Contemporary Human Geography, 2e (Rubenstein) Chapter 11 Industry



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Contemporary Human Geography, 2e (Rubenstein)

Chapter 11 Industry
1) The term cottage industries was used to refer to

A) industries located exclusively in rural areas.

B) industries that produced only cheeses and other foods.

C) home-based manufacturing.

D) village-based manufacturing.

E) the collaboration between village and city manufacturing.

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Section: 11.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.2: Identify the steps in textile production that are most likely to be found in a developed country and explain why that might be.
2) Which one of the following industries was not directly impacted by the onset of the Industrial Revolution?

A) coal


B) iron

C) transportation

D) textiles

E) tourism

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Section: 11.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.1.1: Explain what is meant by the term "industrial revolution."
3) Which one of the following countries dominated world production of steel and textiles during the nineteenth century?

A) United Kingdom

B) Germany

C) France

D) United States

E) Russia

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.2.1: Identify the three regions where the majority of Earth's industrial production is located, noting when they industrialized and describing important characteristics of the subareas within them.

4) This is Russia's second largest city, specializing in shipbuilding and other industries serving Russia's navy and ports in the Baltic Sea.

A) Moscow

B) St. Petersburg

C) Volgograd

D) Vladivostok

E) Kiev

Answer: B



Diff: 1

Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.1: Explain what a situation factor is and how it contributes to determining the optimal location for a factory.


5) Which of the following countries has the world's largest supply of low-cost labor and the world's largest market for many consumer products?

A) Thailand

B) Russia

C) China


D) India

E) United States

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.2.1: Identify the three regions where the majority of Earth's industrial production is located, noting when they industrialized and describing important characteristics of the subareas within them.
6) This region was Europe's fastest-growing manufacturing area during the late twentieth century.

A) Northeastern Spain, centered on Barcelona

B) Western Portugal, centered on Lisbon

C) South-Central Germany, around Munich

D) Southern United Kingdom, near the English Channel

E) Western Russia, centered on Moscow

Answer: A

Diff: 2


Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.2.1: Identify the three regions where the majority of Earth's industrial production is located, noting when they industrialized and describing important characteristics of the subareas within them.

7) Which of the following regions in the United States is the country's largest center for clothing and textile

production?

A) Southern California (the Los Angeles region)

B) New England (the Boston region)

C) Middle Atlantic (New York City and its near suburbs)

D) Western Great Lakes (the Chicago region)

E) Southern Florida (the Miami region)

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.1: Describe the steps of textile production and explain what makes it a labor-intensive industry.
8) Which of the following regions in the United States is the country's second-largest furniture producer, and a major food-processing center?

A) The Los Angeles region

B) The Boston region

C) New York City

D) The Chicago region

E) The Miami region

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.
9) Which of the following is not generally true of an industrial location?

A) The farther something is transported, the higher the cost.

B) A manufacturer tries to locate its factory as close as possible to both buyers and sellers.

C) If inputs, such as raw materials for production (metal ores, coal, water, etc.), are more expensive to transport than products, the optimal location for a factory is near the source of inputs.

D) If the cost of transporting the product to customers exceeds the cost of transporting inputs, then the optimal plant location is as close as possible to the customer.

E) If the cost of transporting the product to customers exceeds the cost of transporting inputs, then the optimal plant location is as close as possible to the source of raw materials.

Answer: E

Diff: 2


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.1: Explain what a situation factor is and how it contributes to determining the optimal location for a factory.
10) An industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products is a

A) bulk-gaining industry.

B) bulk-reducing industry.

C) perishable industry.

D) situation-neutral industry.

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.2: Explain what a bulk-reducing industry is and its relationship to cost of inputs and cost of transportation.
11) A beverage bottling plant would be an example of the which of the following?

A) bulk-gaining industry

B) bulk-reducing industry

C) perishable industry

D) situation-neutral industry

E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.2: Explain what a bulk-reducing industry is and its relationship to cost of inputs and cost of transportation.
12) An airplane parts manufacturer adjacent to airplane manufacturing companies is an example of which of the following?

A) Single-market manufacturer

B) Divided-labor industry

C) Benevolence-dependent industry

D) Consolidated manufacturing industry

E) Just-in-time manufacturing

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.

13) During the mid-nineteenth century, the U.S. steel industry concentrated around ________ in an area proximate to iron-ore and coal mines.

A) Chicago

B) Boston

C) Pittsburgh

D) Cleveland

E) Buffalo

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 11.4



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.1: Describe how the optimal location for steel mills has changed in the United States through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, noting the reasons for those changes.

14) In the late nineteenth century, steel mills were built around all of the following except which one?

A) Detroit

B) Cleveland

C) Youngstown

D) Toledo

E) Atlanta

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.1: Describe how the optimal location for steel mills has changed in the United States through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, noting the reasons for those changes.
15) Most large U.S. steel mills built during the first half of the twentieth century were located in

A) communities around the Chicago River.

B) communities around the Mississippi River.

C) communities near the East and West coasts.

D) communities close to the ports of Louisiana.

E) communities in and around Pittsburgh.

Answer: C

Diff: 2


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.1: Describe how the optimal location for steel mills has changed in the United States through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, noting the reasons for those changes.
16) The shift of world manufacturing to new industrial regions can be seen most clearly in the manufacture of

A) steel.

B) prefab housing.

C) beverages.

D) canned foods.

E) pharmaceuticals.

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.2: Explain how the worldwide steel industry has restructured and identify the cause of that change.




Figure 11.4.4
17) Looking at Figure 11.4.4, which of the following countries had the highest steel production in 1980?

A) Argentina

B) Russia

C) China


D) United States

E) Brazil

Answer: D

Diff: 3


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.2: Explain how the worldwide steel industry has restructured and identify the cause of that change.
18) Looking at Figure 11.4.4, which of the following countries had the highest steel production in 2010?

A) Argentina

B) Russia

C) China


D) United States

E) Brazil

Answer: C

Diff: 3


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.2: Explain how the worldwide steel industry has restructured and identify the cause of that change.
19) There are approximately fifty ________ in the United States.

A) final assembly plants for spacecraft

B) assembly plants for automobile parts

C) final assembly plants for vehicles

D) assembly plants for computer parts

E) Chinese-owned automobile companies

Answer: C

Diff: 2


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.
20) Which of the following is not a major global powerhouse in car assembly?

A) Italy


B) Germany

C) France

D) United States

E) Spain


Answer: E

Diff: 1


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.

21) It is estimated that sixty percent of the world's final assembly plants are controlled by ________ carmakers.

A) 3

B) 6


C) 10

D) 15


E) 20

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.


22) The world's three major ________ house 80 percent of the world's final assembly plants, including 40 percent in East Asia, 25 percent in Europe, and 15 percent in North America.

A) industrial regions

B) river valleys

C) manufacturing cities

D) cultural regions

E) industrialized countries

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.
23) Carmakers' assembly plants account for around ________ percent of the value of the vehicles that bear their names, with ________ percent coming from outsourced, independent parts makers.

A) 10, 90

B) 20, 80

C) 30, 70

D) 50, 50

E) 60, 40

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.
24) The share of U.S. sales accounted for by the Detroit 3 has declined from ________ percent in 1995 to ________ percent in 2010

A) 95, 85

B) 100, 50

C) 75, 45

D) 70, 10

E) 30, 25

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 10, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.
25) Which of the following is true of plants that manufacture car parts in the United States?

A) They are all foreign owned.

B) They are clustered around the Northeast, to be closer to their markets.

C) They are clustered around major seaports, for easy shipment of their products overseas.

D) They are clustered in the interior of the U.S. near their major customers, the final assembly plants.

E) They are clustered around major metropolitan centers like Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles.

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.
26) Which of the following modes of transportation are usually reserved for speedy delivery of small-bulk, high-value packages?

A) airplanes

B) ships

C) trains

D) trucks

E) barge


Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.

27) Which of the following modes of transportation are usually attractive for very long distances because the cost per kilometer is very low?

A) airplanes

B) ships


C) motorcycles

D) trucks

E) bicycle messengers

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.


28) Which of the following modes of transportation are most often used for short-distance delivery because they can be loaded and unloaded quickly and cheaply?

A) airplanes

B) cargo ships

C) freight trains

D) trucks

E) speedboats

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.
29) A ________ is a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible.

A) break-of-bulk point

B) switch point

C) natural relay point

D) transport management point

E) central place logistical point

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.2: Explain what a break-of-bulk point is and why they exist.

30) A ________ is one in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses.

A) labor-friendly workplace

B) labor-intensive industry

C) profit-sharing industry

D) working-class industry

E) well-run industry

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 11.7



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.





Figure 11.7.2: Earned Annual Income (Males)
31) The average annual wage paid to male workers exceeds ________ in most developed countries, compared to less than ________ in most African countries.

A) $75,000; $10,000

B) $10,000; $5,000

C) $30,000; $5,000

D) $5,000; $2,000

E) $5,000; $550

Answer: C

Diff: 2


Section: 11.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.2.1: Identify the three regions where the majority of Earth's industrial production is located, noting when they industrialized and describing important characteristics of the subareas within them.
32) In which of the following countries did male workers earn the least amount of money annually?

A) South Africa

B) India

C) Mexico

D) Australia

E) Brazil

Answer: B

Diff: 2


Section: 11.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.
33) Which of the following is a prominent example of an industry that generally requires less-skilled, low-cost workers?

A) textiles

B) steel

C) auto


D) education

E) publishing

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.1: Describe the steps of textile production and explain what makes it a labor-intensive industry.
34) Textiles are assembled into four main types of products. Which of the following is not one of the four major uses?

A) garments

B) home products

C) carpets

D) industrial uses

E) construction materials

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Section: 11.8

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.2: Identify the steps in textile production that are most likely to be found in a developed country and explain why that might be.

35) Which of the following countries is not one of the top global producers of cotton yarn?

A) China

B) India


C) Pakistan

D) Mexico

E) Argentina

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 11.8



Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.2: Identify the steps in textile production that are most likely to be found in a developed country and explain why that might be.


36) Which of the following is true of manufacturing jobs in the U.S.?

A) They have been shifting within the United States from the North and East to the South and West.

B) They have been shifting within the United States from the South and West to the North and East.

C) They have been shifting within the United States from the West and East to the South and North.

D) They have been shifting within the United States from the East and West to the North.

E) They have been shifting within the United States from the North and West to the East.

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.9

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.

37) A typical so-called "________" requires a factory to maintain an "open shop" and prohibits a "closed shop."

A) right-to-work law

B) auto-industry law

C) generous-work industry

D) poor 'Southern-law' state

E) progressive law

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 11.9



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.


38) In a so-called ________, a union and a company may not negotiate a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.

A) "open shop"

B) "closed shop"

C) labor-controlled management factory

D) "typical-A" Canadian factory

E) "semi-autonomous glutton" factory

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Section: 11.9

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.
39) The financial analysis firm Goldman-Sachs believe that the following countries are expected to dominate global manufacturing during the twenty-first century.

A) India and Bangladesh

B) Mexico, Argentina and China

C) China, Thailand, Vietnam and Mexico

D) Brazil, Russia, India, and China

E) Russia, Spain, Vietnam and Mexico

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Section: 11.9

Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 10, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

40) The Industrial Revolution was a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.1



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.1.1: Explain what is meant by the term "industrial revolution."


41) Industry arrived a bit later in North America than in the United Kingdom, but it grew much faster in the nineteenth century.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.2



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.1.1: Explain what is meant by the term "industrial revolution."


42) Canada's most important industrial region is northeastern Ontario.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.2



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.


43) If products are more expensive to transport than inputs, the optimal location for a factory is near the source of inputs.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.2



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.3: Identify the three types of industries for which cost of transportation is critical to determining location and provide examples.


44) An industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products is a bulk-gaining industry.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.2



Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.2: Explain what a bulk-reducing industry is and its relationship to cost of inputs and cost of transportation.

45) The distribution of steelmaking in the United States demonstrates that when the source of inputs or the relative importance of inputs changes, the optimal location for the industry remains the same.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.4



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.3: Identify the three types of industries for which cost of transportation is critical to determining location and provide examples.


46) China's steel industry has grown in spite of a lack of access to the primary inputs of iron ore and coal.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.4



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.2: Explain how the worldwide steel industry has restructured and identify the cause of that change.


47) Half of the vehicles sold in North America are assembled in North America, and most of the remainder are assembled in China and Japan.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.


48) For a bulk-gaining operation, such as a final vehicle assembly plant, the critical location factor is minimizing transportation to the market.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.


49) Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors are known as the Detroit 3 because their headquarters, research facilities, and all their assembly plants are clustered in the Detroit area.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.


50) Within auto alley, U.S.-owned carmakers and suppliers have clustered in Michigan and nearby northern states, whereas foreign-owned carmakers and parts suppliers have clustered in the central and southern portions of auto alley.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.


51) Carmakers' assembly plants account for only around 30 percent of the value of the vehicles that bear their names.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.


52) If a company has a product that is made at only one plant, and the critical location factor is minimizing the cost of distribution throughout North America, then the optimal factory location is on either the West or East coast rather than the U.S. interior.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.5



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.1: Explain what a situation factor is and how it contributes to determining the optimal location for a factory.


53) Generally, the farther something is transported, the lower is the cost per kilometer (or mile).

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.

54) Trucks are most often used for short-distance delivery because they can be loaded and unloaded quickly and cheaply.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.


55) Airplanes are normally the most expensive mode of transport, so they are usually reserved for transporting expensive heavy equipment over long distances to make it cost effective.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.


56) Regardless of transportation mode, cost remains the same regardless of how many times inputs or products are transferred from one mode to another.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.


57) Containerization has facilitated transfer of packages between modes at break-of-bulk points because they may be packed onto a rail car, transferred quickly to a container ship to cross the ocean, and unloaded onto trucks or rail cars at the other end.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.2: Explain what a break-of-bulk point is and why they exist.


58) Just-in-time delivery means that producers have less inventory to cushion against disruptions in the arrival of needed parts.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.6



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.3: Explain the advantages of just-in-time delivery and describe the problems that can disrupt it.


59) A labor-intensive industry is one in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a very small percentage of expenses.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.7



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.


60) In the early years of the Industrial Revolution, multistory factories were constructed in the countryside because of the availability of cheap land.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.7



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.1: Explain what a situation factor is and how it contributes to determining the optimal location for a factory.


61) Banks in Silicon Valley have long been hesitant to provide money for new software and communications firms, even though lenders elsewhere have been very willing to do so.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.7



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.


62) The textile and apparel industry accounts for about 6 percent of the dollar value of world manufacturing.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.8



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.2: Identify the steps in textile production that are most likely to be found in a developed country and explain why that might be.

63) According to the International Labor Organization (ILO) of the UN, about 150 million people are employed in manufacturing around the world.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.8



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: Not applicable


64) In the making of yarn, historically, natural fibers were the sole source, but today synthetics account for three-fourths of world thread production.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.8



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.8.1: Describe the steps of textile production and explain what makes it a labor-intensive industry.


65) Globally, China and India alone account for nearly 90 percent of the world's woven cotton fabric production.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.8



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.3: Identify the ‘BRIC' countries and explain why they are expected to dominate global manufacturing in the 21st century.


66) In the U.S., between 1950 and 2009, the North and East lost 6 million manufacturing jobs and the South and West gained 2 million.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.9



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.


67) By enacting so-called "right-to-work" laws, southern states made it easier for factory workers to form unions and bargain with employers from a position of strength.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.9



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.

68) The North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which became effective in 1994, eliminated most barriers to moving goods between Mexico and the United States.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.9



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.2: Identify the two regions in Mexico where industrial production is concentrated, and explain the factors that have led to an increase in manufacturing in Mexico.


69) Russia and Brazil, currently classified by the United Nations as having relatively high levels of development, are especially rich in inputs critical for industry.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1

Section: 11.9



Bloom's Taxonomy: 1-Knowledge

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Glob Sci Outcome: 3. Read and interpret graphs and data.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.3: Identify the ‘BRIC' countries and explain why they are expected to dominate global manufacturing in the 21st century.


70) What are some of the industries that were transformed by the Industrial Revolution?

Answer: Industries impacted by the Industrial Revolution included coal, iron, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing.


Coal was the source of energy to operate the ovens and the steam engines. Wood, the main energy source prior to the Industrial Revolution, was becoming scarce in England because it was in heavy demand for construction of ships, buildings, and furniture, as well as for heat. Manufacturers turned to coal, which was then plentiful in England.
Iron: One of the first industries to benefit (albeit indirectly) from Watt's steam engine. The usefulness of iron had been known for centuries, but it was difficult to produce because ovens had to be constantly heated. Coal-fired smelters could do this, however, particularly if coal was being supplied from a nearby mine and/or transported to the smelter by steam-powered railroad engines---which also relied on coal to heat their engines. Steam engines were also used inside coal mines to pump water out of the mines, and therefore allow access to veins of coal.
Transportation: Critical for diffusing the Industrial Revolution. First canals and then railroads enabled factories to attract large numbers of workers, bring in bulky raw materials such as iron ore and coal, and ship finished goods to consumers.
Textiles: Transformed from a dispersed cottage industry to a concentrated factory system during the late eighteenth century. In 1768, with the invention of machines (cotton gins) to untangle cotton prior to spinning, spinning frames were placed inside factories near sources of rapidly flowing water, which supplied the power. Because they resembled large watermills, they were known as mills. As coal became more widely available, steam-powered textile mills began to replace watermills.
Chemicals: An industry created to bleach and dye cloth. In 1746, Roebuck and Garbett established a factory to bleach cotton with sulfuric acid obtained from burning coal. When combined with various metals, sulfuric acid produced another acid called vitriol, useful for dying clothing.
Food processing: Essential to feed the factory workers no longer living on farms. In 1810, French confectioner Nicholas Appert started canning food in glass bottles sterilized in boiling water.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.1.2: Identify the key industries transformed by the industrial revolution and explain how they changed.
71) What are some of the factors that would influence a firm to locate close to its market?

Answer: For many firms, the optimal location is close to markets, where the product is sold. The cost of transporting goods to consumers is a critical location factor for three types of industries. These are bulk-gaining industries, single market manufacturers, and perishable goods.


Bulk-gaining industries make something that gains volume or weight during production. A prominent example is beverage bottling. Empty cans and bottles are brought to the bottler, filled with the soft drink or beer, and shipped to consumers. The principal input placed in the beverage container is water, which is relatively bulky, heavy, and expensive to transport.
Single-market manufacturers' products are sold primarily in one location, so they also cluster near their markets. For example, the makers of parts for motor vehicles are specialized manufacturers often with only one or two customers, the major carmakers such as GM and Toyota.
Perishable products must be located near their markets so their products can reach consumers as rapidly as possible.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.3.3: Identify the three types of industries for which cost of transportation is critical to determining location and provide examples.

72) What factors would influence a firm to locate closer to its inputs rather than closer to its market?

Answer: Every industry uses some inputs and sells to customers. The farther something is transported, the higher the cost, so manufacturers try to locate factories close to both suppliers and sellers.
If inputs are more expensive to transport than products, the optimal location for a factory is near the source of inputs. Conversely, if the cost of transporting the product to customers exceeds the cost of transporting inputs, then the optimal plant location is as close as possible to the customer.
Every manufacturer uses some inputs. These may be resources from the physical environment, like minerals, wood, or animals, or they may be parts or materials made by other companies. An industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products is a bulk-reducing industry. To minimize transport costs, a bulk-reducing industry, like copper production, locates near the source of its inputs.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.

73) How have site factors influenced the location of U.S. steel mills?

Answer: The two principal inputs in steel production are iron ore and coal. Steelmaking is a bulk-reducing industry that traditionally located to minimize the cost of transporting these two inputs. The distribution of steelmaking in the United States demonstrates that when the source of inputs or the relative importance of inputs changes, the optimal location for the industry changes.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the U.S. steel industry was concentrated around Pittsburgh in southwestern Pennsylvania, where iron ore and coal were both mined. The area no longer has steel mills, but it remains the center for research and administration.
In the late nineteenth century, steel mills were built around Lake Erie, in the Ohio cities of Cleveland, Youngstown, and Toledo, and near Detroit, Michigan. The locational shift was largely influenced by the discovery of rich iron ore in the Mesabi Range, a series of low mountains in northern Minnesota. This area soon became the source for virtually all iron ore used in the U.S. steel industry. The ore was transported by way of Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and Lake Erie, and it was smelted in furnaces burning coal shipped from Appalachia by train.
In the early twentieth century, most new steel mills were located near the southern end of Lake Michigan. The main raw materials continued to be iron ore and coal, but changes in steelmaking required more iron ore in proportion to coal. Thus, new steel mills were built closer to the Mesabi Range to minimize transportation costs. Coal was available from nearby southern Illinois, as well as from Appalachia.
In the mid-twentieth century, most large U.S. steel mills built during the first half of the twentieth century were located in communities near the East and West coasts, including Baltimore, Los Angeles, and Trenton, New Jersey. These coastal locations partly reflected further changes in transportation costs. Iron ore increasingly came from other countries, especially Canada and Venezuela, and locations near the Atlantic and Pacific oceans were more accessible to those foreign sources. Further, scrap iron and steel, widely available in the large metropolitan areas of the East and West coasts, had become an important input in the steel-production process.
Finally, in the late twentieth century, many steel mills in the United States closed. The shift was a reflection of the restructuring of the steel industry with major production going overseas to such countries as China, India, and South Korea. Most of the surviving steel mills in the U.S. were around southern Lake Michigan and along the East Coast.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.4

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.4.1: Describe how the optimal location for steel mills has changed in the United States through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, noting the reasons for those changes.

74) How has the production of cars changed in the last 50 years?

Answer: Carmakers put together vehicles at final assembly plants, using thousands of parts supplied by independent companies. Sixty percent of the world's final assembly plants are controlled by ten carmakers in a handful of countries:
- 2 U.S.-based: Ford and GM.
- 4 Europe-based: Germany's Volkswagen, Italy's Fiat (which controls Chrysler), and France's Renault (which controls Nissan) and Peugeot.
- 4 Asia-based: Japan's Toyota, Honda, and Suzuki, and South Korea's Hyundai.
These companies operate assembly and parts plants in many countries. Nationality matters in terms of location of corporate headquarters, top managers, research facilities, and shareholders. The world's three major industrial regions house 80 percent of the world's final assembly plants, including 40 percent in East Asia, 25 percent in Europe, and 15 percent in North America. Three-fourths of vehicles sold in North America are assembled in North America. Similarly, most vehicles sold in Europe are assembled in Europe, most vehicles sold in Japan are assembled in Japan, and most vehicles sold in China are assembled in China.
Carmakers' assembly plants account for only around 30 percent of the value of the vehicles that bear their names. As a result of outsourcing, independent parts makers supply the other 70 percent of the value. Many of these parts are also made near their markets—the final assembly plants—especially the steel parts, which comprise more than half of the weight of vehicles.
On the other hand, many parts do not need to be manufactured close to the customer. For them, changing site factors are more important. Some locate in countries that have relatively low labor costs, such as Mexico, China, and the Czech Republic.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.1: Describe the global distribution of production facilities in the automobile industry.

75) Where in the United States are car assembly plants and parts makers distributed, and why?

Answer: In the U.S., vehicles are fabricated at about 50 final assembly plants, from parts made at several thousand other plants. Most of the assembly and parts plants are located in the interior of the country, between Michigan and Alabama, centered in a corridor known as "auto alley" formed by north-south interstate highways 65 and 75. For a bulk-gaining operation, such as a final assembly plant, the critical location factor is minimizing transportation to the market.
If a company has a product that is made at only one plant, and the critical location factor is to minimizing the cost of distribution throughout North America, then the optimal factory location is in the U.S. interior rather than on the East or West Coast. Most parts makers also locate in auto alley to be near the final assembly plants. Seats, for example, are invariably manufactured within an hour of the final assembly plant. A seat, like most bulky parts, is an especially large and bulky object, and carmakers do not want to waste valuable space in their assembly plants by piling up an inventory of them.
Within auto alley, U.S.-owned carmakers and suppliers have clustered in Michigan and nearby northern states, whereas foreign-owned carmakers and parts suppliers have clustered in the central and southern portions of auto alley.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.5

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.5.2: Describe the situation factors that explain the location of "auto alley" in the United States.

76) What is just in time delivery? And what are some of the advantages and disadvantages?

Answer: Just-in-time delivery is a system where materials are scheduled to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed. Just-in-time delivery is especially important for delivery of inputs, such as parts and raw materials, to manufacturers of fabricated products, such as cars and computers.
Proximity to market has long been important for many types of manufacturers. Under this model, parts and materials arrive at a factory frequently, in many cases daily if not hourly. Suppliers of the parts and materials are told a few days in advance how much will be needed over the next week or two, and first thing each morning exactly what will be needed at precisely what time that day. This reduces the money that a manufacturer must tie up in wasteful inventory, this saving on inventory stock up costs. To meet a tight timetable, a supplier of parts and materials must locate factories near its customers. If only an hour or two notice is given, a supplier has no choice but to locate a factory within 50 miles or so of the customer.
There are several factors that can disrupt the smooth operation of the just-in-time mode. These include labor unrest, traffic delay issues and natural disasters.
Labor unrest: A strike at one supplier plant can shut down the entire production within a couple of days. Also disrupting deliveries could be a strike in the logistics industry, such as truckers or dockworkers.
Traffic issues: Deliveries may be delayed when traffic is slowed by accident, construction, or unusually heavy volume. Trucks and trains are both subject to these types of delays, especially crossing international borders.
Natural hazards: Poor weather conditions can afflict deliveries anywhere in the world. Blizzards and floods can close highways and rail lines. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan put many factories and transportation lines out of service for months. Carmakers around the world had to curtail production because key parts had been made at the damaged factories

Diff: 3


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.3: Explain the advantages of just-in-time delivery and describe the problems that can disrupt it.

77) List the different modes of transporting goods in the United States and their comparative advantages.

Answer: As a general rule, the farther something is transported, the lower is the cost per mile. Longer distance transportation is cheaper per mile in part because firms must pay workers to load goods on and off vehicles, whether the material travels 10 miles or 10,000. The cost per mile decreases at different rates for each of the four modes, because the loading and unloading expenses differ for each mode.
Airplanes are normally the most expensive alternative, so they are usually reserved for speedy delivery of small-bulk, high-value packages.
Ships are attractive for very long distances because the cost per mile is very low.
Trains are often used to ship to destinations that take longer than one day to reach. Trains take longer than trucks to load, but are not required to make daily rest stops like truck drivers.
Trucks are most often used for short-distance delivery because they can be loaded and unloaded quickly and cheaply.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.1: Identify the four methods of transporting products and explain the benefits of each.
78) What is a break-of-bulk point?

Answer: A break-of-bulk point is a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible. Regardless of transportation mode, cost rises each time that inputs or products are transferred from one mode to another. For example, workers must unload goods from a truck and then reload them onto a plane. The company may need to build or rent a warehouse to store goods temporarily after unloading from one mode and before loading to another mode. Some companies may calculate that the cost of one mode is lower for some inputs and products, whereas another mode may be cheaper for other goods. Many companies that use multiple transport modes locate at a break-of-bulk point.


Containerization has facilitated transfer of packages between modes at break-of-bulk points. Containers may be packed into a rail car, transferred quickly to a container ship to cross the ocean, and unloaded into trucks at the other end. Large ships have been specially built to accommodate large numbers of rectangular, box-like containers.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.6

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.6.2: Explain what a break-of-bulk point is and why they exist.

79) What are site factors and why are they important?

Answer: Site factors are industrial location factors related to the costs of production inside the plant, notably labor, land, and capital.
Labor: A labor-intensive industry is one in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses. Labor costs an average of 11 percent of overall manufacturing costs in the United States, so a labor-intensive industry would have a much higher percentage than that. The average annual wage paid to male workers exceeds $30,000 in most developed countries, compared to less than $5,000 in most developing countries. Health care, retirement pensions, and other benefits add substantially to the wage compensation in developed countries, but not in developing countries.
Land: In the early years of the Industrial Revolution, multistory factories were constructed in the heart of the city. Now, they are more likely to be built in suburban or rural areas, in part to provide enough space for one-story buildings. Raw materials are typically delivered at one end and moved through the factory on conveyors or forklift trucks. Products are assembled in logical order and shipped out at the other end. Locations on the urban periphery are also attractive for factories to facilitate delivery of inputs and shipment of products. In the past, when most material moved in and out of a factory by rail, a central location was attractive because rail lines converged there. With trucks now responsible for transporting most inputs and products, proximity to major highways is more important for a factory. Especially attractive is the proximity to the junction of a long-distance route and the beltway or ring road that encircles most cities.
Capital: Manufacturers typically borrow capital, the funds to establish new factories or expand existing ones. One important factor in the clustering in California's Silicon Valley of high-tech industries has been availability of capital. One-fourth of all capital in the United States is spent on new industries in the Silicon Valley. The ability to borrow money has become a critical factor in the distribution of industry in developing countries. Financial institutions in many developing countries are short of funds, so new industries must seek loans from banks in developed countries. But enterprises may not get loans if they are located in a country that is perceived to have an unstable political system, a high debt level, or ill-advised economic policies.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.7

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.7.1: Explain the concept of a site factor and provide an example of how labor concerns can influence location of a factory.

80) What are some of the interregional shifts in manufacturing in the United States?

Answer: Manufacturing jobs have been shifting within the United States from the North and East to the South and West. Between 1950 and 2009, the North and East lost 6 million manufacturing jobs and the South and West gained 2 million. The principal site factor for many manufacturers was labor-related: enactment of right-to-work laws by a number of states, especially in the South. A right-to-work law requires a factory to maintain a so-called "open shop" and prohibits a "closed shop."
In a "closed shop," a company and a union agree that everyone must join the union to work in the factory. In an "open shop," on the other hand, a union and a company may not negotiate a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment. By enacting right-to-work laws, southern states made it much more difficult for unions to organize factory workers, collect dues, and bargain with employers from a position of strength. As a result, the percentage of workers who are members of a union is much lower in the South than elsewhere in the United States.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.9

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.1: Explain how the distribution of manufacturing in the United States has changed, and analyze the consequences of "right-to-work" laws.
81) Which countries are considered the "BRIC" countries?

Answer: Over the coming decades, it is expected that much of the growth in the world's manufacturing would shift outside the current industrial powerhouses. Goldman Sachs, a financial analysis firm, has identified four countries that would dominate the manufacturing sector in the 21st century. They coined the term BRIC countries using the first letter in their names. They are Brazil, Russia, India and China.

The four BRIC countries together currently control one-fourth of the world's land and two-fifths of the world's population, but the four combined account for only one-sixth of world GDP. All four countries have made changes to their economies in recent years, embracing international trade with varying degrees of enthusiasm. By mid twenty-first century, the four BRIC countries, plus the United States and Mexico, are expected to have the world's six largest economies.
The four BRIC countries have different advantages for industrial location. Russia and Brazil are currently classified by the United Nations as having high levels of development; are especially rich in inputs critical for industry. China and India, classified as having medium levels of development, have the two largest labor forces and potential markets for consumer goods.

Diff: 3


Section: 11.9

Bloom's Taxonomy: 2-Comprehension

Geo Standard: 9, 10, 11, 12

Glob Sci Outcome: 8. Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Outcome: 11.9.3: Identify the ‘BRIC' countries and explain why they are expected to dominate global manufacturing in the 21st century.


Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.



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