“GORILLA… GORILLA”, “AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 TREASURES”)
УДК 42 (07) + 06
Колесниченко, А.Н. Методические рекомендации по самостоятельной работе студентов с видеоматериалами (на примере документальных фильмов “Gorilla… Gorilla”, “Around the World in 80 Treasures”) : учебно-методическое пособие / А.Н. Колесниченко ; Рост. гос. ун-т путей сообщения. – Ростов н/Д, 2011. – 28 с.
Методические рекомендации предназначены для самостоятельной работы студентов с видеоматериалами. Рекомендации содержат дополнительный методический материал, необходимый для приобретения навыков понимания устной иноязычной речи на английском языке, а также развития коммуникативных способностей студентов.
Методические рекомендации включают профессионально подобранную лексику, логичную подборку текстов, соответствующих по тематике документальным фильмам “Gorilla… Gorilla” и “Around the World in 80 Treasures”. Все это позволяет лучше усвоить изучаемый материал с точки зрения как грамматического, так и культуроведческого аспектов.
Рецензент: канд. филол. наук, доц. М.В. Хлебникова (РГУПС)
путей сообщения, 2011
Before watching the film
Task1. Answer the following questions:
What is your attitude to animals?
Do you have any pets? What are they?
How often do you visit zoos? What emotions do they cause?
What animals do you usually see first? What are your favourite ones?
Have you visited zoos in other cities or countries? Do you like them? How do they differ from each other?
How often do you watch TV programs about animals? What programs do you know?
What do you know about gorillas? Have you ever seen them? Can you describe their appearance, behaviour?
Task 2. Read the information about gorillas: Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. They are ground-dwelling and predominantly herbivorous. They inhabit the forests of Central Africa. Gorillas are divided into two species and (still under debate as of 2008) either four or five subspecies. The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of a human, between 95 and 99 % depending on what is counted, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the two chimpanzee species.
Gorillas’ natural habitats cover tropical or subtropical forests in Africa. Although their range covers a small percentage of Africa, gorillas cover a wide range of elevations. The Mountain Gorilla inhabits the Albertine Rift montane cloud forests of the Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in altitude from 2,200–4,300 metres. Lowland Gorillas live in dense forests and lowland swamps and marshes as low as sea level, with Western Lowland Gorillas living in Central West African countries and Eastern Lowland Gorillas living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo near its border with Rwanda.
Until recently there was considered to be a single gorilla species, with three subspecies: the Western Lowland Gorilla, the Eastern Lowland Gorilla and the Mountain Gorilla. There is now agreement that there are two species with two subspecies each. More recently it has been claimed that a third subspecies exists in one of the species. The separate species and subspecies developed from a single type of gorilla during the Ice Age, when their forest habitats shrank and became isolated from each other.
Some variations that distinguish the classifications of gorilla include varying density, size, hair color, length, culture, and facial widths. There are now thought to be over 100,000 Western Lowland Gorillas in the wild, with 4,000 in zoos; Eastern Lowland Gorillas have a population of 4,000 in the wild and 24 in zoos. Mountain Gorillas are the most severely endangered, with an estimated population of about 620 left in the wild and none in zoos.
Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking, although they sometimes walk bipedally for short distances while carrying food or in defensive situations. Adult males range in height 1.65–1.75 metres, and in weight 140–200 kg. Adult females are often half the size of a silverback, averaging about 1.4 metres tall and 100 kg. Occasionally, a silverback of over 1.8 metres and 230 kg has been recorded in the wild. However, obese gorillas in captivity have reached a weight of 270 kg. Gorillas have a facial structure which is described as mandibular prognathism, that is, their mandible protrudes farther out than the maxilla.
The Eastern Gorilla is more darkly colored than the Western Gorilla, with the Mountain Gorilla being the darkest of all. The Mountain Gorilla also has the thickest hair. The Western Lowland Gorilla can be brown or grayish with a reddish forehead. In addition, gorillas that live in lowland forests are more slender and agile than the more bulky Mountain Gorilla. Almost all gorillas share the same blood type (B) and, like humans, have individual finger prints.
Males will slowly begin to leave their original troop when they are about 11 years old, traveling alone or with a group of other males for 2–5 years before being able to attract females to form a new group and start breeding. While infant gorillas normally stay with their mother for 3–4 years, silverbacks will care for weaned young orphans, though never to the extent of carrying the little gorillas. If challenged by a younger or even by an outsider male, a silverback will scream, beat his chest, break branches, bare his teeth, then charge forward. Sometimes a younger male in the group can take over leadership from an old male. If the leader is killed by disease, accident, fighting or poachers, the group will split up, as the animals disperse to look for a new protective male. Occasionally, a group may be taken over in its entirety by another male. There is a strong risk that the new male will kill the infants of the dead silverback.
Gorillas are herbivores, eating fruits, leaves, and shoots. Further, they are classified as folivores. Much like other animals that feed on plants and shoots, they sometimes ingest small insects as well (however, there has been video proof that gorillas do eat ants and termites much in the same way as chimpanzees). Gorillas spend most of the day eating. Their large sagittal crest and long canines allow them to crush hard plants like bamboo. Lowland gorillas feed mainly on fruit while Mountain gorillas feed mostly on herbs, stems and roots.
Gestation is 8 ½ months. There are typically 3 to 4 years between births. Infants stay with their mothers for 3–4 years. Females mature at 10–12 years (earlier in captivity); males at 11–13 years. Lifespan is between 30–50 years, although there have been exceptions. For example the Dallas Zoo’s Jenny lived to the age of 55.
Gorillas are closely related to humans and are considered highly intelligent. A few individuals in captivity, such as Koko, have been taught a subset of sign language (see animal language for a discussion). Like the other great apes, gorillas can laugh, grieve, have “rich emotional lives,” develop strong family bonds, can make and use tools, and can think about the past and future. Some researchers believe that gorillas have spiritual feelings or religious sentiments. Gorillas have been shown to have cultures in different areas revolving around different methods of food preparation, and gorillas will show individual color preferences. Gorillas are now known to use tools in the wild. A female gorilla in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo was recorded using a stick as if to gauge the depth of water whilst crossing a swamp. A second female was seen using a tree stump as a bridge and also as a support whilst fishing in the swamp.
Gorillas are disappearing. Some of them are found in the wild, but their numbers are unknown. That’s why we must continue protecting these endangered wildlife.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://wikipedia.ru/)
raspberry ice balls – ледяные шарики из малинного сока
infant – младенец, детеныш
being – существо
defensive – оборонительный
witness – свидетель
achievement – достижение
undeniable – неоспоримый, несомненный
responsibility – ответственность
While watching the second part of the film
Task 2. Find out some facts about Kubabu’s family:
The gorillas are getting used to a new life
The role of zoos in gorillas’ preservation
After watching the second part of the film
Task 3. Be ready to discuss some questions: What are life conditions for the gorillas in Taronga Zoo?
What are their eating habits?
What is unusual and usual for the gorillas? What causes their interest?
How is the day over?
Why is a medical check-up of animals necessary?
How do gorillas differ from humans? What is common?
How does Kubabu’s group celebrate Christmas?
What is their activity during the day?
What achievements does little Shabany make?
What changes take place 4 weeks later?
Why is the exhibition so important according to the narrator?
What are the humans responsible for? Do you agree? Why?
Task 4. Think of a list of advantages and disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos
There are some of them: animals locked up in tiny cages, they look unhappy, the opportunity to see animals face to face, the way to save species which are in danger of extinction, animals in national resort parks live like in their natural environment.
Are there any good reasons for keeping animals in zoos?
Task 5. Discussion: What is a real danger to animals?
Look through different human activities that can be dangerous for animals, arrange them in an order of importance and comment on each one: hunting, capture, farming, cut down, pollution, roads, factory, abandon, smoke, gun, holidays.
What is your attitude to fur and leather clothes? Is it right or wrong?
Are animal sports wrong and should they be banned?
Is it necessary to use animals for scientific research?
AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 TREASURES
By Dan Cruickshank
Part 1. TURKEY Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey, is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) in the Balkan region of South-eastern Europe. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Eastern Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.
Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (“land of the Turks”) in the eleventh century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the thirteenth century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of South-eastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president.
Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam with small minorities of Christianity and Judaism. The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languages are spoken by Kurds and Zazas which comprise 18 % of the population.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic, with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organizations such as the Organization of the Islamic Conference and Economic Cooperation Organization. Given its strategic location, large economy and army, Turkey is classified as a regional power
The different regions of Turkey offer an assortment of landscapes, activities and characters, and whether one is a history or archaeology enthusiast, a sun-worshipper, sailor, or city-lover keen on shopping, there is something on offer for everyone. Istanbul, with one part in Europe and the other in Oriental Asia, is a fascinating city with its frenzied market places, imperial residences and minarets, and sporting a lively ambience of contemporary art and musical entertainment. Cappadocia in Central Turkey offers an astounding landscape of eroded volcanic rock cones and fairy chimneys, remarkable subterranean cities and rock-hewn houses that merge harmoniously with the ochre-coloured landscape; while further south the “Turquoise Coast” is a heaven for boat cruises. One can enjoy a variety of water sports, sunbathing on golden sands, or explore the wonderful ancient cities of Troy and Ephesus on the shores of the Aegean Sea (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://wikipedia.ru/).
Task 1. Remember the words:
Cappadocia. Derinkuyu Underground City –
Каппадокия. Подземныйгород Деринкую
treasure – сокровище
fairy-like – сказочный
landscape – пейзаж, ландшафт
chimney – труба
to erupt – прорываться, извергаться (о вулкане, гейзере)