Name: H10, H11, & H12 Essential Question Date



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Name: H10, H11, & H12 Essential Question Date:

  1. How was agriculture transformed in Georgia following WWII and how did this impact the state as a whole?




  • After WWII, many people began to move from the rural areas of Georgia (country) to the cities.

  • More and more people began to work in the industries (factories) created during WWII.

  • Businesses continued to move into the state. Air conditioning began to be installed making year round work more comfortable.

  • Georgia’s low taxes were attractive to workers and businesses.

Several factors caused Georgia’s population to shift from rural to urban areas. These factors included the destruction of the cotton crop by the boll weevil, the great migration of African Americans to northern cities, the movement of both blacks and whites to Georgia’s industrial centers and factories during both World Wars, and the AAA’s payments to farmers to stop them from growing crops during the Great Depression.


However, another major factor occurred after World War II. A major technological change in agricultural equipment further lessened the need for large numbers of agricultural workers. Some of the more important technological changes were larger tractors, reapers, and other machinery, combined with better fertilizers that made it easier to grow and process crops with much less man power.
Though the rural population in Georgia has decreased from almost 85% in 1900 to less than 25% today, according to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, farming is still the most important part of Georgia’s economy, bringing in $56 billion a year to the state.


  1. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

William Hartsfield - Served as Atlanta’s mayor longer than any other person (6 terms from 1937-1961). Presided over many building projects including expressways and parks throughout the city. After his death in 1971 the Atlanta airport was renamed after him.


Ivan Allen, Jr. - Served as Atlanta’s mayor from 1962-1970. Only politician from the South to speak in favor of the Civil Rights Act. Helped to bring the Braves from Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Atlanta.


  • Atlanta Braves – Major League Baseball team. Moved to Atlanta in 1966. Bought by Ted Turner in 1976. Braves games began being broadcast nationwide on TBS. Won the World Series in 1995 (first professional title in Atlanta’s history).




  • Atlanta Falcons - Played their first NFL game in 1966. Played in the Super Bowl in 1998.






  1. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

Ellis Arnall – Served as Governor from 1943-1947. Worked to reform GA’s government, state universities, prisons, the tax system, and the state constitution. Also lowered GA’s voting age to 18. Lost against Eugene Talmadge in the 1946 Governor’s race.


As Governor, Ellis Arnall (1907-1992) made sweeping changes that modernized Georgia, and for a time, made it the most forward thinking and progressive of the southern states in terms of racial relations
As governor, Arnall is credited for restoring accreditation to the state’s institutions of higher learning, abolishing the poll tax, lowering the voting age, and establishing a teacher’s retirement system. However, Arnall lost support based on his support of liberal causes and leaders. One example was his acceptance of the Supreme Court’s rulings against the white primary. He also lost popularity when he wrote two books that many southerners felt disparaged the South


  1. What influential Georgian rose to the political ranks of the state and ultimately the nation to lead our country and what was his impact on the state and on the nation? (H12)

How did the policies and actions of Jimmy Carter influence the state, nation and world politically and socially?
Jimmy Carter - Born: October 1, 1924 in Plains, GA. Elected to the GA Senate in 1962 and 1964. Elected as governor of GA in 1970. Worked to streamline Georgia’s government and improve education in rural areas. Won the presidential election in 1976. Worked to develop peaceful relations between numerous countries. Due to the Iranian hostage crisis and economic problems during his presidency, President Carter lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan.


  1. What was the effect of the end to County Unit System on Georgia? (H12)

County Unit System – Started as an informal election system in 1898. Became legal in 1917. Did not allow each individual to cast a vote. The winner of the popular vote in each county received the “unit” votes for that county. Helped to keep many inequalities in place in the state of Georgia. Also, the Supreme Court also ordered reapportionment (reorganization) of the congressional districts in GA.




  1. What is the difference between the one and two party system in Georgia and how did the rise of the latter impact Georgia? (H12)




  • Two-Party System – Before 1970, GA could be considered a one-party system (one political party controls the government). The Democratic Party controlled the government in GA.

  • The end of the County Unit System in 1962 had two major impacts:

      • Guaranteed each citizen one vote in elections.

      • Allowed the Republican Party to rise in power.

  • By having a two-party system (Democrats and Republicans having an equal opportunity to compete in and win elections), the state of Georgia has given its people a chance to make changes for the better.

  • Each political party in the U.S. is given the opportunity to nominate candidates for elections.



  1. How has reapportionment affected the power of political parties in Georgia? H12

Both the end of the county unit system and reapportionment had a lasting effect on Georgia. For one, elections were more fair as the ideal of “one man, one vote” came into full effect. African Americans and whites who lived in urban areas finally had an equal say based on the large amount of people that lived in these areas. In turn, more African-Americans were elected into public office when counties were reapportioned. In addition, more elected positions were created for urban areas.




  1. How did the 1996 Olympic Games provide opportunities for economic development and contribute to Georgia’s international image? (H12d)




  • 1996 Olympic Summer Games held in Atlanta, Georgia. Events were also held in the cities of Savannah, Columbus, Athens, Gainesville, and Cleveland.

  • Brought worldwide recognition to the city of Atlanta through the media coverage of the events.

  • Major economic impact on Georgia. Hotels added 7,500 new rooms and new sports venues and event sites were created (such as the Georgia Dome and Centennial Olympic Park)

  • More than 72 million visitors came to Atlanta during the Olympics.


  1. What is the impact of immigration on our state?




  • Immigrants – People who move to an area from other countries.

  • 1965 – Large numbers of immigrants began coming to the United States.

  • By the 1970’s almost 4.5 million people legally entered the country.

  • In the 1990’s almost 9 million people came to the United States. 80% of these came from Asia, the Caribbean, or Latin America.

  • Many of the immigrants coming to the United States are illegal immigrants. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act created penalties and punishments for companies that hire illegal immigrants. However, these immigrants often times help fill jobs in farming and manufacturing.

  1. Why has the population of Georgia increased at a more dramatic rate when compared to other states and regions?

Three industries actively sought and helped bring Latinos to Georgia. The first was the agricultural industry, which viewed migrant workers as a source of cheap labor.


The second rapidly growing industry was the carpet/textile manufacturers of Dalton located in Whitfield County Georgia. Needing to find cheaper labor in order to compete with world markets, business leaders also began to actively recruit Hispanic immigrants. The civic leaders of Dalton, known as the “carpet capital of the world,” did their best to provide the immigrants with a welcoming environment.
Finally, the construction industry also sought immigrants.
During their preparation for the 1996 Olympic Games, many companies used immigrant labor to meet their deadlines.
Many of the new buildings and parks in Atlanta, as well as the many new subdivisions and houses in the suburbs, were built with the help of immigrants.

SS8H11: What do you remember about the Modern Civil Rights Movement???
_________The Albany Movement__________________________1. Unsuccessful civil rights effort in Georgia.
_______________________Benjamin Mays____________________2. President of Morehouse College
___________________Martin Luther King_______________________3. Most important Civil Rights leader;
________________The Sibley Comissions________4. Created to ask Georgians their opinion on desegregation
____________Brown v Board of Education___________5. Declared that school segregation is unconstitutional
______________1956 State Flag______________6. Georgia’s protest-response to the Civil Rights movement
______________Lester Maddox_____________________7. Closed his restaurant rather than serve blacks
__________________Hamilton Holmes__________8. One of the first two African-American students at UGA
____________________Maynard Jackson__________________________ 9. The first black mayor of Atlanta

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