Elaboration of a strategy to integrate training on adaptation to climate change within the educational system of cameroon



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PROGRAMMES D’APPROCHES INTEGREE ET GLOBALES D’ADAPTATION AUX CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES (PACC)



ELABORATION OF A STRATEGY TO INTEGRATE TRAINING

ON ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE WITHIN THE

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CAMEROON



FINAL REPORT

Your Ref.: 002/08/2001/TACC of 29/08/2011

Project No: 00072824

Yaoundé, January 2012






TABLE OF CONTENTS



TABLE OF CONTENTS ii

LIST OF FIGURES vii

LIST OF TABLES xi

LIST OF APPENDICES xii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xvi

RESUME xviii

1.0. INTRODUCTION xx

1.1. Definitions of Key Concepts xxi

1.1.1. Definition of climate change xxi

1.1.2- Causes and impacts of climate change xxii

1.1.3. Mitigation of climate change xxiii

1.1.4. Adaptation to climate change xxiii

1.2. General Background and Statement of Problem xxv

1.2.1. Background xxv

1.2.2. Monitoring xxvi

1.2.3. Need for Conceiving Adaptation Strategies in Africa and Cameroon in Particular xxvii

1.3 Objective xxviii

1.3.1 Main Objective xxviii

1.3.2. Specific objectives xxix

1.4 Rationale and justification xxix

2.0. STUDY AREA xxxiii

2.1. Location xxxiii

2.2. Geographic and agro-ecological description xxxiii

2.3. Administrative locations xxxvii

2.4. Distribution and list of sampled educational establishments xxxviii

3.0 METHOD OF STUDY xl

4.0 OUTCOMES AND RESULTS xlv

4.1 Existence of climate change knowledge and adaptation in the educational system of Cameroon xlv

4.1.1 Primary education xlv

4.1.1.1 Anglophone Primary Education xlv

4.1.1.2 For Francophone primary education xlix

4.1.2 For secondary education lxii

4.1.2.1 Anglophone secondary Education lxii

4.1.2.2 Francophone Secondary Education lxv

4.1.2.3. TECHNICAL EDUCATION (For both Anglophone and Francophone systems) lxix

4.1.2.4 Teacher Training Colleges lxxi

4.1.3 Tertiary Education System of Cameroon lxxi

4.1.3.1 University of Dschang lxxi

4.1.3.2 University of Buea lxxiii

4.1.3.3 UNIVERSITY OF YAOUNDE 1 lxxx

4.1.3.4. UNIVERSITY OF NGAOUNDERE lxxxi

4.1.3.4 UNIVERSITY OF MAROUA lxxxiv

4.1.3.5. UNIVERSITY OF YAOUNDE II lxxxvi

4.1.3.6 University of Douala lxxxvii

4.1.3.7 University of Bamenda lxxxviii

4.1.3.6. National advanced school of public works, Yaounde lxxxix

4.1.3.7 Université Evangélique du Cameroun (UEC) Bandjoun lxxxix

4.2. ANALYSES OF THE SYNTHESIS AND CURRENT STATUS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CAMEROON xc

4.2.1. For primary education xc

4.2.2. For Secondary Education (General and Technical) xci

4.2.3. For Tertiary Education xciii

4.3 CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS IN THE INTEGRATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CAMEROON xciv

4.3.1 For Anglophone primary education system xciv

4.3.2. For general and technical education systems xciv

4.3.3. For tertiary education xcvi

4.3.4 Challenges and problems deduced specifically from respondents of questionnaires xcvi

4.4. SUGGESTED COURSES AND COURSE CONTENTS TO BE INTEGRATED INTO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM xcix

4.4.1 For primary education xcix

4.4.2 For secondary education cv

4.4.3. For the Tertiary Education System cvii

A complete programme on climate change and adaptation for use in enriching courses during the integration of the subject into any level of the educational system has been presented in Table 9. Choices of topics/themes from this list can be used to design cross-cutting approaches for students irrespective of their field of study (Sciences, Arts, or Social Sciences). cviii

The resources used in the conception of the strategies and in the design of the courses/modules including pedagogic tools/materials, method of training, and other approaches of integrating climate change and adaptation into the tertiary level are presented in Appendix IV. These have been used to conceive three options of integrating climate change and adaptation into the tertiary level and special approaches for integration into teachers training colleges and institutions (ENS , ENSET) in both the Anglophone and Francophone systems. cviii

4.5 EXISTING AND SUGGESTED TOOLS AND MATERIALS TO BE INTEGRATED INTO THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM cxiv

4.5.1 For primary Education cxiv

4.5.2 For secondary education cxv

4.6 PROPOSED STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATION OF COURSES AND COURSE CONTENT ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CAMEROON cxvi

4.6.1 For primary education cxvii

4.6.2.For secondary education cxviii

4.6.3 For tertiary education cxxii

4.6.4 For teachers training colleges cxxiii

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS cxxiv

6.0. REFERENCES cxxvi

7.0. APPENDICES cxxxi

APPENDIX 7.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE (ToR) OF THE STUDY cxxxi

APPENDICES 7.2: LIST OF PEOPLE AND INSTITUTIONS CONTACTED DURING THIS STUDY cxlvi

APPENDIX 7.3: COPIES OF QUESIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED IN THE STUDY clii

APPENDIX 7.4: SAMPLES OF EXISTING MODULES FOR TRAINING ON clxiii

ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE USED IN THIS STUDY clxiii

LIST OF ACRONYMS
AFC Alliance Franco Camerounaise

ANOVA Analysis of Variance

BMP Bachelors-Masters-PhD

CCNUCC Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements



Climatiques

C3D Climate Change Capacity Development Project

CGCEB Cameroon General Certificate of Education Board

CH4 Methane

CO2 Carbon Dioxide

DD Divisional Delegates

ECM Education à la Citoyenne et Morales

ENIEG Ecole Normal d’Enseignement Générale

ENIET Ecole Normal d’Enseignement Technique

ENS Ecole Normale Supérieure

ENSET Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique

FASA Faculté d’Agronomie et de Science d’Agricole (FASA)

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GHG Greenhouse Gas

GIS Geographic Information System

GIZ Geautomatiseerd Intergraal Zorgdossier (German Technical

Cooperation Agency)

HFCs Hydro flourocarbons

IGE Inspecteur Général d’Enseignement

IITA International Institute of Agriculture

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IRAD Institute de Recherches Agronomique pour le Développements

IRG International Resources Group

INP Inspecteur Nationale Pédagogique

LMD Licence-Masters-Doctorat

MINEDUB Ministère d’Education du Base

MINEDUC Ministère d’Education du Cameroun

MINEPDED Ministère d’Environnement et de Protection de la Nature et de Développement Durable

MINEPAT Ministère du Plan et d’Aménagement du Territoire

MINESEC Ministère d’Education Secondaire

MINESUP Ministère d’Enseignement Supérieur

MDGs Millennium Development Goals

NAP National Adaptation Programme

NF3 Nitrogen triflouride

NGO Non-Governmental Organizations

N2O Nitrous Oxide

NPI National Pedagogic Inspector

ONACC Observatoire National des Changements Climatiques

PACC Programme d’Adaptation aux Changements Climatiques

PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal

REPAR Reseau de Parliamentaires Pour la Gestion Durable des

Ecosystemes en Afrique Centrale

REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

RDE Regional Delegate of Education

RIE Regional Inspector of Education

SF6 Sulphur hexaflouride

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences

STU Sciences de la Terre Unités

SVT Science de la Vie et de la Terre

UK United Kingdom

UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational and Scientific Cooperation

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNICEF United Nations International Children Education Fund

USA United States of America

USAID United States Agency for International Development

WWF World Wildlife Fund




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