Case study: MEDC Tropical Storm: Hurricane Floyd, USA 1999 (MEDC)
Case study: LEDC Tropical Storm: Cyclone Myanmar
Case study: Deforestation of Tropical Rainforest: Amazon Rainforest
Case study: Sustainable Rainforest Scheme: Costa Rica
Unit 1.1 Population Dynamics
The world’s population is increasing rapidly
Natural population change (NPC) is worker out by:
BIRTH RATE (BR) – DEATH RATE (DR) = NPC If the answer is positive the growth rate is getting bigger and if the number is negative the growth rate is getting smaller.
The unit is usually per 1000 people and to make it a percentage you must divide by 10.
Demographic transition model
The model shows that as a country develops the BR and DR change.
It is based on what happened in Europe and America in the past and is now used to predict the population changes that will occur to developing nations (LEDCs)
Rapid population growth: Case Study Niger
Where is Niger?
West Africa, next to Algeria, Libya, Chad and Nigeria.
Information on Niger:
One of the poorest countries in the world
Mostly nomadic farming
Fertility rate of 7.1 babies born per woman
½ population is under 15 years old
It has a youthful population
Population is rising as death rates fall and birth rates stay the same or increase.
Why are death rates falling?
Vaccinations for children against diseases
Better supplies of water
Better health care
Women becoming educated
Why are the birth rates so high?
Children needed to support farming
No sex education in countryside
Children wanted to look after parents when they are old
Overpopulation: The number of people living in a place is more than the amount of resources available – not enough resources to go around
Under population: The number of people living in a place is less than the number of resources available – an excess of resources and a loss of money for the country, limited workforce
Overpopulation/anti natalist policy: Case Study: China
What? People encouraged to have lots of children in the 1950s/60s to ensure Chinese victory in event of a war.
Problem: No enough food, jobs, healthcare, housing or services for all the people and population was still rising in 1970. The crime rate was rising and the country, air and water were becoming polluted. A very low quality of life.
Solution: One Child policy: Couples in cities only allowed to have one child and must apply for permission from the government. Free contraceptives and education on family planning for all and an excessive propaganda campaign. Couples in rural areas may have two children if the first is girl or first child disabled or died.
China’s population of about 1.3 billion is said to be 300 million (.3 billion) smaller than it would likely have been without the enactment of this policy.
The fertility rate has fallen to 1.7 births per woman.
Such a reduction in fertility reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (health, education, law enforcement, and more), and strain on the land from farming and waste
Uneven proportion of boys to girls as many girls are aborted, heavy fines put on couples who wish to have a second child so richer people can afford it while the poor cannot. Spoiled children.
Some babies killed or sold if they are girls. Some women forced to have abortions or be sterilised.
BUT: Population growth has been stabilised, policy has been relaxed since 2003.
Under population: Pro natalist policy: Case Study Singapore / Italy
What? Independent from the British since 1965, from 1950s tried to limit population by encouraging smaller families but now has a declining population and a limited workforce
Anti natalist 1970s: Abortion and sterilisation made legal, ‘stop at two’ campaign, extra tax on third child, best schools’ places given to those with fewer children.
Pro natalist 1980s:increased immigration, female university graduates having children were given the best school places, grants given to new parents, tax rebates for third child, day care for children subsidised, 4 years maternity leave for civil servants.
Outcomes: Not much change in the BR but immigration has continued to help the economy
Low fertility rates of 1.23 children per family
Some women feel that they cannot work and cope with raising a family too
Some men not doing sufficient household chores
Poor service provision for childcare in preschool years
Childless no longer bears a stigma
Social pressure to marry and have children is less
Even though head of the catholic church is in Italy – contraception use is high
Yuppiedom – preference for luxury goods delays marriage and babies
Less than 1/3 mothers have children before 28 years
Young people live at home with parents longer to save rent etc. which delays relationships and births
10,000 euro bonus for births in a village in Mezzogiornio as mayor concerned that young people will not enter village otherwise
Population density and distribution:
Why are some places densely populated?
Employment, flat land, good communications, fertile soil, reliable water supply and natural resources.