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CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical evidence to support any of the research hypotheses.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Further research is needed to determine an optimal length of time posture should be taught or practiced in order to have a significant change in alignments. In addition, a more comprehensive analysis and intervention of the biomechanical and neuromechanical reasons for poor posture should be addressed. The evidence indicates that awareness of appropriate posture or short-term intervention is not a predictor (guarantee) that the subject will be able to acquire or maintain the position in the act of singing.

Hearing Dose and Perceptions of Hearing Health Among University Choral Singers in

Varied Rehearsal and Performance Settings
Sheri L. Cook-Cunningham, M.Mus., Ph.D. Student

Melissa L. Grady, M.Mus., Ph.D. Student

Heather R. Nelson, M.Mus., Ph.D. Student
Vocal/Choral Pedagogy Research Group

The University of Kansas

University of Kansas, Division of Music Education and Music Therapy

Lawrence, KS

This collective case study documented university choral students’ (N = 4) hearing doses,

acquired through an Etymotic Personal Noise Dosimeter (ER200D), during two choir

rehearsals and two choral concerts, in three separate acoustical venues. An orchestra

accompanied the choir during three of the collection periods. In addition, singers (N =

120) responded to a set of hearing health indicator statements and provided perceptions

of hearing status in each of these choral singing contexts. Dosimeter data and survey

responses were disaggregated according to (a) rehearsal vs. concert venues, (b) position

of singers within the choir, and (c) singing with and without the orchestra. Results were

discussed in terms of acceptable sound dose, singers’ perceptions, and suggestions for

future research.


Vocal Dosage Data and Perceptions of Voice Efficiency and Hygiene Acquired from Two Private Studio Voice Teachers

Matthew Schloneger, PhD Student, Vocal Pedagogy

Vocal/Choral Pedagogy Research Group

The University of Kansas

It is well documented that teachers suffer the highest rate of vocal problems of any population group. However, very little information regarding the voice habits and hygiene of singing voice teachers has been collected to date. A recent study by Barnes-Burroughs and Rodriguez (2012) surveyed the vocal hygiene and voice use habits of 596 teaching performers. With the advent of vocal dosimeter technology, this perceptual information could be compared to real-time vocal dose measurements to develop a more complete picture of voice use and vocal efficiency among studio voice teachers. While dosimeter studies have documented the real-time voice use of classroom teachers (Titze, Hunter & Svec) , classroom music teachers (Morrow & Connor, 2010) and graduate voice teaching assistants (Schloneger, 2011), no published studies have measured the vocal dosage of full-time voice studio teachers.
The purpose of this case study was to assess vocal doses acquired by collegiate voice professors (N=2) over 7 full days through the use of voice dosimeters. Monitoring included two baseline (non-teaching) days and a five-day teaching week. Vocal dose was measured in tandem with daily surveys of self-perceived vocal health and efficiency as well as the Barnes-Burroughs/Rodriguez Teaching Performer survey. Results were discussed in terms of voice use (vocal dosage, mean F0 and mean SPL dB levels) in and out of the teaching studio as well as any perceived changes that occurred in vocal efficiency during this intensive period. These vocal dose data along with voice efficiency and hygiene perceptions were compared to findings of the Barnes-Burroughs/Rodriguez Teaching Performer survey.

A VoceVista Study: Formant Boosting and Vowel Modification, Adapting Resonance Techniques of Professionals to the Voice Studio
Kathryn R. Hansen, undergraduate student

Department of Music

Carthage College

Kenosha, WI

This investigation analyzes VoceVista (VV) spectral evidence for formant boosting and vowel modification in recordings of mezzo-sopranos singing the final measures (“si je t’aime prends garde à toi”) of the “Habanera” from Carmen by Georges Bizet. With these findings, I then explored matching these resonance strategies to feel the differences in sensation and sound to discover which best suit my instrument at this time.
The VV spectral evidence has inspired a further study of the variations in recordings and their possible causes. I’m currently comparing spectra from live performance recorded directly into VV, and prerecorded performance recorded into VV from compact discs, youtube and mp3 files.


Does this song fit my voice: testing the reliability of objective methods for matching a song to a singer.
John Nix, MM, MME, Cert. in Vocology

Associate Professor of Voice and Vocal Pedagogy

Department of Music

The University of Texas at San Antonio

Selecting appropriate repertoire for one’s students is one of the primary responsibilities of a singing teacher. Previously the author has advocated a systematic means for assessing a singer’s strengths and weaknesses and has provided a process for evaluating the pedagogical advantages and disadvantages of individual selections of vocal literature (“Criteria for selecting repertoire,” The Journal of Singing 58(3), 217-221). In this presentation, the author will explore objective means of (a) evaluating a singer’s capabilities and (b) estimating the vocal demands of a song.
The project concerned two research questions:

Can the VRP be used to predict how well a song will fit a singer?

How accurate are estimates of the vocal load of a song? Can reliable calculations be made regarding how a song will fatigue a singer?
Data collection methods included:

Gathering a voice range profile on a highly trained singer

Estimating voicing time dose, short-term recovery time, and cycle dose: the author chose to follow the method used by Titze (The Journal of Singing, 65 (1), 59-61) for estimating the voicing time dose, short term recovery time and cycle dose for the song “An Chloe” by Mozart as performed in the original key by a soprano.

Recording and analyzing a performance of the song

Analysis methods included:

Calculating a VRP of the performance of the song

Comparing the performance VRP with the singer’s VRP

Calculating the actual recovery time, time dose and cycle dose from the sung performance

Comparing the actual dose data to the estimated values
The author will discuss the merits of such objective methods of singer and vocal repertoire assessment from the perspective of the collegiate voice teacher.

Acoustics of Pressed Phonation and Throat Singing
Fariborz Alipour, PhD

Research Scientist and Adjunct Professor

Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders

The University of Iowa

Michael Karnell

Department of Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery

University of Iowa Healthcare

Iowa City, Iowa


The acoustic spectrum of normal and pressed phonation was investigated in normal subjects along with flexible laryngoscopy. Using a KayPentax model EPK-1000 video processor and a flexible laryngoscope model VNL-1070 STK, the true and false vocal folds were observed and recorded while four normal subjects including one trained singer performed various tasks. The audio signal was acquired with a Symetrix SX-202 microphone and the EGG signal was obtained with a KayPentax laryngograph model 6103. Signals were recorded on the computer with KayPentax CSL model 4500 version 3.3.0 at 44.1 kHz samples per second. The recorded EGG signal was used for vocal folds motion analysis and audio signal was used for spectral analysis. Results indicated that during pressed phonation the false vocal folds experience both lateral and anterior-posterior compressions. During pressed phonation and throat singing the EGG signal sometimes takes a more complex shape that suggests a secondary tissue contact that might be attributed to the false vocal folds motion. This was also observed from the video laryngoscopy. The acoustic spectra for the pressed voice showed increased energy 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz due to the modification of vocal tract and formants shift. The throat singing spectra included a sharp peak at fundamental of 210 Hz with additional energy around 2000 Hz and 3200 Hz without the low-pitch sound of false vocal folds. Work supported by

NIDCD grant #R01DC009567.

Cirque du Soleil Casting: An in depth look at the casting process and vocal requirements for Cirque du Soleil's multiple productions around the world. 
Roger Butterly

Music Casting Advisor and Scout, Resident Shows

Cirque du Soleil


Overtone Singing Demonstration
Rollin Rachele

Abundant Sun, Ltd.



Assessing Intonation: What Can Technology Teach Us?
Deirdre D. Michael, Ph.D., CCC/SLP

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, MN
Marina Gilman MM, MA, CCC-SLP

Department of Otolaryngology Emory University

Speech-Language Pathology

The Emory Voice Center

Atlanta, Georgia
Tyler Raad BS

Graduate Assistant, North Dakota State University

Fargo, ND

It is likely that most singers, singing teachers, and choral conductors have had the frustrating experience of receiving contradictory opinions about the intonation of their student, their choir, or their own singing. It is well-known to voice teachers judging voice competitions, or speech pathologists trying to agree on voice quality, that there is often little agreement, even among “expert” listeners.

This workshop proposal is an extension of our proposal for a paper: Assessing Intonation: Perceptual Strategies – A New Approach. Singing teachers and choral conductors in our communities have been fascinated by the samples of singing, and the “tuned” versions of those samples, as well as by the ratings of intonation and other voice characteristics. We will be giving a Minnesota NATS-sponsored workshop in September, at which NATS members will have the opportunity to share and discuss their own perceptual strategies. The hope, of course, is to move toward a more universal understanding of intonation, and how (or if) it can be separated out from other characteristics of voice. We believe that a similar collegial workshop at PAS 6 will be similarly welcomed.
The format for the workshop would be casual, in which samples are presented and listeners given the chance to make their own ratings. In a small group like PAS, ratings can then be tallied, and the discussion can begin. The authors can bring to light research that has been done in the area of pitch perception and voice quality assessment.
It is our hope that attendees will then have the opportunity to discuss as colleagues how voice scientists might shed new light on an age-old problem in the world of singing teachers.

Tutorial on the Use of the MADDE Synthesizer in Voice Pedagogy Classes
Kenneth Bozeman, MM

Professor of Music

Conservatory of Music, Lawrence University

Appleton, Wisconsin

Chair of Editorial Board of the NATS Journal of Singing

A new edition of the MADDE Synthesizer by Svante Granqvist was introduced in the spring of 2011 that added the top octave of the keyboard and a keyboard display of formants and partials. These improvements have rendered MADDE an especially clear pedagogic tool for explaining and demonstrating the basic acoustic elements of the voice source and the vocal tract filter, as well as all source/filter interactions. This workshop tutorial will demonstrate how MADDE can be used to explain and display the effect of the number of source harmonics, the roll off in power of the source spectrum, the implication of roll off on the laryngeal registration of the voice source, the locations and bandwidths of vocal tract formants, the acoustic effects of harmonic/formant relationships and crossings, such as open timbre, “turning over,” close timbre, and “whoop” timbre.

1. Kenneth W. Bozeman, “New Technology for Teaching Voice Science and Pedagogy: the Madde Synthesizer (Svante Granqvist),” Journal of Singing 68, no. 4 (March/April 2012): 415-418.
At the end of the workshop, attendees will:

Be familiar with the display parameters of MADDE.

Understand how to use MADDE to display characteristics of the voice source and vocal tract filter.

Understand how to use MADDE to display interactions between the harmonics of the voice source and the formants of the vocal tract filter.


Saturday, October 10, 2012
The Role of FormantHarmonic Interactions in Acoustic Registration Pedagogy
Kenneth Bozeman, MM

Professor of Music

Conservatory of Music, Lawrence University

Appleton, Wisconsin

Chair of Editorial Board of the NATS Journal of Singing

If vocal tract length and shape are kept stable across changes of fundamental frequency, source harmonics inevitably pass through the center frequencies of vocal tract resonances, causing audible timbral effects. Whenever a harmonic rises through the first formant, there is some degree of timbral “closure,” the fewer the harmonics remaining below F1 the greater the closing. Whenever a harmonic drops below F1, there is some degree of timbral “opening,” the more harmonics below F1, the greater the degree of openness. F1 tracking of H1 or H2 has been shown to be pedagogically relevant (Sundberg, 1977; Miller, 2008). The passing of H2 through F1 has been identified as the primary register shift of a voice (Bozeman, 2007; Miller, 2008). Other harmonicformant intersections also have potential pedagogic relevance. Since these events are predictable by vowel and fundamental frequency for each vocal Fach, they can be used to assess and train the stability of vocal tract length, a characteristic thought to be desirable in Western classical singing. This paper will explore the implications of various formantharmonic relationships, demonstrate them in recorded examples of student singers and on the MADDE synthesizer, and present registration exercises based upon them.

1. Johann Sundberg, “The Acoustics of the Singing Voice,” Scientific American, Volume 236, No. 3 (March 1977), 82-91.

2. Donald Gray Miller, Resonance in Singing (Princeton, NJ: Inside View Press, 2008), 50-54.

3. Kenneth W. Bozeman, “A Case for Voice Science in the Voice Studio,” Journal of Singing 63, no. 3 (January/February 2007): 267–268.

4. Donald Gray Miller, Resonance in Singing (Princeton, NJ: Inside View Press, 2008), 61–62.

At the end of the presentation, attendees will:

Be familiar with the harmonicfirst formant interactions that occur in all singers;

Have experience in discerning the primary acoustic register transition of the F1H2 crossing as well as other, secondary harmonicformant interactions;

Understand the implications and use of open and close vowels, open and close timbre, and “yell” and “whoop” formant tunings;

Learn pedagogic techniques based upon various harmonicfirst formant interactions as applied to passaggio training and range development.

The Inertogram: From Theory to Practical Use
Ingo Titze, PhD

National Center for Voice and Speech

University of Iowa

Inertance of the supraglottal vocal tract, a quantity that assists vocal fold vibration, is theoretically derived from an impedance measurement at the glottis. This is a difficult measurement, not feasible for studio application. A useful approximation to the inertogram, however, can be obtained from formant frequency measurements. Some of these approaches will be described. The inertogram shows where the “dead spots” and “sweet spots” are for vocal fold vibration assisted by the vocal tract.



The effects of three singer gestures on select acoustic and perceptual measures of singing in solo and choral contexts
Melissa C. Brunkan PhD, Assistant Professor of Music Education

School of Music, Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, LA

The purpose of this two-part study was to assess across iterations the potential effects of three singer gesture conditions (low, circular arm gesture; lifting with an arched hand; and pointing upward and outward) on performances of three familiar songs by choral singers (N = 31; Experiment 1) and solo singers (N = 35; Experiment 2), using selected acoustic and perceptual measurements. In Experiment 1, choral singers sang seven iterations (baseline condition with no gesture, 5 gestural iterations, and posttest condition with no gesture) of three song selections (“Over the Rainbow” with the low, circular arm gesture, “Singin’ the Rain” with a pointing gesture, and “Hawaiian Rainbows” with the arched hand gesture). In Experiment 2, solo singers followed the same protocol as the choral context (Experiment 1). All singers completed a demographic questionnaire and a post hoc survey on perceptions of singing with gesture. Two expert panels (N = 9 for each context) rated audio sound samples using a CRDI system on perceptions of singing with and without gesture. Among primary findings, (1) Long-Term Average Spectra (LTAS) measures indicated significant acoustical differences in choral sound (a) between baseline and posttest conditions, and (b) between baseline performance and each of five gestural iterations, (2) according to Max/MSP pitch analyses, expert listener (N =9) evaluations, and singer questionnaire responses there were perceived differences in choral sound (a) between baseline and posttest conditions, and (b) between baseline performance and each of five gestural iterations, and (3) most choristers (97%) mastered each gesture in a choral rehearsal context and solo singing context (95%) as measured by video analyses, (4) according to measures of fundamental frequency (Fo), relative amplitude (∆ dB), and formant behaviors, there were acoustical differences in solo sound (a) between baseline and posttest conditions, (b) between baseline performance and five gestural iterations, and (c) according to demographic variables of participant sex and singing experience, (5) according to expert listener (N =9) evaluations and singer questionnaire responses there were perceived differences in solo sound between conditions. Results were discussed in terms of singing pedagogy, limitations of the study, and suggestions for further research.


Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Exercises and their effect on Normal and Disordered Voice
Troy Clifford Dargin, MA

Department of Music

University of Kansas
Jeffrey Searl, PhD

University of Kansas Medical Center Department of Speech Language Hearing

Lawrence, KS

The benefits of using resonant voice therapy have been well established in the speech pathology voice clinic for years. It is essential for speakers who are not professional performer’s to feel a buzz in the “mask” of their face in order to have correct forward placement, which in turn leads to less effort on the voice box. Therefore, it is even more important for a professional singer to use resonant voice therapy techniques. In this study there will be a group of 4 non-singers that have been diagnosed with hyperfunctional dysphonia by an ear nose and throat medical doctor and a group of 4 singers who are considered to have normal voice. They will be administered a flexible fiberoptic laryngeal endoscopy/stroboscopy procedure where we will compare the visual stroboscopy image pre and post therapy. There will also be and MDVP Acoustical measurement taken pre and post therapy. During therapy they will be administered 4 sessions of resonant voice therapy by a speech language pathologist. It is expected that both groups will show improvement after the therapy sessions.


Timbre Transitions in High-Pitched Male Musical Theater Singing
Aaron Grant, DMA

Opus3 Artists Management

New York, NY 10016

Belting is a vocal technique that is frequently associated with musical theater singing. Although many

studies have been performed on female belting, the amount ofinformation that is available on male belting is limited. In thisstudy, the phonations of eleven male subjects were analyzed in order to achieve a better understanding of the male musical theater voice. Spectrographic images were created using the VoceVista software and images were analyzed and compared between multiple subjects singing in multiple timbres. The results show that male musical theater singers are capable of producing both belted and non-belted timbres during high-pitched singing, and that the differences in timbre are createdby changes in formant tuning strategies. Comparisons to preexisting studies on female belting show that male musical theater singers utilize similar formant tuning strategies during belting as do female musical theater singers.

Post doctoral research on alternative teaching method of teaching mixed voice and bodybased singing to children aged 8 to 12. How to use intensified emotions and take advantage of their influence within the body and more balanced singing.
Aija Puurtinen, DMus

Sibelius Academy, Helsinki


Eighteen months of working succesfully with 14 children in private singing lessons, ”circle singing” and in group situation. Singing pedagogy emphasizes to pracitise mixed voice the role of body posture, body activity and breathing support.

With children I will approach better balance in mixed voice technique through emotional warm ups, vocal exercixes and offer ways of approaching a variety of CCM –styles from blues to rock. Keywords to children in exercises and songs were for example joy, sadness, danger, arrogant, happiest person, laugh and sing.

Effective and emotional bodywork allows the singing child release physical tension and sing more freely and breath more deeply – increase soundmaking/singing as an emotional and a physical process.


Undergraduate Research in Voice using VoceVista: Investigating Vocal Strategies

Amy L. Haines, MM

Assistant Professor of Music

Department of Music, Carthage College

Kenosha, WI
Today’s voice students frequently desire to effectively perform both traditional and contemporary repertoire. A thorough analysis of performance practices that details resonance, articulation and style strategies deepens understanding of the skills necessary for effective performance. In addition, studying performance practices hones investigative skills, inspires interest in research, sensitizes students to emotional and expressive nuance, and increases sophistication of performance choice. Such investigation also exposes students to higher levels of learning in associated disciplines (poetics, literary analysis, acoustics, anatomy, physiology, vocology, and recording studies) while experiencing the deep awareness that typifies people who go on to lives of life-long learning.
Carthage fosters undergraduate research through class assignments, departmental internships, senior thesis requirements, and individual student inquiry. Students interested in developing further understanding of successful performance strategies are able to use the equipment in the Carthage Voice Lab to assist in their investigations. The following model: Investigating Vocal Strategies: Traditional and Contemporary Performance Practice, is being used by Carthage students to shape their study. This poster outlines procedures and results thus far, as well as initial student findings.


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