Boat Crew Study Guide sn brook Kolarich June 2012 sta montauk The 8 responsibilities of a boat crewman



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Boat Crew Study Guide

SN Brook Kolarich June 2012

STA Montauk
The 8 responsibilities of a boat crewman

  • Helm

  • Anchor watch

  • Lookout

  • Tow watch

  • Rig towing and mooring lines

  • Operate damage control equipment

  • Act as a surface swimmer

  • Administer first aid


Reporting a Contact as a Lookout

Description-Bearing-Distance

“I have a white fishing vessel bearing 2-1-0, 200 yards out”

Bearing drift: Alert coxswain as to direction contact is traveling, either right or left bearing drift, or a possible overtaking situation.

Aspect: What part of the vessel do you see? Port, stern, bow, etc. At night, use navigation lights to identify.

Target Angle: Used for contacts in the air such as helos and airplanes.


First Aid
Shock: Shock is a depressed physiological or psychological state.
Shock Syndrome: A set of symptoms which can occur either singly or as a group. These symptoms are unique to each person and can change throughout the process of treating an injury. Symptoms may develop rapidly or may have a delayed onset. Each symptom may manifest differently in each person.
Causes of shock:

  • Trauma

  • Allergic reactions

  • Hypothermia

  • Drugs

  • Toxins

  • Emotional state

  • Heart attack or stroke


Symptoms of shock:

  • Restlessness

  • Fainting

  • Thirst

  • Nausea

  • Fright

  • Anxiousness

  • Weakness

  • Dizziness


Signs of shock:

  • Weak and rapid pulse

  • Shallow, rapid, or irregular breathing

  • Cold, clammy, sweating skin

  • Dilated pupils

  • Altered or changing state of consciousness


Treating Shock:

If not hypothermic, have person lie on their back and elevate their legs. If victim is unconscious, check vitals and start rescue breathing or CPR as necessary.


Fatigue: Mental and physical fatigues are among the greatest dangers during boating operations. Fatigue reduces the powers of observation, concentration, and judgment.
Situations that may cause fatigue:

  • Extreme hot or cold weather conditions

  • Eye strain from lookout, sun conditions, sea spray, etc

  • Effort to maintain balance

  • Stress

  • Loud noises

  • Lack of sleep

  • boredom


Three types of bleeding:

  • Arterial: From an artery, bright red, gushes forth in spurts that are in synch with person’s pulse

  • Venous: From a vein, is dark read and comes in a steady flow

  • Capillary: From capillaries, is bright red and oozing


Controlling bleeding:

  • Direct pressure: The best method of controlling hemorrhaging is by applying direct pressure to the wound. The palm of a gloved hand should be placed over the wound. Sterile, disposable gloves should be used. To reduce the flow of bleeding, the injury should be raised so it is at a level higher than the heart.

  • Pressure points: If bleeding persists after applying direct pressure, you may need to apply pressure to a pressure point to stop the flow of blood to the area. Apply direct and constant pressure.


Temporal

Facial


Carotid

Subclavian

Axillary

Brachial


Radial/Ulnar

Femoral Upper

Femoral Lower

Popliteal

Dorsalis Pedis




  • Elevation: Elevate the bleeding body part above the heart.

  • Tourniquet: If severe bleeding cannot be controlled after trying all other means and the

victim is in danger of bleeding to death, use a tourniquet. Remember that a tourniquet is useful only on arms and legs. A tourniquet is a constricting band placed around an extremity, then tightened until bleeding from an artery has stopped. When a tourniquet is required, use the tourniquets available in a standard Coast Guard first aid kit. Otherwise, use any wide

gauge material such as a webbed belt strap with a buckle. This should be used as a last resort.

When used, write the time on the victim’s forehead that the tourniquet was tied.


  • Refer to the following procedures when applying a tourniquet:

1) Place the tourniquet two to three inches above the wound, but not touching

the wound edges. If the wound is in a joint area or just below a joint, place

the tourniquet directly above the joint.

2 )Wrap the tourniquet band tightly around the limb twice and secure it in

place.

3) Attach a note to the victim giving the location of the tourniquet and the time



that it was applied. Always leave the tourniquet exposed to view. If it is not

possible to attach a note, write the letter “T” on the patient’s forehead with a

grease pen, lipstick, or other suitable marker, and show the time it was applied.

4) After making the decision, and applying a tourniquet, DO NOT LOOSEN.



5) Continue to treat for shock and obtain medical attention IMMEDIATELY.
Compound (open) Fracture: The bone has broken and an open wound is present. The bone may be protruding out of the wound or skin.
Simple (closed) Fracture: The bone is broken or cracked but no open wound is present. Care must be taken to limit movement of the bone to prevent an open fracture form occurring.
Three types of burns:

  • 1st degree: Mildest type of burn. Only the outer most layers of skin are affected. Produces redness, increased warmth, tenderness, and mild pain.

  • 2nd degree: Extend through the outer layers of skin into the inner layers, but not enough to prevent rapid regenerative growth of skin cells. Blisters, severe pain, redness, and warmth may be present.

  • 3rd degree: These types of burns penetrate the full thickness of the skin, destroying both the inner and outer layers. Severe pain may be present but is commonly absent as the nerve endings may be burnt off. Color may range from white and lifeless to charred and black. Healing requires many months and commonly skin graphs are needed.

Burn treatment:

  • 1st degree: Immerse in cold water until pain subsides, cover with a sterile dressing.

  • 2nd degree: Immerse in cold water until pain subsides, do not break the blisters, wrap in sterile dressing

  • 3rd degree: Cover burn to prevent infection. Treat for shock, do not give person any food or water, and check vitals every five minutes, alert EMS as soon as possible.


Anaphylactic shock:

  • A rapid, extreme allergic reaction.

  • Symptoms:

    • Itching skin

    • Hives

    • Flushing

    • Swelling lips, hands, tongue, feet or throat

    • Abdominal cramps

    • Coughing

    • Headache

    • Shortness of breath

    • Loss of consciousness

    • Altered mental status

  • Treatment:

    • Requires medication to counteract the allergic reaction to the substance.

    • If the victim carries an epinephrine kit, crewmembers may assist them in administering it, if trained.

    • The victim should be treated for shock, and if necessary, administered CPR.

    • Some cases of anaphylactic shock are so extreme death may occur in just a few minutes.

Heart attack:

  • A heart attack is always considered a medical emergency since the victim is in significant danger of going into cardiopulmonary arrest and dying.

  • Medical assistance should be contacted immediately.

  • Symptoms:

    • Severe, crushing type pain under the breastbone, arms, neck, and jaw.

    • Profuse sweating, shortness of breath

    • Extreme anxiety

    • Nausea and vomiting

    • Bluish discoloration of lips, fingernails, and skin

  • Treatment

    • Keep the victim quiet and at rest

    • Administer oxygen if trained to do so

    • Place victim in a position that comfortable to them

    • Seek immediate medical attention and notify local EMS

    • Determine if the victim is taking any medication for their heart such as nitroglycerine

    • Reassure the patient that assistance is on the way or that transportation to a hospital is imminent

    • Transport the victim as quickly as possible


Scuba incident (BENDS):

  • Also known as decompression sickness

  • Treatment:

    • Immediately notify EMS and start transport to nearest recompression facility

    • Place the diver on their left side with head down and provide oxygen if available

    • Treat for shock but do no elevate legs

    • Get dive profile ( how deep & for how long)

    • Secure dive gear for transport with victim


Hypothermia:

  • A lowering of a person’s core body temperature.

  • Signs and symptoms:

    • Low body temperature

    • Low blood pressure

    • Slow, weak pulse

    • Unconsciousness

    • Cold skin, possible shivering or chattering of the teeth

    • May seem disoriented

    • Slow and labored breathing

    • Slurred speech

    • Dilated pupils

  • Body temperature:

  • Body temp is the most useful yard stick for identifying hypothermia. Victims will have a rectal temperature below normal. Only rectal temperatures are of value, since it is the body’s core temperature that determines the severity of hypothermia.

  • Treatment:

    • Remove wet clothing and replace with dry clothing or blankets in a warm environment.


Emergencies caused by heat: Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, and Stroke.
Stroke:

  • A stroke is any bleeding or clotting affecting the blood vessels of the brain.

  • Symptoms: Person may not be sweating any more

    • Unconsciousness

    • Shock

    • Confusion

    • Dizziness

    • Facial droop

    • Impaired vision

    • Difficulty speaking

    • Seizures

    • Numbness/weakness on one side of the body

  • Treatment:

    • Activate EMS and notify local medical assistance immediately

    • Treat for shock

    • Help the victim maintain an open airway and provide rescue breathing if necessary


Cramps:

  • Painful contractions of various skeletal muscles. Caused by depletion of salt from body fluids.

  • Treatment: drink cool fluids.


Heat Exhaustion:

  • Too much fluid lost by perspiration

  • Treatment: remove patient from environment and place them on their back with legs elevated. Cool the patient and if conscious, administer sips of cool water or sports drink and treat for shock.



Personal Protective Equipment

• Work Uniform Type III PFD and BC Survival Vest: Water Temp 60°F + / Air Temp 30°F +


• Anti-Exposure Suit and BC Survival Vest: Water Temp 50° to 60°F / Air Temp 50° F+ (Mustang)
• Dry Suit W/ layer 1 and 2, Undergarments, Type III PFD, BC Survival Vest, Neoprene Hood: Water Temp 50°F and below / Air Temp 50°F and below.


Stability
Center of gravity: The center of gravity is the point at which the weight of the boat acts vertically downwards. Thus, the boat acts as if all of its weight were concentrated in one point – the center of gravity. Generally, the lower the center of gravity, the more stable the boat.
Buoyancy: Buoyancy is the upward force of water displaced by the hull. The force of buoyancy keeps the boat afloat; however it may be overcome if too much weight is added.
Equilibrium: When a boat is at rest, the center of gravity acting downwards is directly above the center of buoyancy acting upwards. At this point the boat is considered to be in equilibrium.



Rolling: When a boat rolls, the center of gravity will move in the same direction as the roll.
Heeling: In heeling, the underwater volume of the boat changes shape, causing the center of buoyancy to move.

Listing: If the center of gravity is not in the centerline of the boat, the boat will heel until equilibrium is reached with the centers of gravity and buoyancy in alignment.
The two types of stability are:

  • Transverse: Athwart ships. This type of stability tends to keep the boat from rolling & capsizing.

  • Longitudinal: Fore & aft. This type of stability tends to balance the boat preventing it from pitching end-over-end (pitch-polling).


The two forces that effect stability are:

  • Static: Caused by placement of weight within the hull.

  • Dynamic: Caused by actions outside the hull such as winds & waves.

  • Bonus: If ice adheres to the hull it becomes a static force effecting stability, since it can offset the weight of the boat causing it to heel.




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