Issues of assessment and reconstruction

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Zlatko Karač

University of Zagreb - Faculty of Architecture

HR – 10000 Zagreb, Kačićeva 26

phone: 385/1/4639-382, e-mail:

Until recently, the Islamic heritage left from the times of the Turkish rule was a poorly preserved and completely unknown layer of historic architecture in Croatia, present mostly in the regions of Slavonia, Lika and the Dalmatian Zagora region. Croatia has just recently performed an inventory of its Ottoman heritage (coinciding with the layer of renaissance and early baroque in the free parts of Croatia at the time). This unusual ‘counterpoint’, i.e. the meeting point of Islamic architecture and Western visual arts, is today highly valued as a specific quality of the Croatian cultural space. This report will present the research of Ottoman architecture so far, the recent renovations, as well as the conservation restitution programs that are currently in preparation - from archaeological presentations to procedures for the conservation of ruins, there adaptation for new functions, and related assessment and methodological issues.

The “Turkish period” in Croatia – historical framework. – The least researched layer in the history of Croatian architecture with a insignificant sample of preserved monuments is that dating to the Turkish-Islamic period during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Ottoman conquests of Croatian territories began after the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 and ended with the Battle of Sisak in 1593 and a crushing defeat in their expansionary wars. In classical historiography the lands bordering with the Ottoman Empire are almost mythically described as the antemurale Christianitatis or the “Bulwark of Christianity” and defended frontiers of Christian Europe from the Ottoman Empire. In 1552 these frontiers had extended as far as 48 km from Zagreb, to the River Česma near Čazma, and, with the building of Petrinja on the River Kupa, even closer. Warring continued up until the Peace of Zsitvatorok and the final demarcation of the Ottoman Empire (Bosnia) on 23 December 1795. A period of 302 years went by from the fall of Imotski, the first Croatian territory to be conquered, in 1493 to 1795 when the Ottomans finally left their last stronghold within the territory of Croatia. The Ottomans continued to have a hold on the bordering regions of Lika, Kordun and Zagora, whereas Slavonia was only under Turkish rule for a century and a half. [10].
Vice versa Croatian Renaissance – stylistic framework. – Centuries of warring but also the coexistence of Croatia and the Islamic world and oriental arts while the Renaissance flourished in towns along the Adriatic Coast helped shape one of the greatest cultural counterpoints in the development of art in these regions. While Niccolò Fiorentino was completing the dome of Šibenik Cathedral, Littoral Makarska was already part of the Islamic world, and when the Sponza Palace (Divona) in Dubrovnik was built the Turkish border was only 3 kilometres above the City of Dubrovnik. The advent of Islamic architecture in Dalmatia coincided with the Renaissance at the end of the 15th century and during the entire 16th century, while its extended duration coincided with the Early Baroque in the 17th century.

And while much has been written about the reliquiae reliquiarum art of the Renaissance and Baroque that flourished within the few free regions of Croatia, there are very few interpretations and very little has been documented, recorded and archived on the chronologically concurrent Turkish-Islamic heritage that was built up over three centuries in other parts of Croatia [1, 6, 10, 18, 22, 26].

The reason for the scarce number of preserved Islamic monuments in Croatia is due to the systematic destruction of anything that symbolised Islam within the initial years after the Turks had been expelled from Croatian lands. However, for practical reasons, and due to poverty in the liberated lands, Islamic buildings were adapted and served new purposes. In this way, certain mosques were altered and transformed into Catholic churches and have, as such, survived to this day. Individual Turkish forts continued to serve as military forts and Turkish utilities – bridges, waterworks, wells – also continued to be used.
Mosques, masjids and musallas. – According to records of the Meshihat of the Islamic Community in Croatia, during Turkish rule as many as 189 mosques, or “places of prayer” were built in the regions of Slavonia and Lika [16], to which should be added several dozen places of worship in the Dalmatian Zagora region and Littoral Makarska. Based on defter (cadastre) lists it may be discerned that kasabas (semi-urbanised market towns) like Vukovar, Valpovo, Đakovo, Rača or Drniš had five mosques (or mahala mesjids), each during their urban phase, whereas šehers (large towns, cities) had more: Osijek definitely had eight (during Čelebi’s days even perhaps 12) [2], Požega had nine places of prayer (three mosques and six mesjids), etc. Čelebi’s descriptions of the šeher Cernik from 1660, in which he sees 21 mosques, or of Gradiška, where he notes 26 Islamic places of prayer, seem difficult to believe, especially as, at the same time, he records only nine in the much more developed Ilok. Čelebi’s note on Osijek as having 66 Muslim places of prayer is also rather difficult to believe! [4]

During the early years of Christian requisition, in poorer regions mosques served as Catholic churches. After the liberation of Lika, priest Mesić adapted mosques in Perušić, Budak, Bilaja and Ribnik for Christian services. During this early post-Turkish phase it is possible that medieval sacral buildings, which the Turks had used as mosques in the interim, were converted into churches. This holds true for the gothic Cathedral of Đakovo (a 'holy fort mosque'), the Church of St Lawrence and the Franciscan Church of St Demetrius (the Šerklot mosque) in Požega, the Romanesque chapel in Koprivnica and “Suleiman’s mosque”, which was within an adapted medieval church at the Kaptol castile near Požega, and for the existing chapel in the Valpovo castle, which also served as a mosque. Čelebi also notes that the Suleiman-han mosque at the castle in Brod was also a church before it became a mosque (probably the Chapel of St Mark) [4]. The medieval All Saints’ Church in Požeške Sesvete was also converted into a mosque and then reverted into a Catholic place of prayer after the Turks. The gothic church in Perušić, north of Gospić, was also used as a mosque by the Turks, and then later re-consecrated and became the Church of the Holy Cross. A mosque is also mentioned as existing in Udbina in the post-Turkish period. The Old Croatian central-plan church at Gradina, Solin, which is only preserved in its groundplan, was converted into a mosque. The “small mosque” at Tvrđa in Osijek was converted in 1700 into the Chapel of St Francis.

Only three mosques remain preserved to this day in Croatia. All three have classical domes from the 16th century: at Đakovo (the All Saints’ Church) [17, 23], in Drniš (St Anthony) [24, 26] and at Klis (St Vitus) [25, 26]. It seems that the small Church of Our Lady of Angels at the fort in Imotski was built in 1788 upon the remains of a mosque, just as the church nearby at Glavina from 1722, which is structurally an Islamic place of prayer, was adapted for the needs of Orthodox Christians settling the area. Certain other mosques, destroyed in relatively recent times, have been described and documented. For example, the mosque in Vrgorac which was adapted into a Catholic church in 1694 remained standing until 1913, and its minaret “… made of beautifully hewn stone and 40 feet high with an inner spiral staircase” continued to exist until 1861. The ruins of a mosque were recently cleared in Prološac near Imotski by Šarampov-most during the construction of the road. The remains of mosque walls are apparently still visible in Pakrac during low water levels on the Pakra River, and remains are also mentioned as existing in Orahovica. In 1938 the remains of a “Turkish place of prayer” were noted at Bosut near Vinkovci. And the Kasim-Pasha mosque from 1558 at Tvrđa in Osijek has been archaeologically researched and recorded [15].

The only minaret (mosque tower) in Croatia from the 16th century has been preserved in Drniš and is made of finely carved stone [24, 26]. Photographs and drawings from 1919 record and document the then existing lower part of the minaret at the Kasim-Pasha mosque in Đakovo (called the “Turkish dungeon”), which was, at the time, incorporated as a romantic ruin within the Bishop’s park. A description of the minaret of the Šerklot mosque in Požega was provided by Čelebi who says that it “…was very high and made completely of red brick” (probably a Franciscan medieval bell-tower) [4].

Most urbanised settlements also had a musalla (a larger area for prayer in the open) where all Muslim džemats (religious congregations) occasionally bowed together in prayer. One such area has been identified on the plan of Turkish Vukovar within the “bećarski križ” zone [9], and it is said that musallas were also noted on the cadastre defters of Požega (1579) and Mitrovica (1581).
Tekkes. – There were around 20 Dervish tekkes or zavijas (types of monasteries). The most significant was Hindi-baba’s tekke in Vukovar, a prophet whose grave was visited by pilgrims. It stood at the site of what is today the Eltz Manor and in the post-Turkish years (until 1736) it served as the administrative centre of the nobility. Other tekkes are mentioned in Grgurevci in Srijem, and the Ulama Pasha’s zavija in Požega from 1550. During the 17th century there were four tekkes in Osijek, three in both Mitrovica and Nijemci, two each in Pakrac and Rača, and one each in Cernik, Ilok and Valpovo.
Cemeteries, turbes and tombstones. – The only existing turbe (mausoleum) in existence in Croatia today is in Ilok. It is an open pavilion with a dome supported by four columns [1]. In view of its location in the centre of the fort plateau, it probably belonged to one of the Srijem sandžak-begs.

Only photographs remain of Gaiba’s turbe which stood on the banks of the Sava near Stara Gradiška. In concept, it is a closed “chapel” with a quadrangular groundplan. The Austrian forces tolerated the renewal of this mausoleum over a period of two centuries and its maintenance was paid for by Muslims who regularly visited it from the Bosnian bank. Its last reconstruction was apparently paid by the Emperor Franz Josef I himself [7, 12, 20]. The turbe was disassembled in 1954 and transferred to Bosanska Gradiška, and was devastated during the recent war by Serb forces. The Halil-Beg Memibegović turbe from 1601 (destroyed in 1815, documented in descriptions) stood at Visuće near Udbina. Archaeological excavations at Križanić Square at Tvrđa in Osijek have recently brought to light the groundplan of the large octagonal Kasim-Pasha turbet depicted on parterre “graphics” on the paving [15], which is also well-known from other plans and landscapes of Osijek dating from Turkish times, and from Čelebi’s description which states that it is a lead-covered light domed mausoleum [4]. A further smaller, open-type turbe has been discovered at the same site. Mustapha-Pasha’s polygonal turbe in Osijek has also been archaeologically researched, whereas the site of Bayram-Beg’s’s turbeta (Čelebi mentions it as standing at the exit towards Valpovo) and Husrev-Beg’s turbe located in the “gardens” on the Belgrade road remain unknown for now [4]. The most renowned place visited by pilgrims in Ottoman Slavonia – Hindi-Beg’s turbe which stood beside the dervish tekke in Vukovar – has not been preserved, but is beautifully described in a number of places in Čelebi’s Putopisi [4]. Hasan-efendi’s turbe built around 1590 next to the Khalwatiyyah Tekke in Požega, where the Dönmez-Beg turbe once stood, was also a place visited by pilgrims as was the turbe of fort commander Ahmed.

Quite a number of smaller grave monuments - mezar nišan, or standing tombstones, have been preserved in Croatia, which are the most numerous group of non-figurative almost abstract Islamic stone plastique. In shape they are predominantly cylindrical, although they are also less frequently rectangular stone pillars with accentuated čalmas (heads) stylized in the form of turbans, fezzes, etc. They are no longer to be found in situ, and better specimens are housed in museum collections at Požega (finds from Kujnik and Rudine), Vukovar, Brod, Đakovo..., at the Franciscan monasteries in Cernik, Hrvatska Kostajnica and Makarska, and at the Church of St Michael in Konjsko in the Dalmatian Zagora. An embellished tombstone is also to be found at the town cemetery of the City of Korčula and a second less preserved one was housed at the lapidary of the city hall. A tombstone with an ulema turban may be seen even today walled into the terrace of the Dešković House in Pučišća on the Island of Brač, which confirms that Dalmatian stonemason workshops carved monuments for Muslim cemeteries, probably in Herzegovina. The intentional destruction of Turkish resting places is also confirmed in reports from the beginning of the 19th century when the road beneath Bijela Stijena “was repaired” using material consisting of broken stone tombstones from the adjacent Muslim cemetery. During the laying of the road running from Đeletovci to Nijemci in 1850 a Turisk cemetery was destroyed which was, according to the parish priest, specific due to its stone monuments that “…had heads wrapped in imitation turbans…”.

A necropolis was excavated in 2001 and researched using the C-14 method at the Pakrac settlement Vinogradi at the indicative toponymic site termed “Tursko groblje” and dated to a period around 1643.

Madrasahs and mektebs. – There were already four madrasahs (religious secondary schools) in Osijek in the 16th century, among which those of Kasim-Pasha and Mustapha-Pasha are worth mentioning, alongside five mektebs (primary schools). Čelebi notes that the Osijek mektebs “...were in good repair and full of children like in the saray palace” [4]. At Pakrac, which was also the centre of the sandžak (large territorial unit) for a short while, Čelebi notes that there were three madrasahs and six mektebs (more than in Osijek!) [4]. Ilok had two madrasahs and six mektebs, there were also two secondary and three primary schools in 17th century Rača on the River Sava, and two mektebs are recorded as existing in both Vukovar and Nijemci.
Houses, manors and residential towers. – Due to its transient construction there are almost no preserved examples of residential architecture dating from the Turkish period in Croatia. The few buildings that remain which have visible oriental elements and are locally given names like “Turkish house”, etc, are probably younger in provenance and imports to the bordering towns towards Bosnia. Buildings like this existed until recently, like the Tomić House with a “Turkish” chimney in Požega or the storied čardak Muljević in the part of Požega called Arslanovci(!). The last remaining “Turkish House” was also recently devastated in the centre of Slavonski Brod. The borderland čardak (blockhouse) on the banks of the River Sava in Županja, certain houses in Voćina and an unusual “Turkish House” with a porched čardak in Bakar (probably a “Levantine” acquisition belonging to a seafarer or merchant) belongs to this category of house reminiscent of oriental buildings. [13].

In mid-16th century Požega there is mention of a luxurious kösk (villa, summerhouse) belonging to Bali-Beg Malkočević, and later of Hadži-Mehmed’s seraj which was open to all travellers as a place to spend the night. Whether these residences belonging to notable people were truly impressive needs to be confirmed by notes made by travellers from the West, for example, Prandstätter who, during his visit to Ilok in 1608, was a welcome guest of the Srijem sandžak-beg at his wooden seraj. The stone “Kadija’s Manor” in Imotski is today part of the Franciscan monastery. The ruins of the manor of HasanAga Arapović (sung in the Hasanaginica) with a tower and three wells may still be seen at the Lupoglav site near Zagvozd. In the mid-17th century, Čelebi saw “...single-storey and two-storey houses, all covered in shingle (...) and all with gardens as beautiful as an earthly paradise” in Cernik [4].

Timber frame constructions (a wooden framework filled with unfired clay - ćerpić, rammed earth or wicker) is an oriental art brought to Croatian regions by travelling Turkish dunđers (carpenters, builders). Čelebi also notes an interesting fact concerning the quality of building in Turkish Drniš: “Now the town has no buildings made of wood. Due to fear that they may be burnt down during warring, all the buildings are made of durable material...” (around 1660) [4].

In Lika and especially in the Dalmatian Zagora, many authentic Turkish residential towers, predominantly from the 17th century, remain standing to this day. These specific fortified types of feudal residences (common all over the Balkan region) include: the Alića-kulina Tower and the Tower of Aga Senković in Gospić (17th cent.), the elegant Tower of Jusuf-Aga Tunić in Islam Grčki, the ruins of the Atlagić Tower in Benkovac, Alibeg’s Tower in Imotski, a number of ruined Turkish towers in nearby Glavina, as well as the Mumaz Tower and Dizdarević Tower (also the birth house of poet Tin Ujević) and the Cukarinović Beg Tower, all of which are in Vrgorac. There are three residential towers at Plina beneath Ploče (the old parish manor, the Grupković Tower near Puljani and another at the Karamatić hamlet). There are also numerous residential towers in Littoral Makarska (under Turkish rule from 1499): three towers at Gornji Tučepi, probably from the 16th century (Bušelić, Šarić and Lalić), and three further preserved Turkish towers in the hamlets around Podgora (Ruščići, Marinovići and Batošići), as well as towers in Drašnice, the Zalina Kula in Igrani (it is unclear whether it is Turkish in origin or was used against the Turks), the two-storey tower in Gracu and the ruins of a Turkish tower in Drvenik near Zaostrog [3]. The only preserved residential tower in Slavonia is the Jahja-Beg Tower in Gorjani, with a quadrangular groundplan, massively built of brick, which was converted in 1837 into the Chapel of the Three Kings [18, 22].

Forts. - Due to Ottoman invasions and the constant shifting of borders to the west, forts left in the hinterland of Turkish serhats (borderland, battlefield) soon became less important and so they were mostly left unrenovated. Smaller fortifications have been recorded at Ružica near Orahovica, at Budak and at Udbina, Perušić, Karin, Nadin, at 'Gradina' in Vrgorac..., and the most ambitious new tower fortification was in Cetin (the Ergar Tower from 1739 and the Drenđula Tower from 1765/66). The round tower built by the Turks in the 17th century within the Drniš Fort has been well-preserved [24, 26], and there are also remains of a round Ottoman tower on the Bribir plateau and at the fort “Topana” in Imotski. In other castles where local forces were accommodated, wooden housing was built for the asker (soldiers) and the odd solid building for the warehousing of ammunition. In cases where a “Turkish layer” was added to existing fortifications, these then consisted of wooden palisades and rammed earth constructions (Vukovar, the Osijek panađur) [9, 11].

By the beginning of the 17th century, some settlements without forts became important places along communication routes (especially those along the Budim road), especially those where there were river crossings, inns or menzilas (stations affording a change of horses). This was why they were fortified by rectangular-shaped stake palisades, thereby attaining the status of palankas, for example Petrinja (in Podunavlje these included Dalj, Tovarnik, Sotin, and others). The best known among them is the new palanka Jeni Hissar (Petrinja) from 1592 [21].

Only on rare occasions did the Turks reinforce the towns they invaded through a system of strongwalls and towers, as carried out in 1568 in Makarska on the Adriatic Coast by Sinan’s pupil Hajredin the Younger (also the builder of the famous bridge in Mostar). The remains of a round, brick angle tower (called the Fillibelli Fort) still stands at the entrance to Tvrđa in Osijek and is the only remains of the Turkish city walls that extended between the settlement and the panađur fair area.

In the borderland regions of Lika there are still significant remains to be found of relatively new Turkish forts - for example, the Bešina Tower in the village of Mušaluk in the environs of Gospić, the Malkoč-Beg Tower (1555) in Perušić in Lika and the Štulić Tower with the ruins of a castle nearby, as well as a Turkish watchtower at Bešić-gradina above Budak. Within the region of the Dalmatian Zagora there is a Turkish castle with a large tower at Perušić near Benkovci, by the saltworks near Karin Vranski the castle renovated by the zaimi Durakbegovići, and a number of forts in the Zrmanja canyon for the defence of Turkish Obrovac. Even “Gradina” in Solin has been established as initially having been an Ottoman fort which was built within 15 days in 1531by Husein-Pasha in order to take Klis. Other interesting remains are those of a Turkish watchtower near Prološac in the Imotska Krajina and the borderland tower in Aržano, as well as the one above the village of Nisko on Moseć. There is a round tower near Neum. As far as the Zagora is concerned, the Tapu tahrir defter (cadastre) from 1701 is worth noting in which the numerous forts of the time situated in the borderlands between Turkish and Venetian lands are described. [8]. Today, the most noteworthy and also earliest fort to be built by the Turks in Croatia around 1500 is the monumental Norinska Kula (Round Norin Tower) and the remains of its bulwark, which lie in the marshy Neretva River Valley. It is made of cut stone with embrasures (commissioned by Hodža Mustafa-Pasha Ušćupli).

What seems unusual is that the Turks showed no inclination towards innovation as far as fortifications were concerned, unlike the Renaissance bastion forts which were built as early as the 1640s in neighbouring towns or on the border itself (from Zadar to Karlovac, Koprivnica, etc.). For now, there are only intimations that Turkish bastions may have existed in Požega and Ilok.
Clock towers. – Chroniclers mention objects that no longer exist today, like clock towers which were once to be found in Vukovar, the fort at Valpovo and Osijek. [4].
Caravan sarajs, hans and musafirhanas. – In Croatian regions, as in all regions of the Empire, state karavanserajas (caravan sarajas), large free inns were built along major routes and roads (drum) which were often maintained by a vakuf (trust), while all major towns had private hans (inns, taverns) similar in architecture. The only remaining example of this type of building is the monumental han of vizier Jusuf-Pasha Mašković in Vrana (1644) which, although it was never completed, is the largest complex of Ottoman architecture in Croatia [5, 19]. It seems that there is still a han near Banovci in Srijem, and until recently there was another han in Zadvarje in the Omiš hinterland. In Vukovar three smaller hans are mentioned apart from the large karavanseraj which also served as a menzilhan (station affording a change of horses) [9]. There was a wooden karavanseraj which was part of the market panađur in Osijek, as well as six trading hans, while Čelebi notes that there were also “...many local dignitaries that kept odžaks for guests” [4]. It is interesting that in Požega, apart from Husrev-Beg’s karavanseraj, Hadži-Mehmed’s “manor” (his private residence) also served as an inn with an imaret (public kitchen). Čelebi notes that there were also two hans in Valpovo, Rača, Pakrac and Cernik, and smaller hans in the palankas Tovarnik, Sotin, and others [4]. Travellers, mostly pilgrims, were also taken in at certain tekkes like Hindi-Beg’s in Vukovar, which also had a town musafirhana (free inn). In Ilok Čelebija notes “ excellent coffeehouse with a beautiful view” [4].
Shops, magazas, panađurs. – All larger places, especially kasabas and šehers on major routes had a developed trading and artisan čaršijas (town centres) with dozens or even hundreds of shops, but there were no bezistans or permanent bazaars in Croatia.

As early as 1579, there was a large panađur made of wooden planks forming a specific urban complex of shops, magazas, workshops and a fair in the open in the southern suburbs of Osijek, but it only gained in significance in the 17th century and later, as Čelebi notes “a long-term market town with 1000 shops!” [4]

As far as trading on the borders went, it is interesting to note that a Turkish badžhan (tax office, customs house) still stands at the entrance to Vodice.
Hammams. – A significant number of public baths are mentioned in written records, for example, in Mitrovica in the 17th century there were three hammams, and, according to unconfirmed reports, there were also baths in Pakrac, Valpovo and Osijek, as well as “smaller hammams, seen by Čelebi in Cernik, Rača and Dalj [4]. Some are precisely located on plans dating from the Turkish period, especially baths in Vukovar which had two domed areas (the men’s and the women’s areas) and whose foundations were discovered during recent repair work carried out on utilities [9]. The only partly preserved hamman in Croatia is walled in beside the tower at the city walls in Ilok and is presently being renovated [10]. Čelebi describes it picturesquely as: “...a wonderful and beautiful hammam with pleasant air and a beautiful building in which there are two kurnas and four sofas” [4]. To the east in Srijem, there are photographs that document the remains of Turkish baths in Slankamen (apparently preserved to this day in the cellars of the parish house), and a furnace and floor ducts for warm air dug up in 1977 in the park in Nijemci, which are also probably remains belonging to a Turkish hamman.
Fountain, wells, sebiljs and šadrvans. - Water and a steady supply of water was an essential part of any Islamic town and their ritual and rites, and to this day there are still numerous fountains.

The “picturesque stone fountain of the Three Kings” with a curlicued arch and niche characteristic of the mihrab-česme type has been preserved beneath Klis[25, 26]. There are also architecturally specific stone Turkish fountains in Slavonia: in Oriovac, Požega (indicatively named Tekija), as well as at Slavonski Brod (the Rozinka Fountain on Brodsko Brdo), and at Srijemski Karlovci. Up until recently, there was also a Turkish fountain in the parks of Cernički Dvorac.

The remains of Kasim-Pasha’s fountain with double arched niches were excavated at Osijek close to the road to Baranja, and the fountain (perhaps a sebilj?) by the Kasim-Pasha mosque complex on Križanić Square in Tvrđa [15] has also been excavated, while the remains of a further fountain are kept at the Museum of Slavonia in Osijek. The fountain of Vizier Mustafa-Pasha Jahjaogluu the Senior are mentioned in the town records of Požega. Čelebi states that “...there is a fountain that contains the water of life” near Arslan Beg’s džamija (mosque) at Ilok. [4].

The same chronicler notes that there are 12 sebiljs ('pavilion' or kiosk-shaped public fountain with running water) in Osijek, among which Serdar’s, Ćehaj’s and especially Kasim-Pasha’s sebilj (protected by a wooden cupola) are noteworthy [4]. Until recently, there was a sunken well with characteristic Turkish architecture at the Franciscan monastery at Ilok [1], and Turkish wells may still be seen at Zagvozd in the Dalmatian hinterland, and at Vrgorac (the Muminovac and Dizdarevac Wells); in the hamlet Kokeza near Ogorje, the toponym “Turski bunar” (Turkish well) is preserved although there are no longer any remains of a well. It is interesting to note that in 1663 at Tovarnik, where the large Turkish army spent the night, Čelebi noted “...four hundred wells from which water was drawn by a winch” [4]. To this day, the stone arch-shaped pavilion or šadrvan (a fountain for ritual cleansing - abdest) is the striking and distinct feature of the monumental Mašković han in Vrana [5, 10, 19].

Wooden and ceramic pipes belonging to the Turkish water supply system or aqueduct are preserved at museums in Vukovar and Požega, and are also to be found in situ at the aqueduct next to Kasim Pasha’s mosque complex at Tvrđa in Osijek[15].
Mills and watermills. – Written and graphic sources (defters, chronicles, visitations, drawings, and even more recent photographs) provide insight into numerous Islamic buildings that today no longer exist. As recently as the 1950s, Turkish mills still existed at the waterfall on the Savak stream near Vinkovci. Lj. Fadljević’s picture at the City Museum of Vukovar dating from 1910 depicts the Turkish watermill called “Cigut” on the stream beneath the village of Berka. What seems to have been two Turkish watermills, traditionally called “Suleiman-Pasha” and “Osman-Pasha” by the locals were destroyed in the 1960s at Bačica near Cernik. Čelebi notes numerous mills as existing in Cernik [4], and four are actually recorded on the plans of this Turkish settlement. In the small village of Motičnina, the defter from 1579 notes as many as 12 mills in a settlement with fewer than 100 houses.
Bridges. - Although they do not bear the typical Islamic code due to their utilitarian design, bridges are, without doubt, the most monumental structures left by the Turks within the territory of Croatia. They were initially built along communication routes as part of the military and then civilian infrastructure which was protected and maintained by units of derbenđijas and often constructed by engineers with Italian engineers, or Nassadists, employed by the Turks.

During the attack on Hungarian Mohács in 1526, Grand Vezier Ibrahim-Pasha commissioned a wooden bridge measuring 550 metres to be built across the marshlands of Vuka near Vukovar as a military crossing [9]. The chronicler Čelebi notes that... “this bridge was built (...) within three days and three nights at the orders of Sultan Suleiman, so that the Turk army could cross during attacks on the town of Osijek. Many esnafi were employed and thousands of craftsmen were employed in its construction...” [4]. Although Čelebi tends to exaggerate facts in his descriptions, the fact remains that Vukovar was occupied on 1st August and the sultan crossed over the finished ćuprija with his army on 13th August 1526! Although it was made of wood, it served its purpose for the next 261 years – an entire century after the Turks had already left these regions (it was demolished in 1787) [9].

The wooden bridge at Osijek was almost mythical among its contemporaries and was an oft depicted motif in illustrations of this Turkish town. It ran from the banks of the River Drava by the Tvrđa town gates and across the Baranja marshlands and was almost eight kilometres in length. Certain sections were supported by oak pylons, whilst others were supported by pontoons consisting of lashed boats. Although it was also initially built during military attacks launched on Mohács in 1526, it burnt down several times, and then repeatedly repaired and even rebuilt. During extremely low water levels, its remains are clearly visible on the Drava riverbed [14].

In 1592 Hasan-Pasha Predojević had a bridge built across the River Kupa near Petrinjski Brest. The stone Atlagića-most Bridge stood on the River Krka at Knin up until WWII. Two stone bridges (Vukovića and Dragovića most) were recently submerged under the waters of the Peruča Lake, so that the only Turkish bridge that remains in Croatia is that across the Krupa, a stream beneath Velebit [10, 11].

Problems with inventory records and evaluation. – An inventory of Ottoman heritage, which was scarce and unrecorded within the monument corpus, has only recently been carried out in Croatia. Turkish monuments were mostly only mentioned in passing and seldom researched and recorded by earlier generations of researchers bar exceptions (for example, G. Szabo, J. Matasović, J. Bösendorfer, I. Zdravković, Lj. Karaman, I. Petricioli); conservation and restoration plans have been produced by T. Papić – B. Valenčić, K. Minchreiter and I. Marochino, whilst shorter syntheses and overviews of the Turkish-Islamic heritage have been published by A. Horvat (1975), M. Pelc (2007), and recently Z. Karač (2010).
Examples of restoration. – Among restoration work that has been undertaken recently, the restoration of three mosques (Klis, Drniš i Đakovo) is worth noting. The restoration of the Đakovo mosque presented a challenge as there were a number of layers of post-Turkish architecture that needed to be preserved (baroque, classicist and historicism phases). Other unique monuments like the turbeta in Ilok and the minaret and round tower in Drniš, as well as the Norin Tower have been conserved exemplarily, whilst the restoration of the Ilok hammam and partial reconstruction of the dome are being carried out at this moment. A programme (internationally funded) for the revitalization of Mašković-hana in Vrana for cultural purposes has already been implemented. As far as residential architecture is concerned, the “Turkish House” in Bakar, the Dizdarević and Cukarinović Towers in Vrgorac and the Jahja-Beg Tower in Gorjani have been conserved. Archaeological papers and research have been presented on the round semi-tower or so-called “Fillibelli Fort” as the single remains belonging to the Turkish city wall of Tvrđa in Osijek, and parterre graphics discovered at the nearby site on Križanić Square have also afforded the groundplan of Kasim-Pasha’s mosque complex with two turbetas and a sebilj. Some examples of “smaller architecture”, wells, grave monuments or nišans, the remains of Turkish waterworks and epigraphic inscriptions found on buildings are exhibited in Museum holdings.
The specific historical interaction of Islamic architecture and Western art is highly valued as a specific feature of Croatia’s cultural heritage within these regions.

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