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Partial inventory for Paul Bozuwa and the CSE Task Force: This corresponds to a drawer at JPHP full of the prints—but all have URL’s below
AuthorAID Background

Last updated: April 20, 2005

List of Acronyms and Organization Names

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science

ACRL Association of College and Research Libraries

AGORA Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture

AJOL African Journals Online Service

ALA American Library Association

ALPSP Association of Learned and Professional Society

ARL Association of Research Libraries

ATA Alliance for Taxpayer Access

BIREME Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information

BioMed Central

BMJ Publishing Group

CAIP Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs (division of AAAS)

CCGHR Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research

CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CIDA Canadian International Development Agency

CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal

Cochrane Collaboration

CODA Collection of Open Digital Archives

COHRED Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED)

CSE Council of Science Editors

DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals

Earth Research (scientific writing/editing services)

EASE European Association of Science Editors

EQUINET Network on Equity and Health in Southern Africa

FAME Forum for African Medical Editors

FAPESP State of Sao Paulo Science Foundation

Gates Foundation

GFHR Global Forum for Health Research

HINARI Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative

IAP Interacademy Panel on International Issues

IDRC International Development Research Center

IDS Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex

IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

IFS International Foundation for Science

IFSE International Federation of ScienceEditors

IAIA International Association for Impact Assessment

ICSU International Council for Science

INASP International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications


ISI Institute for Scientific Information

ISP International Science Programme

JISC Joint Information Systems Committee

JPHP Journal of Public Health Policy

LIS Librarian and Information Science


Moore Foundation

NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information (US)

NIH National Institutes of Health (US)

NLC National Library of Canada


OECD Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development

OSI Open Society Institute & Soros Foundations Network

PAHO Pan American Health Organization

PERI Programme for the Enhancement of Research Information (through INASP)

PLoS Public Library of Science

Ptolemy Project

Public Knowledge Project




SciDev.Net Science and Development Network

SciELO Scientific Electronic Library Online

SCRIPTORIA (writing/editing services)

SIDA-SAREC Department of Research Co-Operation within the Swedish International Development Agency

SHARED Scientists for Health and Research for Development

SHERPA Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access

SOAN SPARC Open Access Newsletter

SPARC Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resource and Academic Resource Coalition

TWAS The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World

UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

VHL Virtual Health Library

WAME World Association of Medical Editors

Wellcomme Trust

WHO World Health Organization

WSIS World Summit on the Information Society

File #1:

International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP)
Profile: The mission of INASP is to “enable worldwide access to information and knowledge with particular emphasis on the needs of developing and transitional countries”. Established by the International Council for Science in 1992, INASP is a charity that works with partners and networks around the world to encourage the creation and production of information, to promote sustainable and equitable access to information, to foster collaboration and networking and to strengthen local capacities to manage and use information and knowledge.
1.An important Symposium was held on Friday, 5th November, 2004 to explore new thinking on ways in which scientific research and dissemination of its results can be improved and become drivers of development. The Symposium, organized by and held at the Blackwell Publishing offices, drew together experts from research, publishing, and information management in developing countries, as well as participants from funding agencies and governments. Sixty-nine participants from 36 countries attended the Symposium, including 26 people from developing countries. Three Latin American countries were represented, 4 Asian countries and 11 African countries, as well as participants from the UK, USA and Europe. The Symposium was cosponsored by Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier Foundation, Oxford University Press, Nature, Springer, T&F Informa, Thomson Scientific and John Wiley and sons.

Alma Swan, Director of Key Perspectives, presented research showing that the proportion of internationally indexed scientific articles from outside North America and Western Europe has grown from 25% in 1983 to 50% in 2003, representing over a million peer-reviewed papers. For many countries, the trend is rising with some ‘tigers’ recording massive percentage growth rates that reflect both increasing national

2. Strategic online publishing workshop for journal editors was held Feb 7-9, 2005 in Accra, Ghana.
This workshop, organized jointly by INASP; INSTI; SIST; EIFL and CARLIGH was by attended by twenty invitees, who participated in sessions including copyright and intellectual property rights, as well as promotion and increasing visibility, managing authors and reviewers, and how to plan for an online future.
3. Reviewing and Editing Medical Journals: a three-day workshop to train medical editorial staff on best practice for reviewing articles, and to provide a "train the trainers" module so that the learning can be cascaded to other editors, reviewers, authors, etc. is to be held in Kampala, Uganda, April, 2005, INASP ( jointly with FAME (Forum for African Medical Editors), and TDR (The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, WHO– see also FILE #2 for more info on WHO initiatives)
4. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine Golden Jubilee Conference. Held in Mumbai, September 2004. This conference provided comprehensive discussion and debate on issues relating to authorship, editorship, electronic publishing and the business of publishing a scholarly journal. INASP helped to support this workshop, and also sponsored an African journal editor to attend. For full details about the conference, and to view the presentations made, see website:, and an article about the outcome is available at –
The main conference concentrated on three aspects: sessions on authors' perspective and editors' perspective, which were held over two days concurrently, and deliberations on open access, which was held on the last day of the conference. It was noted that advancement of career through publishing more papers is fast becoming the chief stimulant for medical writing. This has resulted in an explosion in the number of papers submitted for publication and actually getting published, a glut in the number of biomedical journals published and publication of trivial papers that are rarely read and almost never cited. In his talk on "Future of scientific publishing" RD Lele, former Dean and Professor and Head of Internal Medicine, Grant Medical College, Mumbai took up the issue of technological progress and its effect on publishing. He said that technological revolution was a double-edged weapon that on one hand empowers scientists with easy and almost instantaneous access to information; but also allows the less scrupulous ones to indulge in unethical practices such as plagiarism. The scientists will have to make the correct use of technology to ensure that the journals and printed word maintain their sanctity and credibility. Useful recommendations from this conference were forthcoming; these ranged from training authors to write better, to better review process, to transparent editorial process, to open free access.
5. The African Journals OnLine Service (AJOL)

A series of 3-day INASP workshops covering strategic journal planning plus hands-on content management training for publishing on AJOL. Journal editors/publishers and their production staff are invited to the workshops so that both strategic and practical production questions can be raised, discussed and agreed within the supportive learning environment. AJOL training workshop: Senegal, September 2004. A 1-day INASP workshop on managing content on AJOL for CODESRIA publications.

African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is a service to provide access to African published research, and increase worldwide knowledge of indigenous scholarship.

  • What is AJOL

  • How journals can join AJOL

  • Services for participating journals

  • Services for researchers

  • History of AJOL

  • Future plans for AJOL

  • Disclaimer

  • Other Journal OnLine Programmes from INASP

  • Support for AJOL

  • Contact us

What is AJOL

AJOL is a database of African-published journals, publishing in a range of academic disciplines. The objective of AJOL is to provide a window to the research published within the continent, and give greater visibility to the participating journals, and to the research they convey.

Journals are selected for inclusion on AJOL using the following criteria:

1 – they must be scholarly in content, and contain original research (in addition to other content)

2 – they must peer review their content, and have quality control standards

3 – they must be able to provide all content for inclusion on AJOL (tables of contents and abstracts) in electronic format (e.g. Word files)

4 – they must guarantee they have permission from the authors to allow AJOL to operate a document delivery service

5 – they must be published within the African continent. This means that management of publishing strategy, any business development and production operation must be run from an African country.

AJOL includes information about each participating journal, including aims and scope, contact details and general information. It also provides Tables of contents and abstracts (where available) for all articles published within these journals. In the future, some full text articles will also be available.

All the material on AJOL is free to view, search and browse. Full text documents can be ordered (in print or by email) – see more information about the document delivery service by clicking here.

AJOL is not a publisher: we only provide a service to the journals by hosting their content online, and actively promoting the website to encourage discovery of their titles and their articles.

Continuous monitoring and evaluation helps to assess the impact of AJOL – some figures are given below:

  • During 2003, almost 4000 people registered to use the service

  • During 2003, over 650 document delivery requests were fulfilled

An evaluation report of the service 2000­2002 has been published by INASP, click here to read the report online.
6. Other Workshops sponsored or coordinated by INASP, have included:
Scholarly Journal Editors Workshop: Kathmandu, Nepal, December 2003. This workshop was held in partnership with the Tribhuvan University Library and the Himalayan Journal of Sciences, and included 20 journal editors from Nepal. Topics covered included writing and editing skills, as well as production and distribution.
Publishing in an electronic environment: October 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. This workshop was held in partnership with the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.
Gaining Knowledge and Skills Needed for Scientific Communication and Collaboration: Tbilisi, Georgia, June 2003. INASP contributed to this workshop for researchers within Georgia, which was jointly held by SigmaXi and IWISE (International Women in Science and Engineering).
The Sustenance of Library and Information Science (LIS) Journals in West Africa: University of Ibadan, Nigeria, July 2003. This workshop was developed in partnership with the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science.
One Day Symposium on Information Technology In Scientific Writing and Publishing: Kenya April 2003. This symposium was developed in partnership with the East Africa Medical Association.
Research and writing skills for library, archives and information science authors in Nigeria: October 2002, Ibadan, Nigeria, in association with the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science.
Scholarly Publishing in Africa: This seminar took place in July 2002 in association with the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the African Books Collective (ABC). Following the seminar, a Handbook on Scholarly Publishing is planned for publication in 2004. The Handbook will be co-published by the Foundation and ABC, in association with INASP. (Further information on the workshop)
Scientific Communication & Publishing in the Information Age: Oxford, May 1999. This international workshop provided a forum where the perspective, the content and the visibility of scholarly communication for marginalised scientific communities could be explored and expressed.
7. INASP - Publishing Resources.
Publishing resources
contact Pippa Smart
To assist publishers, editors and all associated with the publication of science information, INASP are developing a number of resources as guide sheets. In addition to guides produced by INASP, links to guides available on other web sites are also provided. Links to all these resources are available below.
Copyright:INASP Copyright form: this is available for download as a Word file, for reuse by other publications. (Word file 32Kb)

Finance INASP financial recording sheet: this file can be adapted and used by journal and other serial publishers to maintain a record of the budget and actual expenditure over several years. (Excel file 17Kb)

General publishing issues Guidelines on good publications practice: link to guidelines on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) website

Online publishing Nature debates 1 and Nature debates 2: an online discussion forum on Open Access and other online issues

ReviewingTraining reviewers: a link to the BMJ website with excellent resources for reviewers (with a medical bias, but with relevance for other subjects).

Writing skills INASP: How to publish your research work: this resource is aimed at authors, and can be downloaded, emailed and sent to authors as required. (PDF file 67Kb).
Resources for Medical Editors World Association of Medical Editors: this page provides many links to information resources on the Web that are useful for medical editors. 
8. Programme for the Enhancement of Research Information (PERI)

This is a four-component program of support to information production, access and dissemination for research partners in developing and transitional countries using new information and communication technologies. Key objectives are to:

(1) Facilitate the acquisition of international information and knowledge through electronic Information and Communication Technologies

(2) Strengthen and develop access to journals in developing countries as a medium for the dissemination of results from national and regional research

(3) Provide awareness or training in the use, evaluation and management of electronic information and communication technologies

(4) Enhance skills in the preparation, production and management of journals

Component 1 now includes access to over 7000 full-text online journals, current awareness databases and services, and document delivery in science, technology, medicine, agriculture, social sciences and humanities. Component 2 supports access to and dissemination of journals from developing regions. Component 3 provides opportunities for ‘Using the Internet’ training, and Component 4 supports training for journal editors and publishers, through workshops, study visits and ‘mentorships’. PERI is open to universities, research institutions and professionals working in a non-profit environment. [] Canada’s NRC-CISTI announcement re: Canadian journals involved in the PERI program
File #2:

HINARI, BIREMI and other WHO and PAHO Initiatives
1. Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI)
HINARI is a WHO initiative to provide access to the major journals in medicine, nursing and related health and social sciences in institutions in developing countries. Those countries with an annual per capita GNP of less than $1000 can gain free access, and those with a GNP of $1000-$3000 can gain access for a nominal fee that is then invested in local training initiatives. Blackwell Publishing were a founding partner of HINARI and, alongside several other publishers, provide access to more than 210 titles through this initiative. The goal of HINARI is to increase the level of medical care within low-income countries and the health of their populace.
The HINARI project has been described by WHO Director-General Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland as "perhaps the biggest step ever taken towards reducing the health information gap between rich and poor countries." The HINARI library currently offers free/low cost access to more than 2500 journals, 700 free books, databases, encyclopaedias, compendia and other full text resources.
This collection is available through the efforts of WHO together with the 6 biggest biomedical publishers: Blackwell, Elsevier Science, the Harcourt Worldwide STM Group, Wolters Kluwer International Health & Science, Springer Verlag and John Wiley. It is hoped that free access to scientific knowledge will have a major impact on medical practice, especially in developing countries. Registered HINARI users can search and access full-text of articles directly from Pubmed (Medline) database for free or at low cost.)
BIREME is a Specialized Center of the Pan American Health Organization, established in Brazil in 1967 in collaboration with Ministry of Health , Ministry of Education ,Health Secretary of the State of São Paulo and Federal university of São Paulo. BIREME's objective is to stimulate technical cooperation in health scientific and technical information among Latin American and Caribbean countries (the Region), in order to develop the means and capacities for providing equitable access to all relevant and up to date health scientific and technical information on a fast and efficient basis, and at reasonable costs.
To achieve its objectives, BIREME has to:
- promote the decentralized construction, development and operation of the Virtual Health Library (VHL)

- develop the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (SYSTEM)

- develop the Health Sciences Information System in Brazil through a Network that operates in a decentralized way and in which its members participate in cooperative activities;

- create, improve and disseminate, using the VHL, scientific and technical information sources in electronic format and in other supports to meet the needs of governments, health systems, education and research institutions, health professionals, and the general public in publishing, preserving, accessing and using information;

- coordinate, operate and promote the bibliographical control, dissemination, evaluation, and improvement of the scientific and technical literature published in the countries of the REGION in both paper and electronic formats; this literature is indexed by the LILACS System (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences)

- implement a broad, fast and cooperative access to the international scientific and technical literature published in paper or electronic format.

- promote, using the VHL, the search, development and dissemination of scientific and technical information sources to meet the information needs of specific communities of users, such as authorities, politicians, lawgivers and health managers, researchers, teachers and students, physicians and allied health personnel, community agents, communication professionals, and the general public;

- disseminate, through the VHL, factual and numerical databases operated on the Internet by national health information systems; and

- contributes to the human resources development in the countries of the region at managerial and technical levels, with the purpose of developing full capacities in the operation of the technologies and strategic methodologies for the provision and equitable access to health information.

File #3:

Scientists for Health and Research for Development (SHARED)
Scientists for Health and Research for Development (SHARED) SHARED started in 1996 as an EC concerted action. SHARED's objective is to share essential information on health research and development for developing countries. At the SHARED SHARingpoint are databases of people, projects, journal articles, abstracts, mailing list postings and health news in different languages, from decentralized information sources.

File #4:

Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP)
ALPSP has excellent links on projects, articles, key organizations, discussion about journal publication: Many ALPSP initiatives are described. ALPSP notes that as an organisation which aims to help all not-for-profit publishers to develop their knowledge and expertise in order to cope with the challenges of the future, it also behoves them to help support the growth of soundly based local publishing enterprises in less developed countries. They therefore invited existing ALPSP members to participate in the 'ALPSP Partnership Project'. For a modest charge of £56/$98/€84 participants will support the membership of a publisher in their own subject area in a less developed country; suitable partners are identified with the help of such organisations as INASP and Bioline. As a full member of ALPSP, the recipient will receive Learned Publishing and ALPSP Alert, and will have access to the members' area of the website, the discussion lists, and all other member benefits. Contact person for the ALPSP Partnership Project is the Chief Executive, Sally Morris.
File #5:

SATELLIFE: The inspiration for SATELLIFE came in the mid 1980s from cardiologist and social activist, Dr. Bernard Lown. (Prior to the creation of SATELLIFE, Dr. Lown accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985 on behalf of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, an organization he co-founded. ) Originally conceived as a symbolic counterpoint to the Strategic Defense Initiative, Dr. Lown's vision for SATELLIFE was to use space as a platform - not for weapons of mass destruction - but for the exchange of life-saving information among health professionals in both developed nations and the developing world. According to their website, over 20,000 health professionals from more than 150 countries use SATELLIFE's free information resources.
File #6:

Healthlink Worldwide
Healthlink Worldwide. Healthlink Worldwide was formed as the Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group (AHRTAG) in 1977 and changed its name in 1998 . It is a registered as a UK charity with the Charity Commission for England and Wales and has an association of approximately 70 members. It is governed by a Council of Management which is made up of a group of Trustees, drawn from the members of the association. The Trustees meet four times a year on average and also attend an annual strategy day with staff. Healthlink Worldwide works to improve the health and well-being of disadvantaged and vulnerable communities in developing countries, to strengthen the local provision, use and impact of health communication and to support advocacy initiatives to increase participation and inclusion. Healthlink Worldwide hosts Exchange, a networking and learning programme on health communication for development. Healthlink Worldwide is a partner in Source International Information Support Centre, which could be used to search over 20,000
File #7:

Various Initiatives to Improve Public Access
1. Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA)

This is an FAO initiative which gives access to journals covering agriculture, fisheries, food, nutrition, veterinary science, and related biological, environmental, and social sciences to institutions in the world's poorest countries. Those with an annual per capita GNP of less than $1000 can gain free access, and those with a GNP of $1000 to $3000 can gain access for a nominal fee that is then invested in local training initiatives. Alongside several other publishers, Blackwell Publishing, have contributed more than 120 titles to this initiative. The goal of AGORA is to increase the quality and effectiveness of agricultural research, education and training in low-income countries, and in turn, to improve food security. (There are other initiatives like this outside the health field – not included in this list of initiatives.)

2. International Association (INTAS)

International Association is an EU funded initiative helping to promote the scientific potential across the New Independent States (NIS). Blackwell Publishing have provided access to our medical and science journals via INTAS at specially discounted rates.

For more information on Blackwell Publishing’s Developing World Initiatives, see

3. Resources for Librarians in Developing Countries

There are many webpages like this one that link to the various resources, such as PERI, HINARI, etc. to help developing countries access information.

4. Oxford University Press “Developing Countries Offer”

Oxford University Press offers developing countries free (or greatly reduced rate) access to many of our journals via our Developing Countries Online Collection offer. The offer is made in conjunction with the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP). This offer is available for established not-for profit educational institutes from qualifying countries and provides access to an Online Collection of journals

5. Ptolemy Project

This is a University of Toronto research project in which electronic access to UofT e-resources is provided and monitored. With the addition of Bioline, a resource that makes full-text articles of certain medical journals form the developing world available, the University of Toronto is exceptionally well-positioned to build health research capacity around the world. The Ptolemy library will designate a number of medical researchers and clinicians in the developing world as research affiliates of the University of Toronto. Participants will be provided with my.access accounts that allow full access to the Library's electronic resources

File #8:

The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS)
TWAS has as its principal aim, to promote scientific capacity and excellence for sustainable development in the South. TWAS is an autonomous international organization, founded in Trieste, Italy in 1983 by a distinguished group of scientists from the South under the leadership of the late Nobel laureate Abdus Salam of Pakistan. Originally named "Third World Academy of Sciences", it was officially launched by the then-secretary general of the United Nations, Javier Perez de Cuellar, in 1985. Since its inception, TWAS's operational expenses have largely been covered by generous contributions of the Italian government. The Academy's more than 700 Fellows and Associate Fellows are elected from among the world's most distinguished scientists. Fellows are citizens of the South; Associate Fellows are citizens of the North who either were born in the South or have made significant contributions to the advancement of science in the South. About 80 percent of TWAS's membership are Fellows representing more than 70 countries in the South. (See TWAS Membership page for more information). A Council, elected by members every three years, is responsible for supervising all Academy affairs. A small secretariat headed by an Executive Director assists the Council in the administration and coordination of the programmes (contacts).
The secretariat is located on the premises of The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy. Since 1986 TWAS has supported scientific research in 100 countries in the South through a variety of programmes. More than 2,000 eminent scientists worldwide, including TWAS members, peer review proposals free-of-charge for research grants, fellowships and awards that are submitted to the Academy by scientists and institutions in developing countries. TWAS works in close collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), International Council for Science (ICSU), International Foundation for Science (IFS) and International Science Programme (ISP). Its objectives are:

To recognize, support and promote excellence in scientific research in the South;

To provide promising scientists in the South with research facilities necessary for the advancement of their work;

To facilitate contacts between individual scientists and institutions in the South;

To encourage South-North cooperation between individuals and centres of scholarship;

To encourage scientific research on major Third World problems.

Main Contributors to TWAS's Current Activities:

Direzione Generale per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy;

the Department for Research Co-operation (SAREC) of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida);

the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO);

the OPEC Fund for International Development;

the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS);

the Governments of Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria.

Knowledge Sharing for Local Development in the South
The second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) will convene in November 2005 in Tunis, Tunisia. In anticipation of this event, the United Nations Development Programme's Special Unit for South-South Collaboration (UNDP/SSC) is cooperating with TWAS and the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO) to produce a new volume in the 'Sharing Innovative Experiences' series of publications. The volume of case studies will focus on successful applications of knowledge sharing initiatives for local development in developing countries. More on the TWNSO website.

File #9:

Major Open Access statements

(in chronological order and hyperlinked)

Budapest Open Access Initiative, February 14, 2002

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, June 20, 2003

See Peter Suber link:

ACRL Principles and Strategies for the Reform of Scholarly Communication, August 28, 2003
Wellcome Trust position statement on open access, October 1, 2003

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, October 22, 2003
UN World Summit on the Information Society Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action, December 12, 2003
OECD Declaration on Access to Research Data From Public Funding, January 30, 2004,2340,en_2649_34487_25998799_1_1_1_1,00.html

IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation, February 24, 2004
Australian Group of Eight Statement on open access to scholarly information, May 25, 2004
SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access)

SHERPA investigates issues in the future of scholarly communication and publishing. In particular, it is developing open-access institutional repositories in a number of research universities. These eprint repositories or archives facilitate the worldwide rapid and efficient dissemination of research findings.

PLoS has received financial support in the form of grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Sandler Family Supporting Foundation, the Irving A. Hansen Memorial Foundation, the Open Society Institute (OSI), and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). PLoS also receives support through donations, sponsorships, and memberships from private citizens, universities, and other organizations


SPARC®, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, is an alliance of universities, research libraries, and organizations. The coalition was an initiative of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) started in 1997 to be a constructive response to market dysfunctions in the scholarly communication system. These dysfunctions have reduced dissemination of scholarship and crippled libraries. SPARC serves as a catalyst for action, helping to create systems that expand information dissemination and use in a networked digital environment while responding to the needs of academe. Leading academic organizations have endorsed SPARC.

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