STA Montauk The 8 responsibilities of a boat crewman
Rig towing and mooring lines
Operate damage control equipment
Act as a surface swimmer
Administer first aid
Reporting a Contact as a Lookout
“I have a white fishing vessel bearing 2-1-0, 200 yards out”
Bearing drift: Alert coxswain as to direction contact is traveling, either right or left bearing drift, or a possible overtaking situation.
Aspect: What part of the vessel do you see? Port, stern, bow, etc. At night, use navigation lights to identify.
Target Angle: Used for contacts in the air such as helos and airplanes.
First Aid Shock: Shock is a depressed physiological or psychological state.
Shock Syndrome: A set of symptoms which can occur either singly or as a group. These symptoms are unique to each person and can change throughout the process of treating an injury. Symptoms may develop rapidly or may have a delayed onset. Each symptom may manifest differently in each person.
Causes of shock:
If not hypothermic, have person lie on their back and elevate their legs. If victim is unconscious, check vitals and start rescue breathing or CPR as necessary.
Fatigue: Mental and physical fatigues are among the greatest dangers during boating operations. Fatigue reduces the powers of observation, concentration, and judgment.
Situations that may cause fatigue:
Extreme hot or cold weather conditions
Eye strain from lookout, sun conditions, sea spray, etc
Arterial: From an artery, bright red, gushes forth in spurts that are in synch with person’s pulse
Venous: From a vein, is dark read and comes in a steady flow
Capillary: From capillaries, is bright red and oozing
Direct pressure: The best method of controlling hemorrhaging is by applying direct pressure to the wound. The palm of a gloved hand should be placed over the wound. Sterile, disposable gloves should be used. To reduce the flow of bleeding, the injury should be raised so it is at a level higher than the heart.
Pressure points: If bleeding persists after applying direct pressure, you may need to apply pressure to a pressure point to stop the flow of blood to the area. Apply direct and constant pressure.
Elevation: Elevate the bleeding body part above the heart.
Tourniquet: If severe bleeding cannot be controlled after trying all other means and the
victim is in danger of bleeding to death, use a tourniquet. Remember that a tourniquet is useful only on arms and legs. A tourniquet is a constricting band placed around an extremity, then tightened until bleeding from an artery has stopped. When a tourniquet is required, use the tourniquets available in a standard Coast Guard first aid kit. Otherwise, use any wide
gauge material such as a webbed belt strap with a buckle. This should be used as a last resort.
When used, write the time on the victim’s forehead that the tourniquet was tied.
Refer to the following procedures when applying a tourniquet:
1) Place the tourniquet two to three inches above the wound, but not touching
the wound edges. If the wound is in a joint area or just below a joint, place
the tourniquet directly above the joint.
2 )Wrap the tourniquet band tightly around the limb twice and secure it in
3) Attach a note to the victim giving the location of the tourniquet and the time
that it was applied. Always leave the tourniquet exposed to view. If it is not
possible to attach a note, write the letter “T” on the patient’s forehead with a
grease pen, lipstick, or other suitable marker, and show the time it was applied.
5) Continue to treat for shock and obtain medical attention IMMEDIATELY.
Compound (open) Fracture: The bone has broken and an open wound is present. The bone may be protruding out of the wound or skin.
Simple (closed) Fracture: The bone is broken or cracked but no open wound is present. Care must be taken to limit movement of the bone to prevent an open fracture form occurring.
Three types of burns:
1st degree: Mildest type of burn. Only the outer most layers of skin are affected. Produces redness, increased warmth, tenderness, and mild pain.
2nd degree: Extend through the outer layers of skin into the inner layers, but not enough to prevent rapid regenerative growth of skin cells. Blisters, severe pain, redness, and warmth may be present.
3rd degree: These types of burns penetrate the full thickness of the skin, destroying both the inner and outer layers. Severe pain may be present but is commonly absent as the nerve endings may be burnt off. Color may range from white and lifeless to charred and black. Healing requires many months and commonly skin graphs are needed.
1st degree: Immerse in cold water until pain subsides, cover with a sterile dressing.
2nd degree: Immerse in cold water until pain subsides, do not break the blisters, wrap in sterile dressing
3rd degree: Cover burn to prevent infection. Treat for shock, do not give person any food or water, and check vitals every five minutes, alert EMS as soon as possible.
A rapid, extreme allergic reaction.
Swelling lips, hands, tongue, feet or throat
Shortness of breath
Loss of consciousness
Altered mental status
Requires medication to counteract the allergic reaction to the substance.
If the victim carries an epinephrine kit, crewmembers may assist them in administering it, if trained.
The victim should be treated for shock, and if necessary, administered CPR.
Some cases of anaphylactic shock are so extreme death may occur in just a few minutes.
A heart attack is always considered a medical emergency since the victim is in significant danger of going into cardiopulmonary arrest and dying.
Medical assistance should be contacted immediately.
Severe, crushing type pain under the breastbone, arms, neck, and jaw.
Cold skin, possible shivering or chattering of the teeth
May seem disoriented
Slow and labored breathing
Body temp is the most useful yard stick for identifying hypothermia. Victims will have a rectal temperature below normal. Only rectal temperatures are of value, since it is the body’s core temperature that determines the severity of hypothermia.
Remove wet clothing and replace with dry clothing or blankets in a warm environment.
Emergencies caused by heat: Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, and Stroke.
A stroke is any bleeding or clotting affecting the blood vessels of the brain.
Help the victim maintain an open airway and provide rescue breathing if necessary
Painful contractions of various skeletal muscles. Caused by depletion of salt from body fluids.
Treatment: drink cool fluids.
Too much fluid lost by perspiration
Treatment: remove patient from environment and place them on their back with legs elevated. Cool the patient and if conscious, administer sips of cool water or sports drink and treat for shock.
Personal Protective Equipment
• Work Uniform Type III PFD and BC Survival Vest: Water Temp 60°F + / Air Temp 30°F +
• Anti-Exposure Suit and BC Survival Vest: Water Temp 50° to 60°F / Air Temp 50° F+ (Mustang)
• Dry Suit W/ layer 1 and 2, Undergarments, Type III PFD, BC Survival Vest, Neoprene Hood: Water Temp 50°F and below / Air Temp 50°F and below.
Stability Center of gravity: The center of gravity is the point at which the weight of the boat acts vertically downwards. Thus, the boat acts as if all of its weight were concentrated in one point – the center of gravity. Generally, the lower the center of gravity, the more stable the boat.
Buoyancy: Buoyancy is the upward force of water displaced by the hull. The force of buoyancy keeps the boat afloat; however it may be overcome if too much weight is added.
Equilibrium: When a boat is at rest, the center of gravity acting downwards is directly above the center of buoyancy acting upwards. At this point the boat is considered to be in equilibrium.
Rolling: When a boat rolls, the center of gravity will move in the same direction as the roll.
Heeling: In heeling, the underwater volume of the boat changes shape, causing the center of buoyancy to move.
Listing: If the center of gravity is not in the centerline of the boat, the boat will heel until equilibrium is reached with the centers of gravity and buoyancy in alignment.
The two types of stability are:
Transverse: Athwart ships. This type of stability tends to keep the boat from rolling & capsizing.
Longitudinal: Fore & aft. This type of stability tends to balance the boat preventing it from pitching end-over-end (pitch-polling).
The two forces that effect stability are:
Static: Caused by placement of weight within the hull.
Dynamic: Caused by actions outside the hull such as winds & waves.
Bonus: If ice adheres to the hull it becomes a static force effecting stability, since it can offset the weight of the boat causing it to heel.