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Republican (1981-1989)

  • Won using conservative ideas (remember Goldwater 1964) and optimism

  • What was Reaganomics? Reagan’s economic policy which included tax cuts and reduced business regulations to help increase supply of products (supply-side economics)

  • What was “Peace through Strength”?

Foreign policy which increased military spending as a means to prevent conflict

  • How was the U.S. involved in the Iran-Contra Affair? U.S. officials secretly sold weapons to Iran and then profits were sent to support anti-communist “contra” rebels in Nicaragua.

  • Why were U.S. Marines in Lebanon? To restore order during conflict between Christians and Palestinians – U.S. Military barracks were bombed

  • Appointed Sandra Day O’Connor first woman to U.S. Supreme Court (1981)

Ronald Reagan

George Bush

Republican (1989-1993)

  • What is significant about the Americans with Disabilities Act?

Landmark legislation which made it illegal to discriminate against those with disabilities

  • What signifies the end of the Cold War? The Soviet Union moved from communism to democracy and the Berlin Wall was torn down

    • When? Berlin Wall torn down – 1989 Soviet Union dissolved - 1991

  • People moving from Rust Belt region to the Sunbelt region

Moral Majority

  • Conservative lobby group

  • Formed by television evangelist Jerry Falwell

  • Opposed ERA

Heritage Foundation

  • Conservative think tank

  • Promoted free enterprise, civil rights, limited government and strong national defense

National Rifle Association

  • After assassinations in the 1960s the Gun Control Act of 1968

  • NRA became more active and was a conservative political group supporting 2nd Amendment Rights rights.



Bill Clinton


George W. Bush


Barack Obama




  • Attempted health care reform with Hillary Clinton leading task force – did not pass Congress

  • Supported welfare reform, lower taxes, and stricter crime prevention measures

Financial Crisis of 2008 led to—

Home foreclosures Fear of financial failures Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (2008) gave billions of dollars to prevent banks and businesses from failing

  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 gave economic stimulus

$700 billion spent by federal government to support economy

Legislation to support credit card and lending practices

  • 2000 Election — What was unique?

Gore won popular vote; Supreme Court stopped Florida recount giving Bush the electoral college win

  • 2001 Terrorist Attack —Turning Point

World Trade Center and Pentagon attacked by al-Qaeda; Bush launched a war on terror

  • U.S. Patriot Act created to give Gov’t expanded power to conduct security measures following 9/11

  • War on Terror: IraqU.S. troops deployed when Hussein was thought to have weapons of mass destruction Afghanistan—

U.S. troops deployed to find terrorists



  • Ross Perot —3rd party candidates can impact elections

  • Contract with America was supported by most Republicans proposed by Newt Gingrich, Republican Speaker of the House

  • Balkan Crisis— Ethnic tension caused conflict in the Balkans; Clinton sent troops which led to a compromise

  • Affordable Care Act— Healthcare reform designed to make health care available to Americans

  • Appointed Sonia Sotomayor 1st Hispanic American to U.S. Supreme Court



  • Scandal led to impeachment (formal accusation) by the House of


  • Senate vote did not remove the president

  • Appointed—

Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State

  • Influence of Oprah Winfrey — Publicly endorsed President Obama during election over Hillary Clinton


promote educational reform by testing students in English and Math

  • Hurricane Katrina caused by natural disaster and human factors (levee failure, delayed rescue)




Technological Innovation

How have these improved business and American’s standard of living?

  • Satellites— global communication

  • Cell phones— widespread communication usage

  • Personal computers— made computers more accessible/affordable to consumers

  • Just-in-time inventory management— eliminated need for large inventories and thus improved cost efficiency

  • Information technology— increased productivity in the workplace

  • Genetic engineering— improved medicine through study of diseases at the chromosomal/gene level

Business Marketplace

How does free enterprise impact the creation of discoveries in the U.S.?

  • Profits drive innovation

What contribution have these entrepreneurs made to the United States?

  • Bill Gates— Microsoft founder

  • Sam Walton— established Wal-Mart and supercenter concept

  • Esteé Lauder— founded cosmetic company

  • Robert Johnson— African-American who started BET

  • Oprah Winfrey— African-American woman who built a television empire



How have these encouraged globalization?

  • Internet— world-wide connection has improved communication

  • Growth of multi-national corporations— products sold world-wide by large businesses

  • Energy needs— increased populations and standards of livng have increased energy demand

  • American culture— Entertainment and demand for goods have risen and diffused U.S. political, economic, & social culture

Can I quote you on that?

American Imperialism

Progressive Era

World War I

World War II

Civil Rights Movement

But today we are raising more than

we can consume. Today we are making more than we can useThere are more workers than there is work. We do not need more money – we need more circulation, more employment. Therefore, we must find new markets for our produce, new occupation for our capital, new work for our labor…” – Senator Albert J. Beveridge, 1898
How does this passage relate to the topic of American Imperialism?


What might someone say if they opposed the point‐of‐view in the above passage?

“…In the barrels would be dirt and

rust and old nails and stale water— and cartload after cartload of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast. Some of it they would make into "smoked" sausage—but as the smoking took time, and was therefore expensive; they would call upon their chemistry department, and preserve it with borax and color it with gelatin to make it brown. All of their sausage came out of the same bowl, but when they came to wrap it they would stamp some of it "special," and for this they would charge two cents more a pound.” – The Jungle, Upton Sinclair
What impact did this book have on

American society?


#14: “A general association of

nations must be formed.” – Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
I object in the strongest possible way to having the United States agree, directly or indirectly, to be controlled by a league [of nations] which may at any time…,be drawn in to deal with internal conflicts in

other countries…We should never allow the United States to be involved in any internal conflict in another country. – Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
In your own words…

How are these documents related to the words – isolationism and neutrality?


“…The Director of the War

Relocation Authority is authorized and directed to formulate an effectuate [implement] a program for the removal, from the areas designated from time to time by the Secretary of War or appropriate military commander under the authority of Executive Order No.

9066 of February 19, 1942, of the persons or classes of persons designated under such Executive Order, and for their relocation, maintenance, and supervision…” – Executive Order 9102, 1942
In your own words…

What constitutional issues are raised by the passage of Executive Order 9066?


One may want to ask: ‘How can you

advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?’ The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws.

I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all.” – Letter from Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King Jr.
In your own words…

What impact did this letter have on the Civil Rights Movement?



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