Framework curricula for primary education



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MUSIC AND SINGING

Years 5 though 8 of Education


Objectives and tasks
Musical education aims to bring up a community playing music and an audience loving and understanding music. In connection with that, the foundation of musical literacy, the introduction of national and universal musical culture, the enhancement of artistic expression skills and the shaping of an everyday need for exquisite music.

The experiences offered by musical pieces presented, sung and heard improve and raise the awareness of an aesthetic sense for music and of the conviction that music is a fundamental value in human life. As a result of musical experiences and acquisition of knowledge, the musical consciousness is constantly shaping, evolving from the simple to the complex, from the Hungarian to the international, from the empirical to the cognitive. It is however important to arrange musical reality into a comprehensive overall picture at all levels of this development.

The majority of the musical corpus of teaching singing in schools includes music involving songs. Thus the musical education may contribute substantially to the development of historical and moral awareness through the lyrics of songs.

Singing and playing musical instruments are core activities of musical education since primarily those are capable of understanding music and receiving musical pieces who are able to participate in musical creative activities to some extent. Active music playing facilitates the development of a positive attitude to music through the opportunity of musical self-expression.

The sources of obtaining information expand in this age group: the scope of information from listening to music expands in along with singing, the in-class and independent use of textbooks and reference books gains a key role in obtaining information.

Learning about and accepting the specific features of musical cultures, showing interest in Hungarian works of musical art constitute an important part of the students’ musical vision of the world.

Learning about and applying the signal system of music are not for their own sake in activities of reading and writing music: musical content and information stimulate musical imagination and facilitate the development of an understanding of music.

The love for music and the establishment of the habit of listening to music entail the shaping of taste and facilitate the involvement in extracurricular musical events (choirs, orchestra performances).



Developmental requirements
Singing
The development of singing skills in Years 5 through 8 aims at shaping pleasant and expressive singing which provides experiences and offers joy, as the development of a fundamental form of musical self-expression and as the improvement of a tool of obtaining information. Therefore it requires individual and collective singing with a natural and pleasant harmony, with the acoustic expression of arsis and thesis. Singing with parlando of more relaxed metrics, less restricted rubato and tense giusto pulsating. Singing Hungarian folk songs, songs of nationalities and ethnic minorities in Hungary, songs of neighbouring and other peoples. Singing bichord works collectively by heart, in a pure and expressive way, by using the means of musical expression in order to communicate musical message.
Listening to music
The improvement of musical hearing essentially aims at the improvement of feeling tonality, hearing the melody, hearing the tone, feeling the rhythm and the tempo, feeling dynamics and form. Observation of major and minor tonality in melodies. The development of inner hearing and polyphony through the polyphony of composed music and its observation. Development of musical memory through practising and presenting songs and themes.
Reading and writing music
As a result of the development the skills of reading and writing music, the students may be expected to identify the key of pentachord and heptachord songs (up to key-signatures 2# and 2b). Recognising intervals learnt from scores, utterance of the rhythm of musical notes in score, utterance of rhythm in unison or in polyphony. Readings the scores of short and easy melodies together. Writing known pentachord and heptachord melodies from a given keynote by heart. Knowing ABC notes in G clef.
Understanding music
Improvement of the understanding and feeling music: recognition and distinction of musical forms and genres associated with the musical periods learnt, development of the emphatic and interpreting ability of means of expression communicating the ideas of a musical piece   tempo, dynamics, tonality, characters, harmonisation. Ability to recognise the sounds of instruments, instrumental bands orchestras in musical pieces listened to.
Year 5
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


NEW ACTIVITIES

CONTENTS




Singing

Singing folk songs of new style in adaptive rhythm.

Singing composed music excerpts in line with the presentation signals.

Singing Gregorian melodies.

Singing the themes/parts of renaissance and baroque musical pieces.

Singing canonicals in groups.



Additional Hungarian folk songs (old and new style).

Songs of other people.

New festive songs.

Old Hungarian medieval melodies.

Medieval Gregorian melodies.

Themes from renaissance and baroque musical excerpts.

Simple polyphony (canonicals, bicinia, quodlibets).

Allocution (Szózat) (Hymn).





Listening

Recognising musical genres after examples.

Listening to renaissance and baroque pieces, observation of their stylistic marks.

Identifying the instrument groups of the baroque orchestra.



Music of folk customs (Hungarian, minorities and nationalities).

Folk song variations.

Gregorian melodies.

Renaissance musical excerpts.

Baroque musical excerpts.

Career and works of composers, brief (medieval, renaissance and baroque) historical background.





Improvisation

Improvisation of the quint-relay folk song form (with given first line).



As model melodies:

Quint-relay folk songs

(a5 a5v a av and a5 b5 a b).







Reading and writing music

Reading and writing new rhythm values and their pauses.

Reading and writing new melody elements.

Indication of ABC notes in G clef (c’-c”).

Noting down pentachord and heptachord melody motifs learnt with letter scores and in line system.

Knowing and solmisated singing of pure intervals.



Songs learnt.

Reading exercises.

Sung excerpts of listening to music.







Music

Songs

Folk songs, composed songs, excerpts from the history of music (Gregorian, renaissance, baroque).


Works

Folk music and composed music pieces (Gregorian, renaissance, baroque).


Folk music

Style structure of Hungarian folk songs:

Old style: line structure, descending melody, quint-relay

New style: returning line structure, arching melody; pipe songs; folk band.

Folk instruments: pipe, cymbal, zither.




Theory of music

Rhythm notions and theory:

Adaptive rhythm; sixteenths and its combinations, its pause; short high-pitched and protracted rhythm.


Melodies:

Upper re and mi notes.


Intervals: full notes and minims, pure intervals: 1, 4, 5, 8.
Name of notes:

ABC notes in G clef.


Scales:

Heptatonic scale.


Tonality:

D-minor tonality.


Presentation signals:

Tempo and dynamic signals, in connection with songs learnt and musical pieces listened to.


Construction:

Imitating construction.




Literature of music

Periods of the history of music:

Renaissance, baroque; stylistic marks.


Composers:

Lassus, Palestrina;

Vivaldi, J.S. Bach, Händel.
Genres:

Vocal   secular: madrigal, cantata.

Vocal   religious: motet, chorale, oratory.

Instrumental: suite, concerto.

Musical forms, construction methods: rondo, minuet, fugue.

Sequence, recitativo; solo-tutti.


Orchestras:

Baroque orchestra.


Instruments:

Organ, harpsichord.

Oboe, trumpet.



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing
Singing another 15 excerpts   enumerated under the song corpus   by heart in groups.

Singing the Allocution (Szózat) by heart.

Singing new style folk songs with adaptive rhythm.
Listening to music
Recognising renaissance and baroque pieces listened to more often.

Recognising folk instruments and folk bands after hearing.

Identifying renaissance and baroque composers.
Improvisation
Construction of 2 to 4 beats of variations by using the rhythm formulae learnt.

Improvisation of quint-relay melody (based on given formulae and first line).


Reading and writing music; Music
Identifying ABC notes, describing them in G clef (c’-c”).
Year 6
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


NEW ACTIVITIES

CONTENTS




Singing

Singing folk songs included among composed music variations already listened to.

Presenting historical songs.

Utterance of classic composed songs and themes from musical notes in scores.

Singing classic canonicals collectively, practising its 6/8 pulsating order in relevant melodies.

Clear intonation of new intervals in melodies learnt.

Clear intonation and solmisated singing of altered notes in relations.

Additional Hungarian folk songs and songs of folk customs.

Additional songs of national and ethnic minorities.

Festive songs.

Songs of other people (from additional European countries).

Historical songs: lays, love-ditties, Hungarian songs from the Austrian rule of Hungary.

Classic composed songs.

Composed musical themes (listening excerpts lending themselves to sing them along).

Polyphonic excerpts:

canonicals, bicinia, folk song variations, easy choir pieces (from historical periods of music already learnt).







Listening

Oral presentation of the genres and forms of Wiener classicism.

Recognising musical forms, genres and works after hearing.

Comparing the musical characteristics of Hungarian historical music and Wiener classics.

Observing the difference between major and minor keys.

Folk music recordings (from the folk music of the homeland and other continents).

Pieces originating from folk music.

Excerpts from the Hungarian historical music of the 16th to 18th centuries.

Works of Wiener classicism, classical songs.





Improvisation

Improvisation of rhythm variations in 3/8 and 6/8 beat forms.

Creation of a melody for a given theme: opening   closing. Improvisation of period.

As model melodies:

Songs learnt and reading exercises (rhythm, melody and form elements).

Contents of singing and listening materials.

Melodies based on questions and answers.





Reading and writing music

Navigation in keys 1# to 1b. Identifying altered ABC notes.



Recognising second and third intervals in musical notes from scores, entering them in the line system.

Songs learnt.

Reading exercises.

Excerpts of listening to music.







Music

Songs

Folk songs, composed songs, excerpts from the history of music (baroque, classical).


Works

Folk music and folk song variations.

Works from the literature of music (baroque, classical).




Folk music

Hungarian folk songs of the new style, their line structure, quint reply.


Theory of music

Rhythm:

Stroke, truncated beat, triole.


New melodies:

ABC notes in small and in single-line octave; accidentals (#, b, cancel) and their meaning; solmisated (fi, si, ta, ri) and ABC names, hand signals of altered notes.


Intervals:

K2, n2, k3, n3.


Scales:

Major and minor.


Tonality:

Major and minor tones from 1# to 1b.


Form:

Period, symmetry.


Presentation:

In connection with music learnt.




Literature of music

Hungarian historical genres:

Lays.
Periods of the history of music:

Wiener classicism; stylistic marks.
Composers:

Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven.


Genres:

Vocal   secular: ballad, opera, oratory.

Vocal   religious: mass, requiem.

Instrumental: sonata, symphony, concerto (with cadence), serenade, divertimento.


Musical forms, structures:

Trio form, minuet, sonata form, rondo, scherzo.


Accurate denomination of works:

Opus; numero.


Orchestras:

Symphonic orchestra trio, string quartet.


Instruments:

Trombone, lyre (Hungarian historical).






Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing
Emphatic, expressive presentation of another 10 historical songs, composed songs or excerpts   selected from the enumerated sections of the song corpus   by heart.
Listening to music
Recognising and identifying vocal and instrumental folk song variations.

Recognising classical musical works listened to more often based on their themes.

Identifying the instrument sections and instruments of a symphonic orchestra.

Enumerating the composers of Wiener classicism and a few of their works.


Improvisation
Construction of musical question and answer sessions (in 2 by 2 beats).
Reading and writing music; Music
Identifying major and minor keys from musical notes in scores from 1# to 1b;

Interpreting accidentals after musical notes in scores;

Singing melodies learnt from letter score and musical notes in scores.
Year 7
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


NEW ACTIVITIES

CONTENTS




Singing

Singing presentation of romantic songs.

Presentation of polyphonic choir pieces.

Singing songs of other continents.

Clear intonation of new intervals in melodies learnt.

Hungarian folk songs (e.g. from the operas of Zoltán Kodály).

Additional songs of national and ethnic minorities.

New festive songs, songs of other people. Recruiting melodies.

Themes and excerpts of romantic songs and musical pieces which are easier to sing.

Canonicals, bicinia, easy choir pieces (from the corpus connected to the folk music and composed music of this year and the styles learnt before).







Listening

Learning about the stylistic marks and genres of romantic music from the works of European composers.

Analysing the sound of romantic orchestras (recognising instruments).

Listening to the folk music of other continents in authentic performances.

Comparison with folk music learnt previously.

Folk song variations (from choir pieces listened to).

Festive music.

National romance in Europe (national operas).

Hungarian music of the 19th century.

European works of musical arts from the 19th century.







Improvisation

Improvisation of folk song forms of the new style with given first line (melodies with arches and themes).



Model melodies.

Melodies with arches and themes: a a5 a5v av ; a a5 b a; a a b a ; a b b a.





Reading and writing music

Interpreting presentation and dynamic marks.

Recognising sixth and seventh intervals in musical notes from score. Navigation in keys 2# to 2b.

Contents related to the rhythm, melody, structure, etc. materials of musical excerpts sung and listened to.







Music

Songs

Folk songs, composed songs, themes sung, easy choir pieces (romanticism).


Works

Notions of folk songs listened to from other continents and of European / Hungarian folk songs sung (parlando   rubato _  tempo giusto).

Theory of music

Intervals: k6, n6, k7 and n7.

Scales: major and minor keys from 2# to 2b.

Presentation marks, musical terminology:

Dynamic marks: pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, crescendo ,

Tempo marks: andante, moderato, allegro vivace.


Works


Musical works and excerpts from listening materials (from the period of 19th-century romanticism   virtuosity).


Literature of music / History of music

Periods of the history of music:

Romanticism.


Composers:

Erkel, Liszt

Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Brahms, Chopin, Dvořák, Smetana, Tschaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Verdi, Wagner.
Genres:

Folkish composed song, recruiting song; rhapsody, program music, symphonic poem, romantic song, national opera.


Orchestras:

Romantic orchestra, stylistic marks of virtuosity.





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing
Presentation of another 15 excerpts   selected from the enumerated sections of the song corpus   by heart;

Singing recruiting melodies in authentic presentation style.

Singing folkish composed songs with lyrics by heart.
Listening to music
Outlining the composers of the Hungarian national romanticism and their works learnt during the year.

Identifying musical pieces from the 19th century (by author and title) listened to more often.

Oral identification of the stylistic marks of romanticism.

Enumerating the typical genres of romanticism.


Improvisation
Construction of melodies based on the melody and form construction rules of folk songs learnt (with given first lines).

Improvisation tasks by using folk and composed music forms learnt.


Reading and writing music
Navigation in scores: following musical pieces (themes and parts) from score.

Identifying major and minor keys from musical notes in scores from 2# to 2b.


Year 8
Number of teaching hours per year: 37




NEW ACTIVITIES

CONTENTS




Singing

Presentation of a program of songs compiled by a class for a particular topic (e.g. national holiday, school celebration, graduation, etc.).

Use of musical library: collecting the geographical, historical and ethnographical aspects of songs learnt; finding the meaning of music terminology and old folk words alone.

Hungarian folk songs (selected from all styles).

Songs of other continents.

Religious songs.

Song excerpts from the works of Bartók, Kodály and Bárdos.

Excerpts from the literature of music of the turn of the century and the 20th century which may be sung.

Polyphonic excerpts.





Listening

Systematic revision (reviewing the centuries and genres of the Hungarian and the European art of music by using typical musical excerpts).

Recognising and identifying the choir, orchestra and stage works of Bartók and Kodály after acoustic parts.

Recognising the musical movements of the 20th century after excerpts of musical pieces listened to more often.

Reviewing of musical genres and finding relationships between related arts and music (dance for known historical dance music).

Linking the genre information of jazz to composed music materials listened to.

Finding one’s way around the forms and modes of easy genres (learning about and interpreting the phenomena of our everyday acoustic musical surroundings).

Review materials:

Centuries of the Hungarian and the European art of music.

Music genres.

Remarkable works of the musical movements of the 20th century, contemporary art.

Jazz and its typical genres.

Entertainment functions of music: dance in the history of music (from suite to rock and roll).

Popular music today.







Improvisation

Independent improvisation in folk song forms and tone sets learnt.



As model melodies: contents of music materials learnt.







Reading and writing music

Practising all previous task types (summarising).


Materials of vocal and instrumental excerpts learnt.







Music

Songs

Songs, vocal excerpts (20th century).


Works

Musical works, themes from the listening materials (20th century).


Folk music

Authentic presentation in Hungarian, European and world music.


Theory of music

Asymmetry, atonality, polyrhythmicity.


Literature of music / History of music

20th century:
Composers:

Bartók, Bárdos, Kodály, Weiner and other contemporary composers.

Gerswhin, Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky, Honegger, Prokofiev,

Hacsaturjan, Britten, Penderecki.


Movements:

Impressionism, neo-classicism, folklorism.

New forms of expression and presentation: electronic music.

Popular music: the Beatles, Elvis Presley, Webber, Szörényi.

Genres of jazz and popular music.

Popular music today (current issues).





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing
Participation in collective singing, performance, enhancement of the set of songs by 15 vocal excerpts.
Listening to music
Ability to locate a musical piece listened to more often in the appropriate historical period of music.
Improvisation
Application of knowledge concerning rhythm, melody, form and folk music styles in improvisation.
Reading and writing music
Ability to use the most common tempo and dynamic marks in the course of collective and individual singing, reading and writing easy melodies and rhythms as a summary of the corpus of the 8 years.

Recommended singing and listening material

(Years 5 through 8)
Folk songs
A citrusfa levelestől (The lime tree and its leaves)

A csitári hegyek alatt (Under the mountains of Csitár)

A jó lovas katonának (For the good cavalry soldier)

A Vidróczki híres nyája (Vidróczki’s famous flock)

Ablakomba, ablakomba (In my window, in my window)

Által mennék (I would cross)

Csillagok, csillagok (Stars, stars)

Erdő, erdő de magas (Forest, forest, how tall)

Erdő, erdő, erdő, marosszéki ... (Forest, forest, forest, of Marosszék ...)

Érik a szőlő (The grape is ripening)

Felülről fúj (It is blowing from above)

Hull a szilva (Plums are dropping)

Két tyúkom tavalyi (My two chickens from last year)

Madárka, madárka (Birdie, birdie)

Megyen már a hajnalcsillag (The star of dawn is leaving)

Nagyváradi kikötőben (In the port of Nagyvárad)

Ősszel érik a babám (My sweetheart is maturing in the Autumn)

Sárgul már a ... (It is turning yellow now ...)

Sej, Nagyabonyban (Hey, in Nagyabony)

Szépen úszik a ... (It is floating nicely ...)


Vocal music from the history of Hungarian music
Erkel Kölcsey: Himnusz (Hymn   The Hungarian national anthem)

Egressy Vörösmarty: Szózat (Allocution)

Tinódi: Egri históriának summája (Summing up the history of Eger)

Csínom Palkó

Törökbárony süvegem (My cap made of Turkish velvet)

Tyukodi nóta (Ditty from Tyukod)

Ellopták a szívemet (My heart has been stolen)   collected by Ádám Pálóczi Horváth

Kossuth Lajos azt üzente (Lajos Kossuth sent a message)

Esik eső karikára (The rain is falling in hoops)

Most szép lenni katonának (It is nice to be a soldier now)

Kecskemét is kiállítja (Kecskemét is also displaying it)

Fónagy Arany: Nemzetőr dal (Song of the Militia)

Szerdahelyi: Magasan repül a daru (The crane is flying high)
Passages from vocal compositions
Bach: The valleys are calming down (chorale)

Bach: Hail to you and the people of your home (Peasant cantata)

Haydn: Deep in the forest (canonical)

Mozart: Come sweet May (ballad)

Mozart: Jingle aria (from his opera, The Magic Flute)

Beethoven: Marmotte (ballad)

Schubert: The Trout (ballad)

Kodály: Háry János (suite)   excerpts

Bárdos: Rétre-hívó (Call to the meadows) (canonical)

Erkel: Keserű bordal (Bitter wine ballad) (from his opera, Bánk Bán)

Erkel: Meghalt a cselszövő (The machinator is dead) (from the opera, Hunyadi László)
Listening material
Vivaldi: Four Seasons   E major violin concerto (Spring)

F minor violin concerto (Winter)

Bach: The valleys are calming down (chorale variation for mixed choirs)

Händel: Hallelujah   choir from his oratory, The Messiah

Händel: Victory Song   from his oratory, Judas Maccabeus

Haydn: G major (Timbal) symphony

Mozart: A little night music

Mozart: The Magic Flute

Beethoven: D major violin concerto

Schubert: The Trout (ballad)

Schubert: A major piano quintet (ballad)

Schumann: “Daydreaming”   from his piano sequence, Scenes from Childhood

Chopin: G minor mazurka (Op. 24. No. 1)

Chopin: Grande Valse brillante

Liszt: 15th Hungarian Rhapsody

Verdi: Choir of the Slaves   from his opera, Nabucco

Verdi: Romance of Radames   from Act I of his opera, Aida

Verdi: Entry March   from Act II of his opera, Aida

Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition

Smetana: Moldau

Dvořák: E minor (From the New World) symphony

Erkel: Keserű bordal (Bitter wine ballad) (from Act I his opera, Bánk Bán)

Erkel: Bánk’s aria (from Act II his opera, Bánk Bán)

Erkel: Meghalt a cselszövő (The machinator is dead) (final choir from Act I of his opera, Hunyadi László)

Erkel: Palotás (Hungarian dance) (from his opera, Hunyadi László)

Debussy: Children’s corner

Bartók Kodály: Hungarian folk songs (for vocals with piano accompaniment)

Kodály: Mátra képek (Images from the Mátra Hills)

Kodály: Székelyfonó (Transylvanian spinner)

Kodály: Háry János (suite)

Kodály: Kállai kettős (Kállai duett)

Kodály: Fölszállott a páva (The peacock has risen)

Kodály: Esti dal (Evening song)

Bartók: Magyar képek (Hungarian images)

Bartók: Gyermekeknek (For Children)   I/18, II/31

Bartók: Divertimento

Stravinsky: Petrushka

Britten: Variations and fugue for a Purcell theme

Gershwin: Clara’s cradle song and Porgy’s song   from his opera, Porgy and Bess (On the wealth of the poor)

Szörényi Bródy: István, a király (King St. Stephen)   optional excerpts





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