André Malraux’s biography and bibliography



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André Malraux’s biography and bibliography


www.malraux.org


1901

• Born on rue Damrémont, Paris (18th arrondissement), 3 November.










1905

• Parents separate.

• Lives with his mother and his aunt in Bondy with his maternal grandmother, who runs a grocery store on 17, rue de la Gare (now, 20, rue Salengro).

• Attends a private primary school, rue St-Denis, Bondy.











1915

• Attends “Ecole primaire supérieure” (high school), 69 rue de Turbigo, Paris (now the “lycée Turgot” - college).










1918

• Tries to enter the “lycée Condorcet” (college), which he quickly drops out of.

• Frequents secondhand booksellers, bookshops, libraries and museums.












1919

• Works for R.L. Doyon: publishes rare editions at the “éditions de la Connaissance”. Works for the « Editions du Sagittaire ».

• Meets Demetrios Galanis, Max Jacob and François Mauriac.


















1920

• First article: “Des origines de la poésie cubiste” (“The Origins of Cubist Poetry”), published in the magazine Action.




1921

• Meets and marries Clara Goldschmidt.

• Travels in Europe, including Germany.



1921

Lunes en papier (Paper moons, 2005), illustrated by Fernand Léger (100 copies).




1922

• Submits work to the N.R.F (La Nouvelle Revue Française / The New French Review, of Gallimard).

1921-22-24

• Fragments of Ecrits pour une idole à trompe.




1923

• 13 October: travels to Indochina with Clara and Louis Chevasson.

• Illegally removes Apsara statues from the Banteay Sei temple located 25km from the Angkor site.

• Arrested. Confined to house arrest.











1924

• Trial at Phnom Penh: sentenced to 3 years’ imprisonment. The statues are first deposited in the Phnom Penh museum before being returned to the temple.

• Press campaign for Malraux in Paris by Clara (who was acquitted) upon her return to France.

• Appeal in Saigon: suspended sentence. Returns to Marseille in November.











1925

• 14 January: leaves Marseille.

• Saigon: founds and edits with the lawyer Paul Monin the opposition newspaper L’Indochine, which criticizes the colonial government.

• After the newspaper’s closure, Malraux goes to Hong Kong to purchase printing material. The newspaper reappears under the title L’Indochine Enchaînée.

• Returns.



1924-1925

• Publishes 50 articles in L’Indochine and L’Indochine Enchaînée.




1926

• January: arrives in Marseille.

1926

La Tentation de l’Occident (The Temptation of the West, 1926)










1928

Les Conquérants (The Conquerors).

Royaume-Farfelu (The Kingdom of Farfelu, 2005)






1928

Les Conquérants (The Conquerors)

Royaume-Farfelu (The Kingdom of Farfelu, 2005)

1929

• Artistic director at Gallimard.

• Meets Bernard Groethusysen and André Gide.

• Spring: travels to Asia with Clara: Naples, Constantinople, Trabzon, Baku, Resht, Isfahan, Iraq, Syria, Beirut. Returns to Marseille in August.


1928-1939

• Important prefaces to several novels: L’imposture, by Bernanos (1928), Lady Chatterley’s Lover, by D. H. Lawrence (1932), Sanctuary, by Faulkner (1933), etc…




1930

• Spring: travels to Asia with Clara: Turkey, Isfahan, Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. Returns to Marseille in mid-September.

1930

Vie de Napoléon par lui-même (without author’s name).

La Voie Royale (The Royal Way or The Way of the Kings, 1930): awarded the Interallié prize.






1931

• Intense controversy with Leon Trotsky about The Conquerors and communism.

• May – December: travels to Asia and makes a world trip with Clara: Moscow, Tashkent, Isfahan, Shiraz, Persepolis, Kabul, Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Srinagar, Rawalpindi, Delhi, Jaipur, Benares, Darjeeling, Calcutta, Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong, Canton, Shanghai, Peking, Korea, Kobe, Kyoto, Nara, Vancouver, Chicago, New York. – Returns by boat (meets René Guetta, alias ‘Clappique’)

• Organizes an exhibition of Indo-Greek artworks at the N.R.F.











1932

• 1 – 10 February: exhibition of “Gothic-Buddhist artworks from Pamir” at the N.R.F. – The 1931 and 1932 exhibitions present the Gandhara art bought in Pakistan.










1933

• Birth of Florence Malraux.

• Member of the “Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires” (AEAR), but not of the Communist Party.

• With Gide, defends the Bulgarian communist Dimitrov, accused by the Nazis of having set fire to the Reichstag.

• Meets Josette Clotis at the N.R.F. (She shares André Malraux’s life between 1938-1944 and is the mother of his two sons.)



1933

La Condition humaine (Man’s Fate, 1934) -(Goncourt Prize).




1934

• January: goes to Berlin with Gide to obtains Dimitrov and Thaelman’s release. However, unexpectedly the Reich Minister of Propanganda is in Munich.

• 23 February – 23 March: takes prohibited flight over Yemen with Corniglion-Molinier: searches for ruins in the city of the legendary Queen of Sheba (7 March). On the way there, halts in Cairo. On the way back (16 March): caught in a storm before their arrival in Bone (Algeria).

• Travels to U.S.S.R. with Clara. Speaks at the Soviet Writers’ Congress in Moscow on August, 23. Visits Leningrad, Moscow (Eisenstein; visit of Dostoevsky’s house), Novosibirsk.


1934

• Publishes seven articles in L’Intransigeant: “A la découverte de la capitale mystérieuse de la reine de Saba”.




1935

• Presides over the “Congrès international des écrivains pour la défense de la culture” (Hall of the Mutualité, Paris). 25 June: makes an important speech: “L’Oeuvre d’art”.

• Meets Louise de Vilmorin (she will share his life in 1969).



1935

Le Temps du Mépris (Days of Wrath, 1935) (in which he describes his experience on board of the airplane crossing the storm above the Aurès).




1936

• March: Moscow (Eisenstein) and Crimea (Gorki). Wants to adapt to the screen “La Condition humaine” with Eisenstein.

• Spanish Civil War: Malraux forms an international squadron of foreign volunteers, first called España, then “Escadrille André Malraux”. Fights in the Battle of Teruel (December 1937-February 1938).

• Separates from Clara. (He won’t divorce her until the Nazi threat is blighted: Clara is of German and Jewish descent.)











1937

• February-April: goes with Josette Clotis to the United States and Canada to plead the cause of Republican Spain

• 12 March: meets Einstein at Princeton.





L’Espoir (Man’s Hope, 1938).




1938

• Shooting of Sierra de Teruel.










1939

• 3 June: private screening of Sierra de Teruel in Paris.

• Marshal Pétain, ambassador to Franco, gets the film banned by the French government.

• Soldier in a tank unit.


1939

• Publication of Tableau de la littérature française, XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles. De Corneille à Chénier. Malraux conceives the project and directs its publication. The book includes his “Laclos”.




1940

• Clara joins the resistance.

• Made prisoner at Sens. Makes the acquaintance of Albert Beuret, Jean Grosjean and the abbot Magnet (known as “l’aumônier des Glières”), Jean-Baptiste Jeener. Escapes.

• Settles in the Midi: Roquebrune (“La Succo” villa) or Cap-d’Ail (“Les Camélias” villa).

• For 3 or 4 years he intensely and simultaneously works on 4 huge literary projects: La Lutte avec l’Ange (The Struggle with the Angel), La Psychologie de l’art (The Psychology of Art), Le Démon de l’absolu (The Absolute Demon) and Le Règne du Malin (The Reign of the Devil).

• Rejects Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir’s proposals for a resistance movement (Gide had maliciously sent them to Malraux).

• 5 November: birth of his son Pierre-Gauthier, with Josette. (Pierre-Gauthier will only be called Gauthier.)

• Settles in the little castle of Saint-Chamant in Corrèze.











1943

• 11 March: birth of his son Vincent.

1943

Publication in Lausanne of La Lutte avec l’Ange (The Struggle of the Angel), of which the first volume is titled Les Noyers de l’Altenburg (The Walnut Trees of Altenburg). The subsequent volumes were not to be written according to the original plan. The “Editions du Haut-Pays” – established and directed by Maurice Blanc are responsible for the publication.




1944

• Clara Malraux in Dieulefit with Florence.

• Goes into hiding under the pseudonym Berger, the hero’s name in The Struggle with the Angel.

• 18 April: death of his half-brother Claude Malraux, tortured by the Nazis.

• 11 June: birth of Alain Malraux, son of Roland Malraux and Madeleine.

• Colonel Berger founds and commands the Alsace-Lorraine Brigade in Corrèze.

• 22 July: arrested by the Gestapo. Imprisoned in Toulouse.

• 19 August: liberation of Toulouse.

• 11 November: accidental death of Josette Clotis (1910-1944).












1945

• 23-28 January: speeches at the “Premier Congrès de la Résistance” (First Resistance Congress) on January, 24 and 25. Important speech “Une nouvelle Résistance commence” which stops the communist monopoly on the Mouvement de liération nationale.

• Takes part in the liberation of Alsace and Strasbourg. Battle of Dannemarie. The Brigade arrived arrives in Stuttgart with the 1st French Army commanded by General de Lattre de Tassigny. Malraux was is awarded the Legion of Honour.

• 3 May in Lübek: death of his half-brother Roland in the Allied bombing of Cap Arcona: the Nazis crammed their prisoners on the boat.

• 18 July: first encounter with de Gaulle.

• 21 November 1945 to 20 January 1946: Minister of Information.

• 1 March: public showing of Espoir (formerly titled Sierra de Teruel); the film is awarded the Louis Delluc prize.

• Lives in Boulogne-Billancourt in a rented art deco town house by the architect Leon Courreges with Madeleine, Gauthier, Vincent and Alain. Florence lives with his her mother Clara in Paris.


1945

• “Oeuvres completes” made up of 7 volumes, Skira (Geneva).




1946

• Divorces.

• Important opening speech to UNESCO’s cultural week at the Sorbonne: “L’homme et la culture” (“Man and Culture”).



1946

N’était-ce donc que cela? (the sole known fragment of The Absolute Demon).

Esquisse d’une psychologie du cinéma.

Scènes choisies (anthology of his texts by himself).





1947

• In charge of the propaganda for the party RPF - Rassemblement du peuple français (“Rally of the French People”), newly founded by de Gaulle.

Founds the magazine Liberté de l’esprit, directed by Claude Mauriac.



1947

Romans published in la “Pléiade” (The Conquerors, Man’s Fate, Hope).

La Psychologie de l’art (The Psychology of Art), vol.1: Le musée imaginaire, Skira. (Museum Without Walls, 1949.

Dessins de Goya au musée du Prado, Skira. (Goya. Drawings from the Prado).











1947-1958

• Submits numerous texts to Gaullist media: Liberté de l’esprit, Carrefour, Le Rassemblement and Notre République.




1948

• 5 March: speech at the Salle Pleyel: “Adresse aux intellectuels” (“An Address to Intellectuals”).

• Marries the world-renowned pianist Madeleine Malraux-Lioux (Roland’s widow) in Riquewihr.



1948

Les Noyers de l’Altenburg is published by Gallimard. (The Walnut Trees of Altenburg, 1952.)

The Psychology of Art, vol. 2: La Création artistique, Skira. (The Creative Act, 1950).






1950

• Seriously ill: can neither attend the Rally of the French People’s meetings nor travel.

1950

Saturne. Essai sur Goya. Gallimard. (Saturn: An Essay on Goya, 1957).

• Conceives and edits the collective work titled Léonard de Vinci.

The Psychology of Art, vol 3: La Monnaie de l’Absolu. Skira. (The Twilight of the Absolute, 1951).











1951

Les Voix du silence (The Voices of Silence, 1953) and Romans (collection).




1952

• Travels to Egypt, Iraq and Iran. Saved from a serious case of typhoid by Saïdi Moussa, a friend from Isfahan who Malraux met in 1931. Malraux travels with Madeleine until 1964.

• 30 May: speech at the Congress in defense of freedom of culture.



1952

Le Musée imaginaire de la sculpture mondiale, vol. 1: La Statuaire.

• Conceives and edits the collective work Tout Vermeer de Delft.












1954

Le Musée imaginaire de la sculpture mondiale, vol. 2: Des bas-reliefs aux grottes sacrée.

• Stage adaptation of Man’s Fate.






1955

• Important speech at the Congress of Arts and Archeology in New York.










1956

• Speech on Rembrandt in Stockholm.
















1957

La Métamorphose des dieux. La Guilde du livre, Lausanne; then Gallimard. (The Metamorphosis of the Gods, 1960).




1958

• 3 June: secretary of State.

• 9 June: delegate to the presidential Council as Minister of Information.

• 7 July: Malraux leaves the Ministry.

• 25 July: minister in charge of “the expansion and influence” of French Culture.

• 24 August: speech in Rennes.

• 16-18 September: Guadeloupe. 18-19 September: Martinique. 19-22 September: Guyana.

• 28 September: the Referendum destined to create the Fifth Republic accepted by 80%.

• Travels to Asia:

– 21-27 November: Iran. Meets Shah Reza Palavi.

– 27 November - 8 December: India. Meets J. Nehru. Visits Madras, Madurai, Bombay, Elephanta, Ajanta, Ellora and Chandigarh.

– 8 - 15 December: Japan: Tokyo, Kyoto (Ryôan-ji), Nara, Osaka. Meets the Emperor Hiro-Hito.





• 1958-1969: makes 38 speeches at the National Assembly and at the Senate.




1959

• 8 January: Minister of Cultural Affairs.

• 27 April – 1 May: travels to Saharan Algeria: Tamanrasset, Edjele, Hassi Messaoud, Ouargla.

• 19-31 May: official visit to Greece. 28 May: speech in Athens.

• 23 August - 13 September: official visits to South America. 24 August: Rio; 25: speech in Brasilia; 26: Sao Paulo; 27-28: Rio. 29 August - 3 September: Chili. 6-9 September: Argentina. 11-12: Uruguay.












1960

• 21-29 February: official visit to Japan: Tokyo, Kyoto (Ryôan-ji), Nara.

• 8 March: speech for UNESCO to save the monuments of Nubia.

• 3-14 April: visits Mexico: Mexico City, Monte Alban, Palenque, Chichen Itza, Uxmal.

• 10-19 August: Africa. Proclaims the independence of Chad on 11 August, of Gabon on 17 August. Meets Dr. Schweitzer in Lambaréné.



1960

Œuvres romanesques, 7 volumes illustrated by Walter Spitzer (edition Lidis).




1961

• 23 May: death of Gauthier and Vincent in a car accident.










1962

• 7 February: assassination attempt by the OAS (Organization of the Secret Army, hostile to the Algerian independence) at his house. The 4-year-old daughter of the owners, Delphine Renard is wounded and, as a consequence, will remain blind for the rest of her life.

• 10-16 May: visit to the United States; received by the Kennedys at the White House.

• 4 August: adoption of “La Loi Malraux”: conservation of the country’s architectural and historical heritage.

• Summer: settles in La Lanterne in Versailles, provided by the Prime Minister, Georges Pompidou.






• Publication of La Tentation de l’Occident, illustrated with 10 lithographs of Zao Wou-Ki (s.l. [Besançon], Les Bibliophiles comtois, 20 avril 1962).




1963

• 7-13 January: accompagnies Mona Lisa to the United States.

• 9 Januariy: speech in Washington.

• 3 September: funeral tribute to Georges Braque, who died 31 August.

• 7-15 October: official visit to Canada: Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec, Laurentides.












1964

• April: sends the Venus de Milo to Japan.

• 18 April: speech at the “Maison de la culture” in Bourges.

• 22 May: death of Jawaharlal Nehru.

• 31 May: speech on Joan of Arc in Rouen.

• 19 December: funeral tribute to Jean Moulin at the Pantheon.











1965

• Travels to Asia with Albert Beuret on board the Cambodge:

  • Marseille (22 June).

  • Port-Said, (visits Griza on 26 June), Suez, Aden, Karachi, Bombay and Colombo.

  • Singapore (Peak Island’s accident on 13 July).

  • 19 July – 4 August: sent on a mission to China to meet Mao Zedong (3 August.)

  • Stops in Hong Kong, Canton and Beijing. Visits Xi’an, Luoyang, Longmen and Yan’an.

  • Returns via New Delhi (visits the funeral monuments of Gandhi and Nehru) and Benares.

  • Stop over in Teheran is cancelled.

• 1 September: funeral tribute to Le Corbusier.

• 15 December: speech at the “Palais des Sports” in the context of the Presidential elections).



1965

Le Musée Imaginaire, new edition of the first chapter of Voices of Silence.




1966

• 12 March: visits Lascaux. 13 September: official announcement of its closure.

• 24-28 March: Egypt: Cairo, Abu Simbel, Thebes and Valley of the Queens with Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt. Visits Nefertari’s tomb.

• 30 March: opening of the First Festival of Negro Arts, with L.S. Senghor, in Dakar. Important speech.


1967

Antimémoires (Anti-Memoirs, 1968).




1968

• During the events of Mays 68: participates in the Gaullist demonstration of May, 30.

1968

Sierra de Teruel, translated into Spanish (Mexico).




1969

• 17-18 February: conference in Niamey to prepare the foundation of the Agence de cooperation culturelle et technique (“Agency of cultural and technical cooperation”) in 1970 which will become the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (“International Organisation of La Francophonie”) in 2005.

• 28 April: de Gaulle’s resignation. 24 June: Malraux resigns as a minister; his successor is Edmond Michelet.

• June: settles in Verrières-le-Buisson with Louise de Vilmorin.

• 3 November: with Sartre and Mauriac, calls for the release of Régis Debray, imprisoned in Bolivia.

• 11 December: private visit to de Gaulle to Colombey-les-deux-Eglises.

• 25 December: death of Louise de Vilmorin at Vierrière-le-Buisson (1902-1969).












1970

• 9 November 1970: death of de Gaulle at Colombey-les-deux-Eglises (1890-1970).

1970

Le Triangle noir. Laclos, Goya, Saint-Just.

Œuvres, illustrated by Alexeieff, Masson and Chagall.






1971

• Lives until his death with Louise’s niece, Sophie de Vilmorin.

• Supports the Bengali insurgents against Pakistan.



1971

Les Chênes qu’on abat… (Felled Oaks or The Fallen Oak).

• “La Mort qui n’est pas loin…”, section of Anti-Memoirs (edition 1972, dialogue avec Méry).

• “Non”: first section of Chênes, from La Corde et les Souris (1976).

Oraisons funèbres.






1972

• 14 February: received by president Nixon at the White House.

• 19 October – 16 November: hospitalized at the Salpêtrière Hospital.



1972

Anti-memoirs (second edition, Folio).




1973

• 14-25 April: travels with Sophie to India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

• 24 May: after a call from Jacqueline Picasso, visits the deserted ateliers at Mougins.

• 13 July: opening of the exhibition “André Malraux et le Musée Imaginaire” at the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. Gives a speech.

• 13 October: intervenes in favor of Jean Kay who has hijacked an airplane, so that medicine could be delivered to the Bengalis.



1973

Espoir, the journal of the “Institut Charles de Gaulle”, publishes 28 speeches, 6 articles and 2 interviews.

• “Introduction” to Charles de Gaulle by Boussel. 2nd fragment Chênes, from La Corde et les Souris.

Roi, je t’attends à Babylone…, fragment of Hôtes de passage (1975), illustrated with 12 drypoints of Salvador Dali.





1974

• 24 April: TV appearance to support J. Chaban-Delmas’s candidacy to the presidential elections.

• 12 May – 1 June: travels to Japan. Meets the Emperor, visits Kyoto, Nara and the Kii peninsula (Nachi waterfalls and Naiku, Ise’s shrine).



1974

La Tête d’obsidienne..

L’Irréel (The Metamorphosis of the Gods, vol.2).

Lazare (Lazarus, 1977).





1975

• 29 September: signs the document “L’Appel des Sept” protesting against the death sentence of 11 people by a Francoist tribunal in Spain.

• 23 November: speech at the “Salle des Horticulteurs” in Paris (fifth anniversary of de Gaulle’s death).

• 20 December - 4 January 1976: travels with Sophie to Haiti (Soissons-la-Montagne).


1975

Hôtes de passage.

• Speech on 23 November published in Espoir: 3rd fragment Chênes, from La Corde et les Souris.












1976

• Néocritique”, postface of Malraux. Etre et Dire, by Martine de Courcel.

L’Intemporel (The Metamorphosis of the Gods, vol.3).

La Corde et la Souris (“Folio”).

Le Miroir des limbes (“Pléiade”).






1976

• 23 November: dies at the American Hospital of Créteil.
















1976

Romans (“Pléiade”. Includes The Royal Way).










1977

L’Homme précaire et la littérature.

Et sur la terre…., fragment of L’Espoir (Man’s Hope), illustrated by Chagall.

Le Surnaturel (The Metamorphosis of the Gods, vol.1).











1978

Saturne: les destin, l’art et Goya.




1982

•15 December: death of Clara Malraux (1897-1982).
















1979

De Gaulle par Malraux: includes 11 speeches, 3 articles and 1 interview.










1988

Messages, signes & dyables. Dessins 1946 – 1966, presented by Madeleine Malraux.










1989

Œuvres complètes (Complete Works), vol.1, ed. by Pierre Brunel (“Pléiade”).

Sierra de Teruel: French translation of the original Spanish text.












1991

Vie de Napoléon par lui-même, ed. by Ph. Delpuech.










1993

La Reine de Saba. Une “aventure géographique”, ed. by Ph. Delpuech.




1996

• 23 November: his corpse is deposed at the Pantheon in the presence of the President of the Republic, Jacques Chirac.

1996

Œuvres complètes, vol.2, ed. by M.-F. Guyard, M. Larès, F. Trécourt (“Pléiade”). First publication of Démon de l’absolu, by M. Larès.

La Politique, la Culture. Discours, articles, entretiens (1925-1975), ed. by J. Mossuz-Lavau (“Folio/essais”). (26 speeches, 13 articles, 2 interviews.)

Œuvres complètes, vol.3, ed. by M.-F. Guyard (“Pléiade”). First publication of Règne du Malin, by J.-C. Larrat.

Discours prononcés à l’Assemblée nationale, 1945 – 1976, ed. by Ph. Delpuech: 18 speeches.












1997

Espoir. Sierra de Teruel. Scénario du film (script of the movie Espoir), ed. by N. Burch (“Folio”).

Les Noyers de l’Altenburg (The Walnut Trees of Altenburg), ed. by M.-F. Guyard (“Folio”).












1998

Dessins, presented by Madeleine Malraux.

Palavras no Brasil. Discours au Brésil, 4 speeches, ed. by E. Rosa da Silva.

La Grande Pitié des monuments de France. Débats parlementaires (1960/1968), ed. by M. Lantelme: 12 speeches.











2003

Esquisse d’une psychologie du cinéma, ed. By J.-C. Larrat.










2004

Œuvres complètes, vol.4: Ecrits sur l’art, vol.1, ed. By J.-Y. Tadié (“Pléiade”).

Œuvres complètes, vol.5: Ecrits sur l’art, vol.2, ed. By M.-F. Guyard (“Folio”).

Lazare, ed. by M.-F. Guyard (“Folio”).











2006

Carnet du Front populaire, 1935-1936, ed. by F. de Saint-Cheron.










2007

Carnet de l’U.R.S.S., 1934, ed. by F. de Saint-Cheron.




2009

• 4 December: death of Sophie de Vilmorin (1931-2009).

2009

Journal de voyage avec André Malraux (DVD publication of 13 movies by Jean-Marie Drot; 1975-1976).

L’Univers farfelu d’André Malraux (“dyables” presented by Madeleine Malraux; Chêne edition).












2010

Œuvres complètes, t. VI : Essais, ed. by J.-Y. Tadié (“Pléiade”).










2012

Ecrits farfelus («Folio»).

Lettres choisies, 1920-1976, ed. by François de Saint-Cheron.












2013

«Non». Fragments d’un roman sur la Résistance, ed. by Henri Godard and J.-L. Jeannelle.




2014

• 10 January : death of Madeleine Malraux (1914-2014).










Claude Pillet (2008, 2009, 2011, 2016)



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