11 th Lit Semester 1 Final Study Guide!!!



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12. Which of these choices is the BEST topic sentence for this presentation? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)

  1. In the early 1900s, many Americans needed help from other people.

  2. Hull House was a place in Chicago where many poor people found help.

  3. Jane Addams worked hard to improve the lives of less fortunate people.

  4. In our country's history, many people have dedicated their lives to helping others.


The Olympic Games that people celebrate today are much different from the Olympics that began in ancient Greece. When the Olympic Games began, only men who spoke Greek could compete. The ancient Olympics had just a few sports in which athletes competed. Additionally, the ancient Olympic Games were always held in Greece.

Although the Olympic Games still include a number of athletic competitions, their format has greatly changed. Today, both male and female athletes from many different countries and backgrounds come together to compete in the Games. The Olympics are held in different cities around the world every four years.


Please use the following paragraphs to answer question 13.

The Olympic Games that people celebrate today are much different from the Olympics that began in ancient Greece. When the Olympic Games began, only men who spoke Greek could compete. The ancient Olympics had just a few sports in which athletes competed. Additionally, the ancient Olympic Games were always held in Greece.

Although the Olympic Games still include a number of athletic competitions, their format has greatly changed. Today, both male and female athletes from many different countries and backgrounds come together to compete in the Games. The Olympics are held in different cities around the world every four years.

13. Which of these statements BEST fits into paragraph 2? W1.f Lesson 21 (Text Structure)


  1. Greek mythology says that the Olympics were started by Heracles.

  2. Women were not allowed to watch the Olympic Games in ancient Greece.

  3. The ancient Olympics included sport such as running and chariot racing.

  4. The athletes in the modern Olympic Games compete in many different sports.

Please use the following statement to answer question 14.


CLAIM: The county council has done the community a disservice by mishandling money, focusing on frivolous causes, and failing to listen to community concerns.

CLAIM: The county council has done the community a disservice by mishandling money, focusing on frivolous causes, and failing to listen to community concerns.



14. Which explains the BEST way to organize the reasons for this claim? W1.c, W1.g, W2E.a, W2.P Lesson 25

(Persuasive Paragraphs/Writing)




  1. Provide your carefully considered opinions as well as general opinions from a many sources; be sure to cite your sources correctly.

  2. Provide evidence of mishandling funds, an example of community concerns being ignored, and testimony about the time spent on frivolous causes.

  3. Consider potential counterclaims and counterarguments to demonstrate your ability to defend your claim from opposing viewpoints.

  4. Keep your supporting evidence and reasons general so that a variety of evidence will convincingly support your claim.

Use the following diagram and passage to answer question 15.

The Ethanol Debate

Natalie Stewart

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1 Our society has recently undergone a shift towards greener living. People have grown more aware of how their actions seriously and negatively impact the environment. Many are seeking out new ways to decrease pollution levels and to find cleaner energy sources to power their homes and businesses. Ethanol is an increasingly popular fuel alternative to gasoline, made from distilled, fermented corn. The benefits of ethanol include lowering the amount of harmful carbon dioxide gases released into the air by burning fossil fuels like gasoline, as well as decreasing the United States’ dependence on foreign oil. Though many people support the production of ethanol for use as an alternative fuel, most of them ignore the serious drawbacks of ethanol use.

2 One important economic factor in producing ethanol is its influence on the price of corn. Corn prices have more than doubled since 2005 because of increased demand, according to financial experts. Farmers know that corn is highly sought after, so they allot more space on their farms to grow large amounts of corn. This leaves less room for growing other kinds of crops, such as wheat or soybeans. These smaller amounts force suppliers to raise the prices of these now secondary crops as well. Bread and cereal manufactures are also involved in the economics of ethanol. These companies then pass rising costs of their crops to consumers, leading to higher prices at the grocery store.

3 Corn is also a common source of food for livestock. Many farmers are now struggling to feed their herds of cows, chickens, and pigs. The increased cost of feeding their animals has forced many farmers to reduce the size of their herds, decreasing the supply of meat available to consumers. Shoppers are certain to see the prices of beef, chicken, and pork increase if corn prices continue to skyrocket. Unfortunately, hardworking farmers and ranchers see very little profits from this increase in price. Many of them oppose ethanol as an alternative fuel source because of the extreme impact it is having on their way of life.

4 In addition, opponents of ethanol note that government subsidies cost American taxpayers more money. State and federal government subsidy programs offer tax credits to gas stations for each gallon of ethanol they mix in with the gasoline they sell. Government programs also supply companies that produce ethanol with corn! Where does the government get the money for these subsidies? Money for these projects comes from our—the taxpayers’—pockets. These costs are in addition to rising fuel prices, which are currently almost four dollars per gallon. Many people are disappointed in ethanol because they believed that it would help reduce the price at the pump, not increase it. Overall, it would be more cost-effective for everyone if the government pursued other options for fuel and energy sources.

5 Ethanol has some benefits. However, overenthusiastic supporters should consider all sides of the issue before taking actions that are already putting America’s economy in a precarious position. Ethanol is not the answer to our economic and environmental problems. Instead of focusing on a technology that is too costly to be practical, we should be encouraging our government to continue investing in other alternatives. Only then will we see our food and energy prices stabilize.



15. Which of these points clearly states the position of the author and demonstrates awareness of task, purpose, and audience? W1.c, W1.g, W2E.a, W2.P Lesson 25 (Persuasive Paragraphs/Writing)

  1. Our society has recently undergone a shift towards greener living.

  2. People have grown more aware of how their actions seriously and negatively impact the environment.

  3. Though many people support the production of ethanol for use as an alternative fuel, most of them ignore the serious drawbacks of ethanol use.

  4. Ethanol has some drawbacks but the benefits outweigh the costs in most cases.


I believe that Seneca School District should not start year-round classes, as this would harm many students and teachers. Having year-round classes with short breaks could save our school money, but could harm students' educations. I believe that having four, rather than one, extended breaks will make students forget more information. Students need to review after their current summer breaks and will need to review three times more per year if they are given four extended breaks. Also, students will not be able to get summer jobs or be involved in summer camps if they go to school during the summer. Furthermore, some of the schools in our district do not have air conditioning, which makes them inappropriate for use during the summer.
Use the following paragraph to answer question 16.

I believe that Seneca School District should not start year-round classes, as this would harm many students and teachers. Having year-round classes with short breaks could save our school money, but could harm students' educations. I believe that having four, rather than one, extended breaks will make students forget more information. Students need to review after their current summer breaks and will need to review three times more per year if they are given four extended breaks. Also, students will not be able to get summer jobs or be involved in summer camps if they go to school during the summer. Furthermore, some of the schools in our district do not have air conditioning, which makes them inappropriate for use during the summer.



16. Read this draft of the beginning of a persuasive speech. Which of these choices BEST states the author's purpose in writing this speech? W1.c, W1.g, W2E.a, W2.P Lesson 25 (Persuasive Paragraphs/Writing)

  1. to explain how year-round schooling works

  2. to describe the schedule of a year-round school

  3. to teach the audience how to begin year-round schooling

  4. to convince the audience that year-round schooling is harmful

Use the following paragraph to answer question 17.


Foreign languages are extremely important to students' education. After taking my first Spanish course, I saw a significant increase in my English grade. As a student in Spanish, I learned how to form verbs and verb phrases in that language. Learning about verbs and verb phrases in a different language gave me a different perspective about the same parts of speech in English. This new knowledge made English class much easier, and I received good grades in both classes last year. Learning foreign languages helps students in many different subjects.

Foreign languages are extremely important to students' education. After taking my first Spanish course, I saw a significant increase in my English grade. As a student in Spanish, I learned how to form verbs and verb phrases in that language. Learning about verbs and verb phrases in a different language gave me a different perspective about the same parts of speech in English. This new knowledge made English class much easier, and I received good grades in both classes last year. Learning foreign languages helps students in many different subjects.



17. Ian wrote a persuasive speech to convince the school board to adopt more foreign language classes at his school. Do the examples from this part of Ian's speech support his position? W1.c, W1.g, W2E.a, W2.P Lesson 25

(Persuasive Paragraphs/Writing)



  1. no, because they do not give a detailed explanation of the benefits

  2. yes, because they explain specifically how the classes helped him

  3. yes, because they state that Ian took a Spanish class

  4. no, because they do not give specific information


18. Which of these sentences, taken from a personal narrative about Christopher Columbus, MOST needs to be revised to make it more formal? W.4.c, W.4.d Lesson 26 (Formal/Informal Language)

  1. This idea - this human condition - has existed for thousands of years and seems almost universal.

  2. In the same way, we tend to develop a history for ourselves in which we always view ourselves in a positive light.

  3. After a short stop at the Canary Islands to resupply and make minor repairs, the ships set out across the Atlantic.

  4. Most people figured that Columbus discovered America, made friends with the Indians, and then told everyone else about this land.


Use the following paragraph to answer question 19.


An ant's head contains many sensory organs. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together. Ants look kind of creepy with their weird eyes. Ant eyes are good for acute movement detection, but do not offer a high resolution image. They also have three small ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head that detect light levels and polarization.

An ant's head contains many sensory organs. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together. Ants look kind of creepy with their weird eyes. Ant eyes are good for acute movement detection, but do not offer a high resolution image. They also have three small ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head that detect light levels and polarization.


19. Which sentence conveys a tone that is inconsistent with the rest of the passage? W.4.c, W.4.d Lesson 26 (Formal/Informal Language)

  1. An ant's head contains many sensory organs.

  2. Ants look kind of creepy with their weird eyes.

  3. Ant eyes are good for acute movement detection, but do not offer a high resolution image.

  4. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together.

Use the following paragraph to answer question 20.


The truth behind the question of who invented the telephone has been mired in controversy from the very beginning. While Alexander Graham Bell is typically credited as the true inventor of the telephone, there are many who claim that honor actually belongs to Elisha Gray. Bell and Gray submitted descriptions of their inventions to the U.S. Patent Office on February 14, 1876, just hours apart. Despite the fact that Bell delivered his patent application first and was ultimately awarded the patent, there are two reasons why some question whether he really deserved it. First, a close inspection of the documents each man submitted that day reveal that Bell's design would not have worked as planned, while Gray's would have. Secondly, some believe that members of Bell's camp, having gotten an early look at Gray's design, copied a critical feature from Gray's work and illicitly inserted it into Bell's. In essence, if Gray had only kept his big mouth shut about some of the details of his design, he might well be remembered today as the true inventor of the telephone.

The truth behind the question of who invented the telephone has been mired in controversy from the very beginning. While Alexander Graham Bell is typically credited as the true inventor of the telephone, there are many who claim that honor actually belongs to Elisha Gray. Bell and Gray submitted descriptions of their inventions to the U.S. Patent Office on February 14, 1876, just hours apart. Despite the fact that Bell delivered his patent application first and was ultimately awarded the patent, there are two reasons why some question whether he really deserved it. First, a close inspection of the documents each man submitted that day reveal that Bell's design would not have worked as planned, while Gray's would have. Secondly, some believe that members of Bell's camp, having gotten an early look at Gray's design, copied a critical feature from Gray's work and illicitly inserted it into Bell's. In essence, if Gray had only kept his big mouth shut about some of the details of his design, he might well be remembered today as the true inventor of the telephone.



20. How could the underlined portion of the paragraph BEST be revised to reflect the tone and style of the paragraph as a whole? W.4.c, W.4.d Lesson 26 (Formal/Informal Language)

  1. NO CHANGE

  2. shut his trap

  3. remained secretive

  4. stayed tightlipped

Use the following paragraphs about Emily Dickinson to answer question 21.

Emily Dickinson

Carole Jenkins


(1) Emily Dickinson is regarded as one of the greatest American poets. (2) She was born in 1830 in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a very prominent family. (3) Her childhood was normal, filled with friends, activities, and having fun. (4) As she grew older, she began to isolate herself and even to refuse to leave her home. (5) In her latter years, she wore only white and would not let anyone but her family see her. (6) She spent most of her time alone writing poetry. (7) During her lifetime, she published only seven of her poems, and she published those anonymously. (8) After her death in 1886, her sister discovered packets of her poems in her drawer. (9) Four years later, her first books of poems were published.

(10) Her poetry is wonderful to read. (11) Concrete imagery was used by her to illustrate abstract concepts, such as love and death. (12) Her unusual use of capitalization and punctuation and her use of irregular meter and rhyme make her poetry unique.


The grammatical errors in this passage are intentional.

(1) Emily Dickinson is regarded as one of the greatest American poets. (2) She was born in 1830 in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a very prominent family. (3) Her childhood was normal, filled with friends, activities, and having fun. (4) As she grew older, she began to isolate herself and even to refuse to leave her home. (5) In her latter years, she wore only white and would not let anyone but her family see her. (6) She spent most of her time alone writing poetry. (7) During her lifetime, she published only seven of her poems, and she published those anonymously. (8) After her death in 1886, her sister discovered packets of her poems in her drawer. (9) Four years later, her first books of poems were published.




(10) Her poetry is wonderful to read. (11) Concrete imagery was used by her to illustrate abstract concepts, such as love and death. (12) Her unusual use of capitalization and punctuation and her use of irregular meter and rhyme make her poetry unique.

(10) Her poetry is wonderful to read. (11) Concrete imagery was used by her to illustrate abstract concepts, such as love and death. (12) Her unusual use of capitalization and punctuation and her use of irregular meter and rhyme make her poetry unique.



21. Which sentence contains an opinion of the author and is too informal for the tone of this passage?

W.4.c, W.4.d Lesson 26 (Formal/Informal Language)



  1. Sentence 3

  2. Sentence 7

  3. Sentence 9

  4. Sentence 10

Use the following diagram and passage to answer question 22.

Editorial: Time to Graduate from the Electoral College

Louis Vincent

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1 Every four years, millions of people head to the polls on Election Day to vote for a new president. It is their right and duty as U.S. citizens to do so. In the months before the election, they watch the candidates argue about important issues. They read articles about the candidates' promises. They see ads that draw attention to the candidates' strengths and weaknesses. Armed with this knowledge and their own beliefs, citizens choose the candidate whom they believe will lead our country in the right direction. Or do they?

2 In the United States, the people do not directly pick the president. Rather, our country gives this important power to the Electoral College. The Electoral College is a body of electors selected by the people in each state to officially choose the next president. How does the Electoral College work? On Election Day, voters take part in the popular vote. They press a button or pull a lever to vote for a presidential candidate. What they actually do, however, is pick the electors who will become members of the Electoral College. These electors pledge to vote for the chosen candidate in another election held in mid-December.

3 The number of members each state has in the Electoral College depends on its population. A state with a large population has more votes than a state with a small population. For example, California has 55 votes while Alaska has 3. In most states, the candidate who wins the popular vote wins all of that state’s electoral votes. A candidate must receive a majority of the electoral votes to become the next president. How many electoral votes is enough to win? In recent elections, candidates have had to earn at least 270 of the 538 electoral votes to win.

4 In theory, this system should work, and it has worked—most of the time. A few times, however, the system has failed. In these cases, the candidate with fewer popular votes gained enough electoral votes to win the election. This occurred during the 2000 presidential election when more people voted for Al Gore, but George W. Bush earned more electoral votes and became the president. What causes such a breakdown in the system to happen? Let's return to the example of California and Alaska. A single vote in California has the power to override thousands of votes in other states. Imagine that only one person in California casts a vote for Candidate A. That candidate wins the popular vote in California 1–0. He or she gets all of California's 55 electoral votes. Across the country, thousands of voters in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Delaware cast their votes for Candidate B. Not one voter casts a vote for Candidate A. These states have a combined 52 electoral votes, which is not enough to beat California's 55. How can the leaders of our country believe that this system is fair?

5 A long time ago, Americans were scattered far and wide about the country. It made sense to have representatives who voted for them. In this day and age, however, polling places are practically in the next room for most people. With the use of computers, it is possible to tally votes quickly and accurately. The need for the "middle man" is gone. U.S. citizens are perfectly capable of choosing the person they want for president without interference. It is time to graduate from the Electoral College and let the people decide. You want your vote to matter, don't you?



22. The author includes the last paragraph in the passage W2.E.b, W2.E.a, W2.T Lesson 27 (Writing Organization)

  1. to explain why the Electoral College is no longer necessary.

  2. to show how computers are used in counting votes.

  3. to describe graduation from the Electoral College.

  4. to encourage people to vote.


1. Many burglaries have occurred in our area recently. 2. It seems that the perpetrators pose as workers for a lawn service. 3. They travel from house to house asking if homeowners would like to have their lawns mowed. 4. Once they identify which homes seem to be currently unoccupied, they enter the homes by breaking through a back window or door.

5. Summer is a popular season for vacationing for many families in our neighborhood.


Use the following paragraph to answer question 23.
23. Choose the sentence that would serve as a relevant detail for the paragraph.

W2.E.b, W2.E.a, W2.T Lesson 27 (Writing Organization)



  1. Most houses in our neighborhood have fenced backyards.

  2. The number of fires in our neighborhood has decreased since last spring.

  3. These individuals even have lawnmowers and landscaping tools on their trucks.

  4. Police have repeatedly been notified about leash laws and speeding violations.


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