Jv packet •Mars Colonization Affirmative •Mars Colonization Negative


Article: Space Travel Has Many Health Risks



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Article: Space Travel Has Many Health Risks


National Geographic Magazine: Health Risks Pose Hurdle for Mission to Mars. May, 18th, 2001.
Humans may soon be on their way to Mars. But human safety is paramount in space missions.

Depending on its orbit, Mars can be 500 times farther from Earth than the moon. Traveling such a long distance poses health problems never faced before.


Being weightless for the entire mission would cause degeneration of muscles, bones, and the heart. And without a vigorous exercise program, an astronaut would likely experience heart problems because his or her heart would become too weak to pump blood upon returning to Earth and its gravitation.
Another issue that must be addressed is the huge amount of radiation exposure that occurs outside the atmosphere. Gary Marin, director for advanced programs at the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), said, "Being away from Earth for three years would mean that every cell of your body would be transversed by a galactic ray, and we just don't know what that would do to people."
Chemically propelled engines, which are currently used for space flights, would not be able to carry enough fuel for the spacecraft to turn around and return to Earth if a problem such as trauma or serious illness occurred on board.
NASA is now looking into ways to deal with some of the physical risks. But psychological problems are harder to solve with technology.
Astronauts would be confined in the spacecraft for most of the mission. As Richard Berendzen, a scientist at American University, observed, "Five or six of your closest friends in a room the size of your living room for three years, that's a tough thing to do."
Scientists have discovered evidence that water may have existed on Mars, and may still be present under the surface. The availability of water is crucial to a mission to Mars because it might help provide the basic elements people need to remain on the planet for an extended period.
"That water is very important to us," said Berendzen speaking on National Geographic Today. "Not only to drill down and drink, but to pump up, break the H2O apart, use the oxygen to breath and the hydrogen for fuel."
The possibility that there is water on Mars suggests that even more intriguing findings may lie ahead. The presence of water is an indication of energy sources, and very likely organic matter.
Berendzen said that if evidence of past forms of life were found, "It would probably be the most stunning discovery in the history of humankind."
While going to Mars would clearly offer a minefield of discoveries, carrying out such a mission at this time has too high a risk for the people who would make such a journey. As research continues, however, the dream of a trip to Mars will inevitably become a reality.
SETI Affirmative

SETI Affirmative


Mars Colonization Affirmative 2

Explanation 3

Glossary 4

1AC [1/6] 5

1AC [2/6] 6

1AC [3/6] 7

1AC [4/6] 8

1AC [5/6] 9

1AC [6/6] 10

Overview Effect Advantage 11

Inherency Extensions 12

Extinction Inevitable – Human Weapons 13

Extinction Inevitable – Asteroids 14

Extinction Inevitable – Overpopulation 16

Answers To: War in Space 17

Overview Effect Extensions 18

Overview Effect Extensions 19

Solvency Extensions 20

Answers To: Can’t Establish a Colony Fast Enough 21

Answer To: Health Risks in Space 22

Answers To: Colonization Technologically Impossible 23

Answers To: Colonization Technologically Impossible 24

Answers To: Privatization DA / CP 25

Article: Why Spaceflight Has Ended 26

Article: Why We Must Return to Space 28

Article: Why a Mars Colony Would Be Possible 31

Mars Colonization Negative 38

Glossary 39

Answers To: Inherency 40

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 41

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 42

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 43

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 44

Answers To: Humans Will Cause Extinction 45

Answers To: Overpopulation Will Cause Extinction 46

Answers To: Asteroids Will Cause Extinction 47

Answers To: Overview Effect Advantage 48

Answers To: Overview Effect Advantage 49

Answers To: Solvency 50

Answers To: Solvency 51

Answers To: Solvency 52

Answers To: Solvency 53

Article: Why We Should Not Seek to Colonize Mars 54

Article: Space Travel Has Many Health Risks 57

SETI Affirmative 59

Explanation 60

Glossary 61

1AC [1/6] 62

1AC [2/6] 63

1AC [3/6] 64

1AC [4/6] 65

1AC [5/6] 66

1AC [6/6] 67

Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 68

Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 69

Space Debris Advantage 70

Space Debris Advantage 71

Space Debris Advantage 72

Inherency Extensions 73

Alien Contact Extensions – Aliens Exist 74

Alien Contact Extensions – Alien Contact Good 75

Extraterrestrial Perspective Extensions 76

Space Debris Extensions – ATA Helps Tracking 77

Space Debris Extensions – Plan Mitigates Debris 78

Space Debris Extensions – Debris Impacts 79

Solvency Extensions – ATA Leads to Contact 80

Solvency Extensions – Radio Searching Best 81

Solvency Extensions – Can Identify Alien Signals 82

Answers To: Privatization DA / CP 83

Article: The Allen Telescope Array 84

Article: Overview of SETI’s History 86

SETI Negative 91

Glossary 92

Answers to: Inherency 93

Answers to: Inherency 94

Answers to: Alien Contact Advantage 95

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 96

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 97

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 98

Answers To: Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 99

Answers To: Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 100

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 101

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 102

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 103

Answers To: Solvency 104

Answers To: Solvency 105

Answers To: Solvency 106

Answers To: Solvency 107

Article: Aliens Don’t Exist 108

Article: Problems With Alein Communication 110

NASA Tradeoff Disadvantage 113

Explanation 114

Glossary 115

Budget Tradeoff 1NC [1/2] 116

Budget Tradeoff 1NC [2/2] 117

Overview 119

Uniqueness – NASA Focusing on Earth Science 120

Uniqueness – NASA Focusing on Earth Science 121

Link - Space Exploration Trades off With Earth Science 122

Link - Space Exploration Trades off With Earth Science 123

Specific Link – Colonization Affirmative 124

Specific Link – Constellation Affirmative 126

Specific Link – SETI Affirmative 127

Specific Link – Asteroids Affirmative 128

Impact – Earth Science Solves Global Warming 129

Impacts – Earth Science Solves Global Warming 130

Impact – Warming Causes Extinction 131

Impact – Warming is Man Made 132

Impact – Warming Not Inevitable 133

Article: The State of NASA’s Budget 134

Article: Space Science, Earth Science and Politics 136

NASA Tradeoff DA Affirmative 138

Glossary 139

Uniqueness – NASA Overbudget now 140

Uniqueness – Earth Science Not Funded Now 141

Uniqueness – Earth Science Not Funded Now 142

No Link – Tradeoff Happens Between Agencies 143

No Link – Budget Flexibility now 144

Link Turn – Spending Increases the Budget 145

No Impact – NASA Program Unnecessary 146

No Impact – Warming Not Caused by Humans 147

No Impact – Warming Inevitable 148

Privatization Disadvantage 150

Explanation 151

Glossary 152

Privatization DA 1NC [1/2] 153

Privatization DA 1NC [2/2] 154

Overview 155

Uniqueness – Privatization Occuring Now 156

Uniqueness – Privatization Occuring Now 157

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 158

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 159

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 160

Impact – Economic Growth 161

Impact – Leadership 162

Impact – Turns Case 163

Impact – Turns Case 164

Article: NASA and the Privatization of Space 165

Privatization DA Affirmative 169

Glossary 170

Uniqueness – Private Sector Doesn’t Exist 171

Uniqueness – Private Sector Doesn’t Exist 172

Link Turn – Government Action Spurs the Private Sector 173

Link Turn – Government Action Spurs the Private Sector 174

No Impact – Privatization Won’t Achieve Goals 175

No Impact – Privatization Won’t Work 176

Impact Turn – Leadership 177

Impact Turn – Leadership 178

Impact Turn – Space Debris 179




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