Bábi, Tibor (Poczkody) (Báb, now Slovakia, 30 October 1925 - Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 23 June 1978) – Poet, writer, journalist, translator of literary works. His higher studies were at the Law School of the University of Budapest (1947). In 1948 he returned to Slovakia and from 1949 he studied at the Academy of Political and Economic Studies, Prague. From 1951 onward he worked as a journalist for various newspapers, among them the Torch (Fáklya) and the New Word(Új Szó). Between 1967 and 1976 he was Editor of the Literary Review(Irodalmi Szemle). He wrote reports on workers, as well on poems andliterary translations. His works include This is your People(Ez a te néped) poems (1954); Wandering Bird(Vándormadár) poems (1960); Tear-drop Under Microscope (Könny mikroszkóp alatt) poems (1966);From Europe to Europe(Európából Európába) travel diary (1973), and Brook and Spring(Patak és forrás), sketches (1976). He translated a number of lyric works from Czech into Hungarian. In his early poems he protested against discrimination of Hungarians in Slovakia. He was a member of the Society of Slovak Writers. He was a recipient the Madách Prize (1966). –B: 0883, 1257, 1551, 1890, T: 7103.
Babits, Mihály (Michael) (Szekszárd, 26 November 1883 - Budapest, 4 August 1941) – Poet, writer, essayist, translator of literara works. After Endre (Andrew) Ady and Zsigmond (Sigismund) Móricz he was the most prominent member of the literary circle West (Nyugat). Between 1906 and 1908 he taught at a high school in Szeged. From 1902 his poems and translations were published in daily papers and numerous journals. The first volume of Tomorrow(Holnap) published some of his poems, amongst them the Turán March (Turáni induló) and the Black Country(Fekete ország). He later became a permanent contributor to the literary review West(Nyugat). In 1909 his first book, Poems: Letters from the Wreath of Iris(Versek: Levelek Irisz Koszorújából) was published. As a young lyricist he was already a master of classic styles. The outbreak of World War I was painful to him. Because of publishing his poem Fortissimo, the state authorities closed down the paper Nyugat, started a lawsuit against him, and confiscated his earnings. In spite of his conservative stand he sympathized with civil radicalism and later defended his stand during the Revolution of 1918-1919. His disappointment with the liberal political views, and especially with the Communist terror, made him uncommunicative and lonely. He was well known not only for his poems and prose, but also for his ability to organize literary events. His poetic output includes Recitativ, (1916); Valley of Restlessness(Nyugtalanság völgye) (1920); Island andSea (Sziget és tenger) (1925); Book of Jonah(Jónás könyve) (1938). Some of his novels are: Christmas Madonna(Karácsonyi Madonna) (1920); TheSon of Virgil Timár(Timár Virgil fia) (1922); Sons of Death (Halál fiai) (1927); Dog Market(Kutyavásár) (1923); In the Shadow of the Tower (A torony árnyékában) (1933); Elza Pilot…(Elza pilóta…) (1933), and Criss-crossing Over My Life(Keresztül kasul az életemen) (1939). He translated Dante’s Divine Comedy(Isteni színjáték), Shakespeare’s The Tempest (Vihar), and Goethe’s Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Taurist – Iphigenia Taurisban). His most outstanding work is The History of European Literature vols. i-ii(Az európai irodalom
története I-II) shows his enthusiasm for a united European culture. He was curator of the Baumgarten Foundation, and supported young poets and writers, such as Gyula (Julius) Illyés, Lőrincz (Laurence) Szabó and Károly (Charles) Pap. He was a member of the Kisfaludy Society. Babits was one of the greatest figures of 20th century Hungarian literature. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7666.→Ady, Endre; Móricz, Zsigmond; Illyés, Gyula; Szabó, Lőrinc; Bélia, György; Török Sophie;Pap, Károly.
Bábolna, Arabian Horses of– A special breed of horses from Bábolna puszta, near Bana, in County Komárom (Dunántúl - Transdanubia). The experimental breeding started in Bábolna in the 19th century. A special breed was developed from repeated imports, later called Shagya-Arabian, an elegant type of horse with toughness, endurance and friendliness toward humans, thus suitable for the Hussars. These horses were used both as carriage and riding horses. The breed’s name comes from the dapple-grey stallion Shagya, born in 1830. A Bedouin tribe bred Shagya and sold him to agents of the Habsburg monarchy. In 1836 Shagya became the breeding stallion at Bábolna. – B: 1187, 1143, T: 7680, 7103.
Babos, Sándor (Alexander) (Budapest, 3 February 1903 - Alta Loma, CA, USA, 19 March 1996) – Minister of the Reformed Church, missionary. He finished his theological studies at Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) (1921-1825) and at the Missionary High School and University of Basel, Switzerland (1926-1929). He was Assistant Minister at the Farkas Street Church, Kolozsvár, then substitute minister among Hungarians scattered in Braila, Galac (Galati) and Lupény (Lupeni), Romania. He spent a year at the University of Edinburgh. The Church of Scotland accepted him for missionary work and in 1935 he was posted in northern Manchuria, China. During World War II the Japanese allowed him to work because he was Hungarian, although with restrictions. He survived the Chinese civil war and the occupation of the Soviet army. He taught Greek and German at the Theological School of Mukden (Senyang) between 1942 and 1946. He moved to the United States in 1947, where he served the Hungarian congregations of Fairfield CT, Bethlehem and Pittsburg, PA. His publications include What is the Foreign Mission?(Mi a külmisszió?) (1930); Behold, I am with You… Manchurian Diary (Ímé én tiveletekvagyok…Mandzsuriai napló) (1936); Christ in Manchuria (Krisztus Mandzsuriában) (1941),and In the Shadow of Pagodas(Pagodák árnyékában), with Sándor Németh(1944). – B: 0910, T: 7103.
Bach Era – Austrian retaliatory administration in Hungary from 1849 to 1859, headed by Alexander Bach, Austiran Interior Minister. It actually began in July 1850, when Austrian General Julius Haynau’s rule of terror ended, which was established after the defeat of the War of Independence (1848-1849). The Austrian regime laid a heavy burden on Hungary’s population. It tried to stir up feelings of inequality and attempted to divide the people further by emphasizing class distinctions. In an effort to exercise control over and ‘Germanize’ Hungarian literary life, the regime appointed several Austrian teaching staff to Hungarian universities and scientific institutions. – B: 0942, 1078, T: 7668.→Haynau, Baron Julius, Freiherr von; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
Bácska (now Bačka, Serbia) – is the southern part of the Danube-Tisza interfluve on the Great Hungarian Plain. This southern part of Hungary (Southland, Délvidék-Vojvodina) was part of the Historic Kingdom of Hungary until 1920. Now it is the western part of Voivodina, making up the northern section of Serbia. Human settlements can be found here from the Stone Age. Proto-Hungarians (Late-Avars) started to settle the area around 677 AD. After 1000 AD, two counties were formed here: Bács in the South, and Bodrog in the North, both as administrative regions of the newly formed Hungarian Kingdom. The kings of the Árpád House (1000-1301) established 8 abbeys and monasteries in this region. The Mongol invasion of 1241-1242 extensively devastated the area. During the reign of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) the region was again well populated by Hungarians and included 12 castles, 28 towns and 529 villages. During the 15th century, Slavs from the Balkans started to move in, escaping from the expanding Turkish Empire in the Balkans. The Orthodox Patriarch Arzen Csernojevic led their largest group. After the battle of Mohács in 1526, and during the Turkish occupation (1541-1697), the Hungarian population greatly declined. The greatest influx of Serbs occurred in 1691, after their rebellion against the Turks was crushed. Following the defeat of the Turks, this region was designated as the southern defense perimeter of the Habsburg Empire. By 1733 this designation had lost its significance and the region started to be resettled by Hungarians. Between 1763 and 1786 the Habsburg Dynasty initiated and organized a settlement of Swabian farmers from western Germany. These Germanic settlers were supported with reduced taxation by the Austrian authorities. In addition, Slavic people from the present Slovakia, and French farmers from Alsace Lorraine settled in Bácska at the end of the 18th century. In 1802 Bács and Bodrog counties were combined into one administrative unit as County Bács-Bodrog. After the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty in 1920, almost the whole area was ceded to Yugoslavia. From 1920 to 1940 a large number of Serbs were relocated here from the central Balkan regions. The Soviet army occupied this area in late 1944. Tito’s partisans followed the Soviet forces. They massacred large portions of the non-Slavic population, among them some 40-50,000 ethnic Hungarians, including women and children. Persecution of Hungarians resumed during and after the civil war in the 1990s. In the Tito era the number of Hunngarians in this region was 500,000, this declined to 270.000 during the civil war in Yugoslavia in the last decade of the old millennium. – B: 1031, 1134, T: 7656.→Late Avars; Trianon Peace Treaty; Atrocities Against Hungarians; Southern Hungary. Bacsó, Péter (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 6 January 1928 - Budapest, 11 March 2009) – Film producer, film scriptwriter. He studied at the Academy of Dramatic Arts (1946-1950). From 1973, he was Artistic Director of the Dialog Studio, then from 1987 to 1991, its Manager; as well as a lecturer at the Academy of Dramatic Art. His film scripts are: Dearest Anna (Édes Anna) (1958), Two Half-Times in Hell(Két félidő apokolban) (1961). His feature films include It is Simple in Summer(Nyáron egyszerű) (1963); The Witness (A tanú) (1969); Sparkling Girls(Szikrázó lányok) (1974); The Day Before Yesterday(Tegnap előtt) (1981),;Stalin’s Fiancée(Sztalin menyasszonya) (1990); Live Show (1992), and Dog with Tiger Stripes(Atigriscsíkos kutya) (2000). Books he authored are: Silent Shout(Csendes kiáltás) (1994), and 3 Witnesses(3 tanú) (2001). He was a recipient of many awards and prizes, among them the Béla Balázs Prize (1968), the Merited Artist title (1972), the Silver Leopard Prize of the Locarno Film Festival (1972), the Great Prize of the San Remo Festival (1974), the Kossuth Prize (1985), and the Specific Prize of the Rio de Janeiro Festival (1985). – B: 0874, 1178, 1257, T: 7103.
Badal, János (Jean Badal) (Budapest, 7 March 1927 - ) – Cinematographer. He served in the army in 1944-1945; studied History, History of Arts and Hungarian Literature at the University of Budapest (1945-1947), then attended the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest (1947-1951), and finally studied Cinematic Arts at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). From 1950 he worked as cameraman and made several films from 1953 on. He taught at the Academy of Dramatic Arts in 1949-1956. Since 1957 he lives in Paris. His works include Lieutenant of Rákóczi(Rákóczi hadnagya) (1953); TheAmerican (1964); School of Emotions(Érzelmek iskolája) (French 1968); Borrowed Time(Kölcsönkapott idő), (French-Hungarian 1966), and The Judgment(Az itélet), (French-Italian 1974). – B: 0874, 1504, 1031, T: 7103.
Badár, Balázs (Blaise) (Mezőtúr, 5 May 1855 - Mezőtúr, 5 December 1939) – Master-potter. He elevated pottery to the level of art and made Hungarian folk pottery well known all over the world. At the turn of the 20th century, with his distinctly different vases, dishes, and ornamental pieces, he actively participated in every important artistic exhibition in Hungary and abroad. He added his signature to every piece he made. His work greatly influenced the potters of the Great Hungarian Plain (Nagyalföld). In 1932 a representative selection of his ceramics was deposited at the Museum of Stockholm. – B: 0883, 1134, T: 3240.
Badiny Jós, Ferenc (Francis) (Gács, now Halič, Slovakia, 3 June 1909 - Budapest, 10 March 2007) – Linguist, Sumerologist. Following his training at the Military Academy of Budapest, he became an officer in the Hungarian Air Force; but due to poor health, he did not do active service in World War II. Near the end of the war he emigrated to Austria, and finally to Argentina, where he studied the Sumerian language and civilization. He became Professor of Sumerology at the Jesuit University of Buenos Aires. After the death of his wife Ilonka, he returned to Hungary and settled there. He was founder, editor and publisher of the cultural periodical Ancient Roots(Ősi gyökér). He published a number of articles, and 25 books dealing with early Hungarian history and Sumerology; they include El Pueblo de Nimrod. Nuevas...(City of Nimrod News…) (1966); Ethnographical Map of Turanians(Uralo-Altaians) (1966); The Discovered Hungarian Ancient History(A megtalált magyar őstörténelem) (Australia 1967); Sumerian Syntax and Agglutination in Asian Languages, (Canberra, 1971); Mah-Gar is Magyar(Mah-Gar,a Magyar) (1976); From Kaldea to Ister-Gam, vols. i,ii,iii (Kaldeától Ister-Gamig, I,II,III) (1971, 1981, 2000), and King Jesus – the Parthian Prince (Jézus király – A pártus herceg) (Budapest, 1998). Badiny is author of a Hungarian Catechism entitled Ballad – A Hungarian Church in its Hungarian Faith (Ballada – A Magyar Egyház Magyar Hitében) (1976), an attempt at an exclusively Hungarian Christian religion; Badiny became the founder of a Hungarian Church. He was made an honorary doctor of the Private University of Miskolc (1977). His theological views and linguistic work were widely criticised, but his admirers regard him as the discoverer of an ancient Hungarian history. He died at the age of 98. – B: 1120, 1031, T: 7456, 7103.→Bobula, Ida; Padányi, Victor; Pap, Gábor; Tomory, Zsuzsa.
Bagdal, Mrs. Vilmos (William) (née Irma Kiss) (Ipolyvarbó, now Vrbovka, Slovakia, 9 August 1929 - ) – Nurse, leader of a vocal group, ethnographer. Her education was interrupted when the advancing Russian front reached her village and the school was closed down in 1944. In 1950 she obtained a nursing diploma at Losonc (now Lucenec, Slovakia). In 1956 she worked at the farmers’ co-operative of Ipolyvarbó. Since 1968 she is a member, and subsequently leader of the local singing group, and became the “woman of many songs” of the village. On collecting trips she taped numerous folk tales, village stories, traditions, folk-customs and folk songs. In addition, she took part in national folk craft competitions and festivals. Her folk ensemble appeared, among others, in Budapest, Hollókő, Kecskemét, Balassagyarmat, Szentendre. She has been a member of the CSEMADOK (Czechoslovakian Hungarian Social and Cultural Alliance – Csehszlovákiai Magyar Társadalmi és KulturálisSzövetség – CSEMADOK) since 1952. For her nursing work she received the Ministerial Order of Merit, and in 1984 she received from CSEMADOK the Medal of Excellence as a folk artist. – B: 1083, T: 7456.
Bagpipe, Hungarian (Magyar duda) – An ancient musical instrument of Oriental origin, different forms of which existed for at least 3,000 years, and was known to many races in Europe and Asia. Mainly shepherds used it. The player of the Hungarian bagpipe or duda supplies air into the bag through the mouthpiece. From there it flows into the two reed-pipes that have 6, sometimes 7 holes and have a one-octave range. Its longest pipe is the bass-pipe with a single low note that sounds continuously. The Hungarian bagpipe is characterized by decorations of animal or human heads, and displayes markings of high- or low-level tunings. The oldest picture depicting this instrument dates from the late 15th century, where it appears on the marginal decorations of a Corvin Codex. However, description of it already appeared in 13th century documents. During the 16th century Hungarian bagpipe players were known in other parts of Europe as well. The bagpipe occupied a prominent place in the instrumental music of the Hungarian nobles of the 17th century as a solo instrument, in pairs, or accompanied by a violin. While at the beginning of the 20th century it was still fairly popular in Hungary, now only folk ensembles play it. – B: 1134, 1020, T: 7684.→Codex Literature; Corvina.
Baja, Mihály (Michael) (Végvár, 11 December 1879 - Debrecen, 5 February 1957) – Minister of the Reformed Church, writer, poet. He completed his studies at the Reformed College in Debrecen and at the Reformed Theological Academy in Budapest. Between 1908 and 1914 he founded and served two Hungarian Reformed congregations in Wallingford, PA and in MacKeesport, PA USA. He was minister at Túrkeve in 1915, and from 1921 in Debrecen. His first poems appeared in 1902 in Debrecen in the FirstAnthology of theBokréta Circle of Debrecen (Debreceni Bokréta Kör első antológiája), then more followed, such as the Festive Sounds (Ünnepi hangok) (1917); The Bell is Ringing(Szól aharang) (1930), and The Old College of Debrecen (Debreceni öreg kollégium) (1940). – B: 0876, 0877, 1257, T: 7103.
Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, Endre (Andrew) (Szarvas, 6 June 1886 - Sopronkőhida, 24 December 1944) – Journalist, politician. He read Law in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany. In 1911, for family and political reasons he and his brother confronted the politician András (Andrew) L. Áchim, and in defense of his brother, he shot Achim. He fought in World War I and was seriously wounded in 1916. In 1919, during the 133-day reign of the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic, he lived in Vienna. On his return home he joined the national forces in Szeged. He became supporter of right wing political parties and participated in founding the Race-Protection Party (Fajvédő Párt) in 1923. As journalist he worked for the journal Hungarians(Magyarság), and in 1928 founded his journal Vanguard (Előörs). From then on he leaned towards the democratic opposition, and in 1930-1931, organized theNational Radical Party (Nemzeti Radikális Párt). In 1932 he launched the weekly Freedom (Szabadság) that was a militant anti-Nazi voice. In 1936 his party united with the Independent Smallholders’Party (Független Kisgazda Párt); in 1939 he became a Member of Parliament representing the district of Tarpa. As journalist of the weekly Independent Hungary(Független Magyarország) and that of the journal Hungary(Magyarország), he warned against the Nazi danger and realized the necessity of a united resistance of the small nations along the Danube. During World War II he demanded Hungary’s withdrawal from the War. On March 19 1944, when the German Army occupied Hungary, he was involved in a gun-battle with the Gestapo unit that wanted to arrest him. He was wounded and detained, then released by the intervention of the government. However, when he organized a resistance movement he was betrayed and finally executed by the Hungarian pro-Nazi government in power since October 1944. His works include Our National Rebirth and the Press(Nemzeti újjászületésünk és a sajtó) (1920); National Radicalism (Nemzeti radikalizmus) (1930); Our Place and Fate in Europe (Helyünk és sorsunk Európában) (1941), and Transylvania, Past and Future (1944). – B: 0883, 1090, T: 7103.
Bajmóc Castle, in Northern Hungary (Upland, Felvidék, now Slovakia) – When the Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin in 895-896, there was already a castle at Bajmóc. Initially it belonged to the Árpád family, passing later to Máté Csák; then it became the property of the king. The Turks unsuccessfully tried to capture it in the 16th century. Later, István (Stephen) Bocskai’s army attacked it, also unsuccessfully. The only person to take the castle was Miklós (Nicholas) Bercsényi in 1704, during Prince Rákóczi’s uprising against Austrian rule. According to historical notes, a National Assembly was held under the old linden tree in the early 14th century. The castle contains two parts: the old castle with its polygonal foundation and the five- storey-high inner castle with one hundred rooms. The chapel was built in 1662; there is a large botanical garden next to the castle. József (Joseph) Huber designed the present building in 1888-1910 in the Neo-Gothic style. It was rebuilt for the owner Count János (John) Pálffy. It is one of the most attractive castles of the former Northern Hungary. Many of the castle’s treasures disappeared during the Czech occupation following World War I, and the rest after World War II. – B: 1133, 1020, T: 7663.→Csák, Máté; Mátyusföld;Bocskai,Prince István; Bercsényi, Count Miklós; Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc; Pálffy, Count János.
Bajomi Lázár, Endre (Andrew) (András Lázár) (Biharnagybajom, 19 August 1914 - Budapest, 18 May 1987) – Writer, journalist, translator of literary woks. After initial studies at the University of Debrecen he became an extramural student at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) in 1934, obtaining his Degree in Education from the Alliance Française of Paris. In France, he worked first as a correspondent for leftist Hungarian immigrant papers published under the pseudonym Ferenc Dávid, and as Endre Bajomi in Hungarian journals, such as Szocializmus (Socialism) and Answer (Válasz). He wassentenced in absentia for his articles in the journal Our Way (A Mi Utunk) of Debrecen in 1934. He was Paris correspondent for the journals Our Age (Korunk), and New Voice (Új Hang), and in 1938 he became Editor for the Hungarian publication Free Word (SzabadSzó) in Paris. Between 1945 and 1947 he was Editor for Droit et Liberté(Law and Freedom) and République Hongroise (Hungarian Republic). He returned to Hungary in 1952. Between 1953 and 1954 he was Editor for the Literary Publishers (Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó), and from 1955 Editor of the New Hungarian Publisher (Új Magyar Könyvkiadó) and Europe Publishers (Európa Könyvkiadó) until his retirement in 1977. Central to his work were Hungarian-French cultural relations dating as far back as the 14th century. He published a number of books on the intellectual greats of France. His works include The Comet (Az üstökös), novel (1957); A Short Survey of Recent French Literature (A mai francia irodalom kistükre) (1962); The Magic of Paris (Párizs varázsa) essays (1971), and The Wonderful Life of Saint-Exupéry (Saint-Exupéry csodálatos élete) (1987). He was awarded the gold medal of the City of Paris (1982) and the Prize of Ordre des arts et des lettres (1985). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.