war while publicly supporting it Draft —caused anti-war sentiment 26t h Amendment — lowered voting age to 18 Role of the media— presented reality of war Silent Majority— citizens who supported Nixon but were not outspoken

Great Society Anti-War Movement


Report Card on the 1970s Presidents

President

Describe the topic or event

Give them a Grade

Example:

Nixon-R


Détente

Nixon’s foreign policy to relax Cold War tension with the Soviet Union and China through diplomacy



A

Nixon

Normalization in Relations with China

Foreign policy designed to open communication with China by restoring diplomatic relations




Nixon

First Amendment Rights

Tinker v. Des Moines (1968): 1st Amendemt free speech case supporting students’ rights to wear anti-war armbands Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972): Amish parents freedom of religion protected against state requirement for school attendance




Nixon

Environmental Protection Act (EPA) / Endangered Species Act

Environmental Protection Act (EPA): Law that sets air/water pollution standards Endangered Species Act: Protection of plants/animals that face extinction




Nixon

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

Approved by Congress in 1972 but not ratified by the states




Nixon

War Powers Act

Set limits on presidential power to commit U.S. troops in a conflict without Congress’ approval




Nixon

Fall of Saigon

Following U.S. withdrawal, North Vietnam took over South Vietnam and united the country under communism




Nixon

Watergate Scandal

Political scandal that began with a break-in at Democratic Party headquarters; escalated into a Nixon cover-up, included Oval Office tapes; ended with Nixon’s resignation




Ford-R

Pardon of Nixon

Effort to put the Watergate Scandal behind by pardoning Nixon angered some Americans




Carter-D

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Formed by oil producing countries in 1960 to manage global oil prices

Department of Energy Organized to deal with the oil crisis






Carter

Community Reinvestment Act

Required banks to offer loans in all communities to support inner city restoration




Carter

Panama Canal Treaty

Agreement resumed control of the Canal Zone to Panama with full control of canal given by 2000




Carter

Camp David Accords

Historic peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel




Carter

Iran Hostage Crisis

American hostages taken in Iran by students angry over U.S. support of the Shah and for supporting Israel










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