Chinese Cooperation Affirmative Index



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Chinese Cooperation Affirmative Index

Overview and Rationale……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...2

1AC………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………3-8

Harms Extensions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9-16

Inherency Extensions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…17-18

Solvency Extensions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……..19-26

Adv. 1 Culture Extensions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27-39

Adv. 2 Econ Extensions…………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………40-45

Adv. 3 Safety Extensions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46-50

Neg Solvency……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………51-56

Neg Msc…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..57-66

Neg Harms…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67-68

Answers to Russia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68-69

http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=a2kjkesv5rxo.imahwmjzbkf/sig=13fbk1l0f/exp=1310545301/**http%3a/www.wallpapers8.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/buzz-light-year-wallpaper-cartoon.jpg

Overview and Rationale for Case

Observation 1: Inherency


  1. U.S. Federal Government currently hasn’t decided on a method to remove debris

Alex Sciuto, [scientist for Orbital Debris Idealab.talkingpointsmemo.com] January 25, 2011

“Title: Air Force Plans To Track 20,000 Pieces of Space Trach”

President Obama’s National Space Policy published this past June, pledged as one of its goals to begin researching ways to remove space debris. “We’ve been looking at that problem for several decades. We’re still trying to develop a way forward on what technologies and remove debris. “NASA’s Nicholas Johnson said.

Plan:

PP1: Mandates

We as the Affirmative team are going to use the ORION Laser to eliminate space debris outside of the Earth’s Mesosphere.



PP2: Funding

Funding is going to be through normal means.



PP3: Time Frame

The Time Frame for this plan is relatively quick. The technology has already been created and is ready to deploy. It will take only 3 years to completely clear 800km above the Earth’s Mesosphere.



PP4: Enforcement

Enforcement is going to be through all branches of the government and NASA



PP5: Fiat

The Affirmative team reserves the right to fiat and definition of terms.



Observation 2: Solvency

  1. Radars are needed to assist lasers in achieving their target

“C.R. Phippsa, G. Albrechta, H. Friedman, D. Gavela, E.V. Georgea, J. Murraya, C. Hoa, W. Priedhorskya, M.M. Michaelisa, and J.P. Relillya. Advanced Optical Systems Development Group” Cambridge.com October 11, 1995 “Title: ORION: Clearing near-Earth space debris using a 20-kW, 530-nm, Earth-based, repetitively pulsed laser”

When a large piece of space debris forced a change of flight plan for our sent U.S. Space Shuttle mission, the concept that we are trashing space as well as Earth finally attained broad public awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten long-term space missions. We believe that the best means of accomplishing these goals is the provide a very high-resolution optical detection system to locate objects.



  1. Radar System is already in place

Radar System is already in place R.M. Goldstein, S.J. Goldstein, and D.J. Kessler Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sciencedirect.com January 2000 Title: Radar observations of space debris

Our radar monitoring Earth-orbiting debris is currently at NASA’s Goldstone Tracking Station. This radar has sight to an altitude of 3200km.



  1. Laser removal solves increasing levels of debris – it requires federal action and avoids a space arms race

James Mason NASA Ames Research Center and Universities Space Research Association Arvix.org 2011 Title: Orbital Debris-Debris Collision Avoidance

Project ORION proposed using ground-based lasers to de-orbit debris. This approach is using wave lasers or high energy pulses to vaporize the debris surface material. Space-based lasers have also been considered, but ground based laser systems have the advantage of greatly simplified operations, maintenance and overall system cost. This system proposed uses a continuous wave laser mounted on a fast slewing optical telescope with adaptive optics and a guide star, which allows the laser beam to be continuously focused and directed onto the target. The threat of catastrophic or collisions between active spacecraft and orbital debris is gaining. Many satellite owner/operators are primarily concerned with the near term risk to their own spacecraft. This plan reduces the potential for the laser system to accidentally damage active satellites or to be perceived as a weapon.



  1. Debris Removal is far cheaper than collision

Jonathan W. Campbell Strategy and Technology, Air War College 2000

Title: Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection

Debris-related expenses that are tens of millions of dollars per year should be compared with estimates from the ORION study for debris removal. It estimating debris in orbits tip to 800km in altitude within only 3 years of operation would not exceed $200 million.


  1. If We Initiate Space debris clean up, other countries will follow

Irene Klotz NASA Journalist News.dicovery.com June 30 2010 Title: U.S. Open Space Doors to China

The next time the United States decides to venture into space, it wont be going along. Future missions beyond Earth will include Russian, European, Japanese, Canadian and possibly Chinese partners, under a new national space policy unveiled by the Obama administration this week. The ventures will start with projects to build confidence, gain trust and find common ground, such as cleaning up orbital debris, sharing climate information about the planet and collaborating on science missions.



Advantage 1: Safety

  1. Space junk collisions are fairly common

Stefan Lovgren Ph.D Astronomy National Geographic News News.nationalgeographic.com

2006 Title: Space Junk Cleanup Needed, NASA Experts

Three accidental collisions between catalogued space-junk objects larger than four inches (ten centimeters) have been documented. The most recent collision occurred a year ago. A 31-year-old U.S. rocket body hit a fragment from the third stage of a Chinese launch vehicle that exploded in March 2000.



  1. Chances are high that Space Debris will collide with the space station

Kenneth Chang A science reporter for the New York Times Nytimes.com

June 28 2011 Title: Debris Gives Space Station Crew Members a 29,000-MPH Close Call

One of the hundreds of thousands of pieces of space-age litter orbiting Earth zipped uncomfortably close to the International Space Station on Tuesday, June 28.

Six crew members of the space station took refuge in their “lifeboats” also known as space capsules they would use to escape a crippled station. The unidentified object hurtled past them at a speed of 29,000 miles per hour, missing the space station by only 1,100 feet. “We believe the probability that it would the hit the station was about 1 in 360,” said Lark Howorth. In section run by the United States, astronaunts closed the hatches in case and debris crashed through, to limit the danger of explosive decompression. Mission controllers gave the all-clear signal four minutes later, and the crew members returned to work.



  1. If we do not decrease space debris, cost will increase in future space activities even more

Donald J. Kessler American astrophysicist and former NASA scientist Webpages.charter.net

March 8 2009 Title: The Kessler Syndrome

These control measures will significantly increase the cost of debris control measures; but if we do not do them, we will increase the cost of future space activities even more. We might be tempted to put increasing amounts of shielding on all spacecraft to protect them and increase their life. More shielding not only increases cost, but it also increases both the frequency of catastrophic collisions and the amount of debris generated when such a collision occurs.


  1. Collisions are increasing, and they could cripple our nation

Scott Spence Director at the Integrated Defense Systems Techcrunch.com July 9 2011 : The Space Debris Threat and how to handle it

Just two years ago, a satellite collided with an expired Russian Cosmos spacecraft, significantly contributing to the amount of debris already orbiting the Earth. A piece of debris as small as one centimeter traveling at incredibly high speeds can completely destroy an operational satellite if the orbits of the two intersect. Leveraging existing technologies, more than 20,000 objects have been catalogued by Space Command, but it is estimated that more than half a million pieces exist. These pieces of “space junk” can be lethal to our space systems—military space systems to commercial systems to civil space systems.



Advantage 2: Develop

  1. Even tiny pieces of debris can make space unusable

Robert Lee Hotz Science columnist for the wall street journal February 27 2009

Title: Harmless Debris on Earth is Devastating in Orbit

The more pieces of debris up there, the more chance you’ll have another collision,” says Geoffrey Forden at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “Near Earth, space is really very crowded there may be millions of pieces of man-made debris in orbit. The wreckage may hinder manned spaceflight as well. It may be too dangerous for space shuttles to fly through the debris. Many spacecraft, including the space shuttle, are in some places vulnerable to particles five millimeters in size or below can crack the space shuttle’s windshield. Anything larger than a garden pea can be devastating.


  1. We can not colonize space while space debris is still there

Taylor Dinerman Respected space writer regarding military and civilian space activities

Thespacereview.com November 29 2004 Title: Space Debris: Not just an American problem

All too often, people claim that space debris constitutes an imminent crisis. They say that there is so much stuff is up there that it is going to destroy numerous satellites and, eventually, render any human activity in orbit impossible. A few experts say that, eventually, there will be so much garbage up there that humanity will be confined to the Earth whether it wants to leave or not.


  1. Elimination of Debris is key to the success of NASA’s space program

Krisko Institution of Mechanical Engineers Web.ebscohost.com December 2007

Title: The predicated growth of the low-Earth orbit space debris environment- an assessment of future risk for spacecraft

Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occurring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years. Operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity that increases over time as the small fragment population increases. And such an event would be potentially mission-ending for the spacecraft.

Harms

Space junk a growing threat

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Mike Wall Michael was a science writer for the Idaho National Laboratory and has been an intern at Wired.com, The Salinas Californian newspaper, and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. He has also worked as a herpetologist and wildlife biologist. He has a Ph.D. in evolutionary biology from the University of Sydney, Australia, a bachelor's degree from the University of Arizona, and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California, Santa Cruz
http://www.space.com/12107-space-junk-threat-growing-space-station.html / 29 June 2011
Title: Space Station's Brush with Space Junk Highlights Growing Threat

Pieces of space trash — which may be defunct spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicles or fragments from satellite collisions — zip around Earth at speeds up to 17,500 mph (28,163 kph).This computer illustration depicts the density of space junk around Earth in low-Earth orbit.That's so fast that even orbiting paint flecks can damage a spacecraft. And there's a lot of this stuff, much of it larger and far more dangerous than paint flecks. For example, NASA estimates that there are at least 20,000 pieces at least 4 inches wide — as big as a softball — and more than 500,000 bigger than a marble.NASA and the Space Surveillance Network operated by the Department of Defense track the debris, but the huge numbers make this a daunting challenge. And the numbers just keep growing, as more material is launched and more orbiting objects crash into each other.Sometimes this happens by accident, as was the case of a 2009 collision between a defunct Russian satellite and a U.S. Iridium communications satellite. This smash-up added at least 2,000 pieces of space junk to the total, NASA officials said.

But sometimes collisions occur by design. A 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test, for example, added about 3,000 pieces of space junk to the orbiting population.

Danger to spacecraft and astronauts

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Mike Wall Michael was a science writer for the Idaho National Laboratory and has been an intern at Wired.com, The Salinas Californian newspaper, and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. He has also worked as a herpetologist and wildlife biologist. He has a Ph.D. in evolutionary biology from the University of Sydney, Australia, a bachelor's degree from the University of Arizona, and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California, Santa Cruz
http://www.space.com/12107-space-junk-threat-growing-space-station.html / 29 June 2011
Title: Space Station's Brush with Space Junk Highlights Growing Threat

In fact, the chances of having to evacuate some of the space station's crew and send them home to Earth due to orbital debris is about 1-in-100 during every six-month period, NASA spokesman Kelly Humphries told SPACE.com. The average length of a station crew's mission is about six months.

NASA does what it can to minimize those risks. If it detects a dangerous piece of space debris soon enough, the station can be directed to make evasive maneuvers. That didn't happen in yesterday's near-miss, which came with just 14 hours of notice instead of the necessary three days or so.

The orbiting lab has made a dozen such maneuvers since 1999, including one this past April when space trash spawned by the 2009 satellite collision posed a threat.

But spacecraft aren't the only objects potentially in the line of fire. Even pieces just a few millimeters wide could be deadly to astronauts out on spacewalks (also known as extravehicular activity, or EVAs).

That's a cause for real concern, and a driving force in the effort to better track space junk and micrometeoroids — tiny chunks of rock that whiz through space.

"In the lifetime of the International Space Station, up to 2020, there's a 1-in-12 chance we will lose an astronaut on an EVA" because of micrometeoroids or space junk, Bill Cooke, chief of the Meteoroid Environment Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, said last month at the 2011 International Space Development Conference in Huntsville, Ala.
Debris is a current threat to the ISS and international relations

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David Heyman, Vincent Sabathier, Christian Beckner, Maïté Jauréguy-Naudin, Bhavini Patel, Kamal Bherwani Human Space Exploration Initiative Center for Strategic and International Studies
http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/suth.pdf / 2005 Page 10
Title: The Still Untrodden Heights: Global Imperatives for Space Exploration in the 21st Century

One final governance-related challenge needs to be discussed in this chapter: the question of civil-military relations and the weaponization of space. It is a topic that is significant and complex, and this brief overview does not do it justice. Nevertheless, it needs to be mentioned in any comprehensive assessment of the future of human space exploration, because of the intersections between the two types of space activities. The weaponization of space, mainly in low Earth orbit, creates tangible risks to human space exploration, such as the possibility that conflicts in space could create debris fields that would make space exploration more dangerous. Even today, once in a while, both the ISS and the shuttle have had to avoid orbital debris. More importantly, space debris poses a threat to the broader sense of purpose within the space community, and an ethical challenge to the wellestablished idea of space as a domain of peace. Political leaders around the world must make decisions about their priorities for mankind’s utilization of space that take these concerns into account.


Space Debris Threatens International Efforts

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Scott Spence Director, Raytheon Space Fence Program
http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/09/space-debris/ / Jul 9, 2011
Title: The Space Debris Threat And How To Handle It

Rocketing past the International Space Station at 29,000 miles per hour, a piece of space debris came only 1,100 feet away from a collision, forcing crew members to take refuge in two space capsules reserved for an emergency escape. Since the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957, Earth’s low orbit has become increasingly filled with man-made space debris—objects ranging from a single fleck of paint to larger explosion and collision fragments to entire defunct satellites. Just two years ago, an Iridium satellite collided with an expired Russian Cosmos spacecraft, significantly contributing to the amount of debris already orbiting the Earth.



Space Debris Makes Space a More Hazardous Place

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Scott Spence Director, Raytheon Space Fence Program
http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/09/space-debris/ / Jul 9, 2011
Title: The Space Debris Threat And How To Handle It

But this growing number of satellites in orbit around the Earth has made space a much more hazardous place in recent years. Low orbits have now become so crowded that operators are regularly forced to make emergency maneuvers by firing thrusters to avoid disasters.



no one is invulnerable to the threat

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Scott Spence Director, Raytheon Space Fence Program, Integrated Defense Systems.
http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/09/space-debris/ / Jul 9, 2011
Title: The Space Debris Threat And How To Handle It

A piece of debris as small as one centimeter traveling at incredibly high speeds can completely destroy an operational satellite if the orbits of the two intersect. Leveraging existing technologies, more than 20,000 objects have been catalogued by Space Command, but it is estimated that more than half a million pieces exist. Though untracked, these pieces of “space junk” can be lethal to our space systems—from military space systems to commercial systems to civil space systems—no one is invulnerable to the threat.




Debris is growing exponentially, and there

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WILLIAM J. LYNN III, DEPUTY SECRETARY,U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
http://csis.org/files/attachments/110216_spacestrategy_transcript.pdf / FEBRUARY 16, 2011 Page 2
Title: THE NATIONAL SECURITY SPACE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

MR. LYNN: But the first thing that’s different from this strategy, John, is this is actually the first space strategy. We have not dedicated a strategy document before this point to our space strategy and I think it represents the importance that this domain has for our military capabilities, our industrial capabilities and our economic wellbeing.


You asked what’s different. And I think what’s different is that space is far more congested than it was just 20 years ago. It’s no longer the private preserve of the U.S. and the then Soviet Union. There’s more than 60 nations now that have a presence in space. It’s also more congested in the sense that there’s much, much more debris. Debris itself has become a real danger. There’s a table in the space strategy that points out that it took something like 40 years to get the first 10,000 objects in space and it’s taken us about six years to get the next 10,000 objects. So we’re really – the growth of debris in space is a threat in and of itself.

if we do not decrease space debris,cost will increase in future space activities even more

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Donald J. Kessler an American astrophysicist and former NASA scientist known for his studies regarding space debris
http://webpages.charter.net/dkessler/files/KesSym.html / March 8, 2009
Title: The Kessler Syndrome

These control measures will significantly increase the cost of debris control measures; but if we do not do them, we will increase the cost of future space activities even more. We might be tempted to put increasing amounts of shielding on all spacecraft to protect them and increase their life, or we might just accept shorter lifetimes for all spacecraft. However, neither option is acceptable: More shielding not only increases cost, but it also increases both the frequency of catastrophic collisions and the amount of debris generated when such a collision occurs. Accepting a shorter lifetime also increases cost, because it means that satellites must be replaced more often….with the failed satellites again increasing the catastrophic collision rate and producing larger amounts of debris.



space debris is hurting U.S. and Russia Relations

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Melissa Eddy ABC News Reporter
http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=6888786&page=1 / Feb 16 2010
Title: European Space Agency hopes to clean up space junk

The program was launched in January. On Feb. 10, the collision of two satellites generated space junk that could circle Earth and threaten other satellites for the next 10,000 years. "What the last accident showed us is that we need to do much more. We need to be receiving much more precise data in order to prevent further collisions," Kaufeler said of the collision. The smashup happened 500 miles (800 kilometers) over Siberia and involved a derelict Russian spacecraft designed for military communications and a working satellite owned by U.S.-based Iridium, which served commercial customers as well as the U.S. Defense Department. A key element of the program is to increase the amount of information shared worldwide between the various space agencies, including NASA and Russia's Roscosmos, Kaufeler said. Kaufeler also said that another aspect that must be examined is establishing international standards on how debris is described, tracked and, if needed, moved so as to prevent any collisions. U.S. and Russian officials traded shots over who should be blamed for the collision that spewed speeding clouds of debris into space, threatening other unmanned spacecraft in nearby orbits.




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