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CURRICULUM
OF

SOCIOLOGY

For

BS 4-Year Program

(Revised 2009)









HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC

Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Executive Director

Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Member (Acad)

Miss Ghayyur Fatima Director (Curri)

Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Deputy Director (Curri)

Mr. Shafiullah Deputy Director

Composed by: Mr. Zulfiqar Ali, HEC, Islamabad

CONTENTS

1. Introduction………………………………… 6


2. Standardized Template for BS 4-year

Degree programme …..……………………. 9


3. Layout for BS Sociology..…………………. 10
4. Scheme of Studies for 4-year

BS in Sociology …………………………… 11


5. Details of Foundation Courses……………. 14
6. Details of Major Courses………………….. 33
7. Details of Compulsory Courses…………... 70
8. Recommendations ………………………... 82

PREFACE

Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. The world has turned into a global village; new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It is, therefore, imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.


In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976, the Federal Government vide notification No. D773/76-JEA (cur.), dated December 4th 1976, appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees, certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges, universities and other institutions of higher education.
In pursuance of the above decisions and directives, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. According to the decision of the special meeting of Vice-Chancellor’s Committee, the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.
A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic, Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards, and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. It also aimed to give a basic, broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration, and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees, 63.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses, and 36.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.
For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level, comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities, degree awarding institutions, R&D organizations, respective accreditation councils and stake holders. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Sociology in a meeting held on April 9-11, 2009 at HEC Regional Centre, Lahore revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions.


PROF.DR.ALTAF ALI G. SHAIKH

Member Academics

August 2009
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Abbreviations Used:

NCRC. National Curriculum Revision Committee

VCC. Vice-Chancellor’s Committee

EXP. Experts

COL. Colleges

UNI. Universities

PREP. Preparation

REC. Recommendations

LI Learning Innovation

R&D Research & Development Organization

HEC Higher Education Commission


INTRODUCTION
Final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC) on Sociology developing curriculum for B.S. 4 – year programme was convened on April 9 -11, 2009 at Higher Education Commission (HEC) Regional Center, Lahore. Dr. Muhammad Hafeez, Director, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore chaired the meeting and the following members from different universities participated in the meeting:
1. Professor Dr. Muhammad Hafeez Convener

Director,

Dept of Sociology

University of the Punjab,

Lahore
2. Professor Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat Member

Chairman,

Department of Sociology,

University of Karachi,

Karachi
3. Dr. Haq Nawaz Anwar Member

Chairperson,

Dept of Sociology,

Govt. College University,

Faisalabad.
4. Dr. Anwar Alam Member

Associate Professor,

Dept of Sociology & Anthropology

University of Peshawar,

Peshawar.
5. Dr. Riffat Munawar, Member

Assistant Professor,

Dept of Sociology,

University of the Punjab,

Lahore.
6. Dr. Aijaz Wassan, Member

Assistant Professor,

Department of Sociology,

University of Sindh,

Jamshoro

7. Prof. Najma Noor Phulpoto Member

Chairperson,

Dept of Sociology,

Shah Abdul Latif University,

Khairpur.


8. Mr. Farhan Ahmad Faiz Member

Lecturer,

Dept. of Sociology,

B.Z. University, Multan


9. Syed Imran Haider, Member

Lecturer,

Dept. of Sociology,

Allama Iqbal Open University,

Islamabad
10. Mr. Irfan ul Haq, Member

Head (Environment & Settlement),

NESPAK, Lahore.
11. Mr. Imran ul Haq, Member

Senior Engineer/Environmentalist,

NESPAK, Lahore.
12. Hafiz Rashid Mehmood Member

Directorate General of Katchi Abadis &

Urban Improvement, Local Government,

Department Government of Punjab,

Lahore.
13. Dr. Saif Abbasi, Secretary

Head


Department of Sociology,

International Islamic University,

Islamabad.
The opening session of the meeting was held on April 9, 2009 with the recitation of verses from Holy Quran. Mr. Bashir Ahmad, Director Incharge, HEC Regional Office, Lahore welcomed the participants. Ms. Ghayyur Fatima, Director (Curriculum), HEC, Islamabad briefly explained that the objective of the meeting of NCRC is to review and finalize the draft curriculum prepared during the first meeting.
Professor Dr. Muhammad Hafeez, appreciated the work done by the NCRC during its first meeting held on October 30 to November 1, 2008 and hoped that the members of this meeting will perform with the same commitment and zeal. The committee confirmed the minutes of 1st meeting and appreciated the support of Higher Education Commission and particularly the cooperation of Ms. Ghayyur Fatima extended during the meeting. The following schedule was agreed to complete the assignment.
Day-1 (09-04-2009) Development of objectives for each course

Day-2 (10-04-2009) Books recommended for each course

Day-3 (11-04-2009) Review and finalizing of the curriculum

Closing ceremony


All members mutually developed the objectives in the light of contents and requirements of each course and prepared list of recommended book on first two days of the meeting.
A sub-committee headed by Professor Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat and comprised of all the members of NCRC was requested to review the final draft of the curriculum before submission to HEC. In this regards, a brainstorming session was held on the third day of the meeting. The finalized scheme of studies prepared is attached.
Committee members highly appreciated the cooperation extended by the staff members of HEC regional centre Lahore.
The meeting ended with a vote of thanks by the Chair.


STANDARDIZED TEMPLATE / SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR FOUR-YEAR INTEGRATED CURRICULA FOR BACHELOR DEGREE IN BASIC, SOCIAL, NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
STRUCTURE



Sr.

Categories

No. of courses

Min – Max

Credit Hours

Min – Max

1.

Compulsory Requirement (No Choice)

9 – 9

25 – 25

2.

General Courses to be chosen from other departments

7 – 8

21 – 24

3.

Discipline-specific Foundation Courses

9 – 10

30 – 33

4.

Major Courses including research project/Internship

11 – 13

36 – 42

5.

Electives within the major

4 – 4

12 – 12




Total

40 – 44

124 – 136



  • Total numbers of Credit hours 130-136

  • Duration 4 years

  • Semester duration 16-18 weeks

  • Semesters 8

  • Course Load per Semester 15-18 Cr hr

Number of courses per semester 4-6

LAYOUT FOR BS SOCIOLOGY


Compulsory Requirements (the student has no choice)

General Courses to be chosen from other departments

Discipline Specific Foundation Courses

9 courses

7 courses

10 courses

25 Credit hours

21 Cr. Hours

31Credit hours

Subject

Cr. hr

Subject **

Cr. hr

Subject

Cr.

Hr

  1. Functional English

  2. Communication Skills

  3. Technical Writing and Presentation Skills

  4. University Option

  5. Pakistan Studies

  6. Islamic Studies / Ethics

  7. Mathematics

  8. Social Statistics

  9. Introduction to Computer

3

3
3


3

2

2


3

3

3



  1. Mass Communication

  2. Introduction to Management

  3. Logic and Critical Thinking

  4. Introduction to Psychology

  5. Introduction to Economics

  6. Introduction to Law

  7. Social Work

  8. Political Science

  9. Everyday Science

  10. Introduction to Geographical Information System

  11. Introduction to Environment

3

3
3
3


3
3

3

3



3

3

3



    1. Introduction to Sociology

    2. Development of Social Thought

    3. Classical Sociological Theories

    4. Contemporary Sociological Theories

    5. Pakistani Society & Culture

    6. Social Psychology

    7. Methods of Social Research

    8. Advance Research Methodology

    9. Social Anthropology

    10. Gender Studies

3

3
3
3


3

3

3+1


3
3

3





25




21




31




Major courses including research project/internship

Elective Courses within the major

13 courses

4 courses

44Credit hours

12 Credit Hours

Subject

Cr. hr

Subject

Cr.hr

  1. Sociology of Development

  2. Project Planning & Management

  3. Community Development

  4. Introduction to Population Studies

  5. Rural Sociology

  6. Urban Sociology

  7. Sociology of Health & Medicine

  8. Comparative Social Institutions

  9. Social Change & Transformation

  10. Sociology of Religion

  11. Sociology of Education

  12. Sociology of Globalization

  13. Research Project & Thesis / Internship

3

3+1


3

3+1


3

3

3



3

3

3



3

3

6




Any four of the following

  1. Impact Assessment

  2. Conflict and Alternative Dispute Reselection

  3. Clinical Sociology

  4. Governance and Social Policy

  5. Corporate Social Responsibilities

  6. Organizational Behaviour and HRD

  7. Electronic Media & Virtual Society

  8. Sociology of Law and Human rights

  9. Rural Development

  10. Criminology

  11. Industrial Sociology

  12. Islamic Sociology

3

3


3

3

3



3

3

3



3

3

3






44




12


Total Credit Hours: 133

* University has the option to recommend any other course in lieu of English IV

** Universities may recommend any other discipline according to their facility

and faculty available

MODEL SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR 4 YEAR INTEGRATED BS (HONS)


Semester/Year

Name of Subject

Credits

First

ENGLISH-I

3




PAKISTAN STUDIES

2




MATH/STAT-1

3




GENERAL-I

3




GENERAL-II

3




FOUNDATION-I Introduction to Sociology

3







17

Second

ENGLISH-II

3




ISLAMIC STUDIES / ETHICS

2




Social Statistics

3




GENERAL-III

3




GENERAL-IV

3




FOUNDATION-II Social Thought

3







17

Third

ENGLISH-III

3




INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER

3




GENERAL-V

3




GENERAL-VI

3




FOUNDATION-III Classical Sociological Theories

3







15

Fourth

ENGLISH-IV / UNIV. OPTIONAL

3




GENERAL-VII

3




FOUNDATION-IV Contemporary Sociological Theories

3




FOUNDATION-V Pakistani Society & Culture

3




FOUNDATION-VI Gender Studies

3







15

Fifth

FOUNDATION-VII Criminology

3




FOUNDATION-VIII Research Methodology

3+1




MAJOR-I Sociology of Development

3




MAJOR-II Project Planning & Management

3+1




MAJOR-III Community Development

3







17

Sixth

FOUNDATION-IX Research Design & Sociometry

3




FOUNDATION-X Anthropology

3




MAJOR-IV Population Studies

3+1




MAJOR-V Rural Sociology

3




MAJOR-VI Urban Sociology

3







16

Seventh

MAJOR-VII Sociology of Health & Medicine

3




MAJOR-VIII Comparative Social Institutions

3




MAJOR-VIII Sociology of Education

3




ELECTIVE-I

3




ELECTIVE-II

3




MAJOR-IX RESEARCH PROJ / INTERNSHIP

3







18

Eight

MAJOR-XI Social Change & Transformation

3




MAJOR-XII Sociology of Religion

3




MAJOR-XII Sociology of Globalization

3




ELECTIVE-III

3




ELECTIVE-IV

3




MAJOR-X RESEARCH PROJ / INTERNSHIP

3







18




Sub TOTAL

133


LIST OF FOUNDATION COURSES
1. Introduction to Sociology

  1. Development of Social Thought

  2. Classical Sociological Theories

  3. Contemporary Sociological Theories

  4. Pakistani Society & Culture

  5. Social Psychology

  6. Methods of Social Research

  7. Advance Research Methodology

  8. Social Anthropology

  9. Gender Studies


Details of Courses

Foundation Courses
Introduction to Sociology
Objective:

The course is designed to introduce the students with sociological concepts and the discipline. The focus of the course shall be on significant concepts like social systems and structures, socio-economic changes and social processes. The course will provide due foundation for further studies in the field of sociology.


Course Outline


  1. Introduction

    1. Definition, Scope, and Subject Matter

    2. Sociology as a Science

    3. Historical back ground of Sociology

  2. Basic Concepts

    1. Group, Community, Society

    2. Associations

      1. Non-Voluntary

      2. Voluntary

    3. Organization

      1. Informal

      2. Formal

    4. Social Interaction

      1. Levels of Social Interaction

      2. Process of Social Interaction

        1. Cooperation

        2. Competition

        3. Conflict

        4. Accommodation

        5. Acculturation and diffusion

        6. Assimilation

        7. Amalgamation

  3. Social Groups

    1. Definition & Functions

    2. Types of social groups

      1. In and out groups

      2. Primary and Secondary group

      3. Reference groups

      4. Informal and Formal groups

      5. Pressure groups

  4. Culture

    1. Definition, aspects and characteristics of Culture

      1. Material and non material culture

      2. Ideal and real culture

    2. Elements of culture

      1. Beliefs

      2. Values

      3. Norms and social sanctions

    3. Organizations of culture

      1. Traits

      2. Complexes

      3. Patterns

      4. Ethos

      5. Theme

    4. Other related concepts

          1. Cultural Relativism

          2. Sub Cultures

          3. Ethnocentrism and Xenocentrism

          4. Cultural lag




  1. Socialization & Personality

    1. Personality, Factors in Personality Formation

    2. Socialization, Agencies of Socialization

    3. Role & Status

  2. Deviance and Social Control

    1. Deviance and its types

    2. Social control and its need

    3. Forms of Social control

    4. Methods & Agencies of Social control

  3. Collective Behavior

    1. Collective behavior, its types

    2. Crowd behavior

    3. Public opinion

    4. Propaganda

    5. Social movements

    6. Leadership


Recommended Books:

  1. Anderson, Margaret and Howard F. Taylor. 2001. Sociology the Essentials. Australia: Wadsworth.

  2. Brown, Ken 2004. Sociology. UK: Polity Press

  3. Gidden, Anthony 2002. Introduction to Sociology. UK: Polity Press.

  4. Macionis, John J. 2006. 10th Edition Sociology New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

  5. Tischler, Henry L. 2002. Introduction to Sociology 7th ed. New York: The Harcourt Press.

  6. Frank N Magill. 2003. International Encyclopedia of Sociology. U.S.A: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers

  7. Macionis, John J. 2005. Sociology 10th ed. South Asia: Pearson Education

  8. Kerbo, Harold R. 1989. Sociology: Social Structure and Social Conflict. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

  9. Koening Samuel. 1957. Sociology: An Introduction to the Science of Society. New York: Barnes and Nobel..

  10. Lee, Alfred Mclung and Lee, Elizabeth Briant 1961. Marriage and The family. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc.

  11. Leslie, Gerald et al. 1973. Order and Change: Introductory Sociology Toronto: Oxford University Press.

  12. Lenski, Gevbard and Lenski, Jeam. 1982. Human Societies. 4th edition New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

  13. James M. Henslin. 2004. Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Toronto: Allen and Bacon.


DEVELOPMENT OF Social Thought
Objective:

The course will provide familiarity about history of social thought, stages of social development and change. The course will emphasize contributions of Western, Eastern and Muslim Thinkers towards social thought and social development.


Course Outline


  1. Introduction

    1. Historical Development of Social Philosophy

  2. Early Social Thought

  1. Folk Thinking

  2. Greek

  3. Egyptian

  4. Babylonian

  5. Chinese

  6. Indian Social Thought

  1. Contribution of Muslim Thinkers in Social thought

  1. Abuzar Ghafari

      1. Wealth Theory

  1. Imam Ghazali

      1. Causes of group life

      2. Social justice

      3. Educational reforms

  2. Ibn-E-Khuldun

      1. Philosophy of history

      2. Science of culture

      3. Ethnocentrism

      4. Rise & fall of nations

      5. Causes of social life




  1. Shah Waliullah

      1. Evolution of society

      2. Causes of social life

      3. Societal disease

      4. Concept of perfect society

  2. Moulana Ubedullah Sindhi

      1. Basic Human Ethics

  3. Allama Iqbal

      1. Concept of self

      2. Theory of religion


Recommended Books

        1. Barnes, H.E. (Ed.) 1966. An Introduction to the History of Sociology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

        2. Bogardus, Emory S. 1960. The Development of Social thought. 4th ed. New York: Longmans, Green & Co.

        3. Coser, Lewis A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers

        4. Coser, Lowis A. 1977. Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanarich Publisher

        5. Kinlock, Graham C. 1987. Sociological Theory:Its Development and Major Paradigms. New York: McGraw Hill Inc.

        6. Keat, Russel and John Urry. 1982. Social Theory as Science. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

        7. Ritzer, George. 2000. Sociological Theory. 5th ed. York: McGraw Hill Book Co.

        8. Turner J.H. 2003. The Structure of Sociological Theory. 7th ed. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth

        9. Zeitlin, Irving M. 1981. Ideology and the Development of Sociological Theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

        10. Turner, J H. 1987. The Structure of Sociological Theory Homewood Illinois: Dorsey Press.

        11. Ritzer, George. 1988. Sociological Theory. Singapore: McGraw Hill.

        12. Coser, L A. 1971. Master of Sociological Though: Ideas in Historical Social Context. New York, Harcourt Brace.

        13. Dubin Robert. 1978. Theory Building. New York: Maxwell, Macmillan.



Classical Sociological Theories
Objective:

The course provides a review of classical sociological theorists to contemporary sociological thinking. It focuses on the content and utility of classical theories in terms of understanding social world. While the course provides a general history of sociological theory, the focus remains on examining how classical theories have provided the basis for a better understanding of the character and dynamics of societies around the world. The contents of the course also help understand the nature of contemporary sociological theories.


Course Outline
1. Background

      1. Social Forces

      2. Intellectual Forces

      3. French Revolution

      4. Enlightenment

2. Development of Sociological Theory



    1. Theory and Knowledge

    2. Process of Theorizing

    3. Types of Sociological Theories

    4. Inductive and Deductive

    5. Process of theorizing

    6. Fact, Propositions, and Laws

    7. Sociological Theory between 1600 -1800 AD

3. August Comte



    1. Positivism

    2. The law of Human Progress

    3. Hierarchy of the Sciences

    4. Social Static & Dynamic

  1. Emile Durkheim

    1. Rules of Sociological methods

    2. Division of Labour

    3. Social Solidarity

    4. Theory of Religion

    5. Theory of Suicide

  2. W. G. Sumner

    1. Folkways and Mores

    2. Ingroup and outgroup

    3. Basic motives

  3. Karl Marx

    1. Communist Manifesto

    2. Socialism

    3. Stages of Social Evolution

  4. Herbert Spencer

    1. The law of Social Evolution

    2. Concept of Society

    3. Laissez-faire

  5. Max Weber

    1. Sociology of Religion

    2. Bureaucracy

    3. Protestant Ethic and the Sprit of Capitalism


Recommended Books:

  1. Farganis, James (2000). “Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism (3rd Ed.)”. Boston: McGraw Hill.

  2. Kinloch, Graham C. (1977). “Sociological Theory: Its Development and Major Paradigms” New York: McGraw Hill.

  3. Ritzer, George (2002). Sociological Theory (10th edition). New York: McGraw Hill.

  4. Blalock, Hubert M. (1969) Theory Construction from Verbal to Mathematical Formulation (Ed). N.J.; Prentice Hall Inc.

  5. Bronner, Stephen Erick (latest ed.) Critical Theory and Society-A Reader, London; Routledge and Kegan paul.

  6. Cooley, C.H. (1962). Social Organization, New York: Scrichnes Books.

  7. John, J. Macionis. 2004. Sociology, 10th edition. Hardcover

  8. Ross, H. Laurence (1963). Perspectives on the Social Order, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

  9. Imasheff, N. and G.A. Theoderson, (1976) Sociological Theory: Its Nature and Growth, New York: Random House.

  10. Calhon, Craig. Ed. 2007. Contemporary Sociological Theory. 2nd ed. Malden, USA: Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Wallace, Ruth A. & Alison Wold. 1991. Contemporary Sociological Theory. Continuing the Classical Tradition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

  12. Waters. Malcolm. 1994. Modern Sociological Theory. London: Sage Publications

  13. Appelrouth Scott. 2007. Sociological Theory in the Contemporary Era: Text and Readings. London: Pine Forge Press.


Contemporary Sociological Theory
Objective:

This course will introduce students to some of the major contemporary theoretical perspectives in sociology, including: functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, identity theory, rational choice theory, and feminist theory. To explore these perspectives, contributions of various theorists will be examined. Capabilities to evaluate sociological theories critically will be developed. An attempt will be made to apply theories to understand current social problems and issues Pakistan and the world are facing.



Course Outline


  1. Neo-structural Functionalists

    1. Talcott Parsons

    2. Robert K. Merton.




  1. Critical Conflict Theory

    1. Thorstein Veblen

    2. Ralf Dahrendorf

    3. C. Wright Mills




  1. Frankfurt School of Thought

    1. Jurgen Habbermas




  1. Social Behaviourism and Interactionism

    1. Phenomenology (Husserl, Alferd Schutz),

    2. Systematic Social Behaviouism (George Simmel)

    3. Symbolic Interaction ( C.H.Cooly, G.H Mead)




  1. Evolving Contemporary Feminist Theory

    1. Feminism

    2. Historical development

    3. Gender theories.


Recommended Books:

  1. Calhoun, Craig Et El. (2002). “Contemporary Sociological Theory”. Blackwell Publisher Ltd.

  2. Coser, L A (1971), Master of Sociological Thought; Ideas In Historical Social Context, New York, Harcourt Brace.

  3. Dubin Robert (1978); Theory Building, New York, Maxwell, Macmillan

  4. Farganis, James (2000). “Readings In Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism (3rd Ed.)”. Boston: Mcgraw Hill.

  5. Kinloch, Graham C. (1977). “Sociological Theory: Its Development And Major Paradigms” New York: Mcgraw Hill.

  6. Ritzer, Georg (2002). Sociological Theory (10th Edition). New York: Mcgraw Hill.

  7. Turner J H (1987), The Structure Of Sociological Theory, Homewood Illinois; Dorsey Press.

Pakistani Society and Culture
Objective:

The course aims to make students learn about the nature and structure of Pakistani society. It aims to impart knowledge about national culture and sub-cultures of Pakistan. The course will develop understanding about the integrated function of various social institutions in the country.


Course Outline


      1. Introduction

        1. Definition of Society

        2. Characteristics of Pakistani Society

        3. Social Stratification, Cast, Class & Ethnicity

        4. Social Institutions in Pakistan

  1. Family

  2. Religion

  3. Economy

  4. Politics

  5. Education

  6. Recreational

      1. Educational Dynamics

        1. Illiteracy

        2. Literacy

        3. Universal Primary Education Concept

        4. Schools; Technical & Higher Education

        5. Status of Formal and Informal Education

      2. Historical Perspective of Pakistani Culture

3.1 Provincial Culture

        1. Culture of Punjab

        2. Culture of Sindh

        3. Culture of NWFP

        4. Culture of Balochistan

        5. Culture of Kashmir & Northern Areas


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